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1609 — lfi(i4. 

N E W Y O U K : 

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Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the Year 1853, by 

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These are four marked periods in the history of the State of 
New York. The first, opening with its discovery by the Dutch 
in 1609, and closing with its seizure by the English in 1664, com- 
prises also the early history of New Jersey, Delaware, and Penn- 
sylvania, and, to some extent, that of Massaohusetts, Rhode Isl- 
and, and Connecticut, The second begins with the ascendency 
of the English in 1664, and ends with the cession of Canada to 
England in 1763, by which all the Northern colonies in America 
became subject to the British crown. The third reaches from the 
treaty of Paris, in 1763, to the inauguration of Washii^ton as 
President of the United States in 1789. The fourth embraces 
the annals of the state from the organization of the Federal gov- 

This volume contains a history of the first of these periods. In 
that period many of the political, religious, and social elements 
of New York had their origin. It offers varied themes which in. 
vite attention ; the savage grandeur of nature ; the early adven 
ture of discovery and settlement ; the struggle with barbarism 
and the subjugation of a rude soil ; the contrast and blending o: 
European with American life ; the transfer of old institutions j tb 

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intermingling of races ; the progress of commerce ; the estahlish- 
raent of churches and schools ; the triumph of freedom of con- 
science over bigotry ; the development of principles of self-govern- 
ment within, and the action of encroachment and conquest from 

The preparation of this book has not been without much care 
and labor. Many of its materials are now employed for the first 
time ; the numerous references to others show the extended re- 
sources which, under the recent impulse to American historical 
investigation, have been brought within reach. It is submitted 
to the judgment of the public in partial execution of a purpose 
contemplated for many years ; with a desire to aid in the vindi- 
cation of truth ; and with a fait consciousness of the importance 
of the subject and of the fidelity due to the fit performance of the 

John Eomeyn Brobhead. 

New York. Nuaemher, 385S. 

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U92— 1609. 
CoLUMDus' Discovery, anil Papal Donation of the New World to Spain, page 1; Cabot 
and Verazzano, 3 ; Cartiei and Roberval, 3 ; Frobisher, 4 ; Gilbert and Raleigii, 
5 ; Vir^nia, 5, 9 ; Gosnold at Cape Cod, 7 ; Pring on Coast of Maine, 8 ; Wey- 
mouth's Voyage, 9 ; Virginia Charier, 10 ; Jamestown founded, IB ; Sagadalioc 
Colony, 13-15; New Charter for Virginia, 15; Pont Gravfe and Champlain in 
Canada, 16 ; De Monts and Poutrincourt at Port Royal and Saint Croix, 16, 17 ; 
Quebec founded, 18 ; Lake Champlain discovered, 18 ; Dutch maritime Enter- 
prises, ia-33 ; Dutch East India Company, 23 ; West India Company proposed, 
24; Hudson in Holland, 34; Hudson sails from Amsterdam in the Half Moon, 
S6 ; At Penobscot, 36 ; At Cape Cod, S6 ; At the Capes of the ChesapeaJie, 36 ; 
In Delaware Bay, 36 ; Anchors in Sandy Hook Bay, S7 ; Death of John Colman, 
38; Hudsonaacenda the "River of the Mountains," 38-31; Descends the River, 
32, 33 ; At Hoboken, 34 ; An-ives at Dartmouth, 34 ; Reports to the Dutch East 
India Company, 34, 35 ; The River of the Mountains in 1609, 35-37. 

The Dutch an independent Nation when Hudson made Discoveries in their Service, 
38-43 ; Hudson's Voyage to the North, and Death, 42, 43 ; The Half Moon returns 
to Amsterdam, 43 ; Another Ship sent to Manhattan, 44 ; Christiaensen's and 
Block's Voyages, 45, 46 ; Other Ships sent, 47 ; Yacht buiit at Manhattan, 48 ; 
Virginia Affairs, 49 ; Lord Delawarr, 50 ; Never in Delaware Bay, 61 ; Argall on 
the Coast of Maine, 53 ; His alleged Visit to Manhattan, 54 ; Fort Nassau bnilt 
on Castle Island, 65 ; Block explores Long Island Sound in the Yacht " Restless," 
55 ; Discovers the Housatonic and Connecticut, 58 ; Block Island, 57 ; Rhode 
Island, 58 ; Pye Bay and Boston Harbor, 59 ; Returns to Holand, 59 ; Amster- 
dam Trading Company formed, 60 ; Deputies sent to the Hague, 61 ; New Neth- 
erland Charter of the lltb of October, 1614, 63; Its Provisions, and the Vicivs 
of the States General, 63, 64 ; Block in the Arctic Ocean, 65. 


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attacked, 69-71 ; Indian Tribes along the Cahohstatea, or North Rirer, 73-77 , 
Hendrickaen explores the South or Delaware River, 78, 79 ; Returns to Holland, 
79 ; New Charter for South River applied for and refused, 80 ; Fort Nassau de- 
stroyed, 80 ; New Post on the Tawasentha, 81 ; The Konoshioni, or Iroquois, 82- 
87; Treaty of the Tawasentha, 88; Expiration of the New Netherland Charter, 
89; Its Renewal refused, 98 ; Smith in New England, 91; Dermer passes through 
Long Island Sound to Virginia, 98 ; Dermer at Manhattan, 93 ; Patent for New 
England, 94r-96 ; Progresa of Dutch Explorations, 97. 


Prosperity of Holland, 98 ; The Reformation in the Netherlands, BB ; First Preach- 
ing of "the Reformed," 100; Establishment of the Reformed Religion, 101; Tol- 
eration of other Religions, 103 ; Calvinism of the Dutch Clergy, 103 ; The Gom- 
ariat and Armenian Controversy, 104, 105; The Remonstrants, 106; Maurice 
and BarneveMt, 107, 108 ; The Synod of Dordrecht, 109, 110 ; Death of Barne- 
veldt. 111; The Church of England, 112; The Puritans, 113, 114; Puvitans 
emigrate to Holland, IIG ; The Reformed Dutch Church, and the Chureh of 
England, 116-119; The Puritans dissatisfied in HtiHand, ISO; Wish to emi- 
grate to America, 121; Then- Patent from the Virginia Comj^iny, 132; Therr 
Condition in Holland, 133 ; They propose tfl go to New Netherland, 124 ; Memo- 
rial to the Dutch Government, ISB ; Its Prayer refiised by the States General, 
136; The Puritans leave Leyden, 13T; Sail from Plymouth, 128; Their.Desti- 
nation, 139; The Mayflower at Cape Cod, 130; Compact on board the Mayflower, 
131, 133 ; The Landing of the Pilgrims, 133. 

The Dutch West India Company incorporated, 134; Its Powers and Duties, 135,, 
136 ; Its Organization delayed, 137 ; Private Ships sent to New Netherland, 137, 
138 ; Parliament jealous of the New England Patent, 139 ; Plymouth Company 
complains of the Dutch, 140 ; James claims New Netherland, and sends Inatxuc- 
tiona to Carleton at the Hague, 141 ; Carleton'a Memorial to the States General, 
142 ; Dutch and English Titles considered, 143, 144 ; Dutch Traders in Long Isl- 
and Sound, 145 ; Walloons b Holland, 146, 147 ; The West India Company or- 
ganized, 148 ; Takes Possession of New Netherland as a Province, 149 ; First 
permanent agricultural Ooloniiation, 160; Fort Orange built, 151 ; Fort Wilhel- 
mus, 153 ; Fort Nassau, on the South River, 153 ; Walloons at the Waal-bc^ 
154; C. J, May first Director of New Netherland, 154; Ship of D. P. de Vries 
seized at Hootn, 155; Dutch Ship arrested at Plymouth, 158; Publications of 
Wassenaar, De Laet, and Purchas, 157 ; More Colonists sent to New Nether- 
land, 158 ; Cattle at Nutten Island and Manhattan, 159 ; William Verhulst suc- 
ceeds Mayas Director, 159; Death of Maurice, 160; Of James I., 161; Treaty of 
Southampton, 161 ; Peter Minuit appointed Director General of New Nether- 
land, 163. 

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16S6— 1639. 
Provincial Government under Minuit, 183 ; Purchase of Manhattan Island, 164; 
Fort Amsterdam begun, 165 ; Murder of an Indian near the Kolck, 166 ; lleeerip- 
tion of Manhattan, 167; Affhirs at Fort Orange, 168 ; Krieckebeeok and Barent- 
sen, 189 ; Colooists removed from Fort Orange and the South River to Manhat- 
tan, ITO ; The Puritans at New Piymontli annoyed at tlie conuaereiai Superior- 
ity of the Dutch, 171 ; Long Island, or Sewan-haeky, the chief Manufactory of 
WampuQi, 172 ; Correspondence between New Netherland and New Plymouth, 
173-176 ; Isaac de Rasieres sent as Ambassador, 176 ; At New Plymouth, 177 ; 
Describes the Puritan Settlement, 178, 179 ; Mutual Trade, 180 ; The English 
Objections to the Dutch Title, 181 ; Minuit asks for Soldiers from Holland, 181 ; 
Charles I. favors the Dutch West India Company, 1B3 ; Revenue of New Neth- 
erland, 193; Population of Manhattan, 183; Heyn captures the Spanish Silver 
Fleet, 184 ; Infatuating Efifect upon the West India Company, 185 ; Cost of New 
Netherland, 186 ; Charter for Patroons proposed, 1B7 ; Progress of the Colonisa- 
tion of New England, 188; Royal Charter for Massachusetts Bay, 1S9; Chureh 
organized at Salem, and rehgious Intolerance estabhshed, 190. 


The Golden Fleece, 191 ; Dutch Towns, and the feudal System in Holland, 152, 
193 ; Charter for Patioons in New Netherland, 194^197 ; Its Effects, 198 ; Char- 
ter published. 199 ; Godjn and Blommaert poreliaBe on the Sonth River, 300 ; 
Van Rensselaer buys on the North River, and begins to colonise Rensselaers- 
wyck, 201 1 Pauvv putchasea Pavonia and Staten Island, 202 ; Jealousies among 
the Directors at Amsterdam, 303 ; Patroonships shared, S04 ; Heyes sent to the 
South River, 805 ; Colony established at Swaanendael, 206 ; No Dutch Colonies 
on the Cooneeticnt, 307 ; Winthrop founds Boston, 208 ; Extent of the New En- 
gland Settlements, 209 ; Connecticut Sachem at Boston, and Winslow, of New 
Plymouth, visits the Connecticut, 210; Lord Warwick's Grant of Connecticut, 
311 ; Great Ship "New Netherland" built at Manhattan, 312; Minuit recalled, 
813; His Ship arrested at Plymouth, and Negotiation in consequence with the 
British Government, 314-216; Ship released, 217; Difficulties between the Di- 
rectors of the West India Company and the Patroons, 318 ; Destruction of Swaan- 
endael hy the Savages, 319; De Vries sails for the South River, visits the Ruins, 
and makes a Peace, 319-331. 

1633— lf!37. 
Wouter van Twiller appointed Director General in Place of Minuit, 333 ; Arrivci 
at Manhattan, S23 ; First Clergyman, Schoolmaster, and provincial Officers, 333 
Revenue and Expenditures, 334 ; De Vries at Fort Nassau, 336 ; Visits Govern' 
or Harvey in Virginia, 226 ; Pleasant Intercom-se opened, 387 ; De Vries al ' ' 
hattan, 228 ; English Ship Hails up to Fort Orange, 339 ; Forced to return 

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vi COK'i'ilM'S, 

Van Twjllct^s vexatious Conduct, S3i ; Coysaen's Pureliase on Uio Sohujlkill, 
333 ; Affairs on tlie Connecticut, S33 ; The West India Company purchases Lands 
of the Savages there, 334 ; CommisEary Van Curler completes Fort Good Hope, 
235 ; Van Twiller's Conduct toward De Vries on his Retitm to HoUand, 336 ; 
Virginia Ship and New Plymouth Pinnace at Manhattan, 337 ; Massachusetts 
refiises to join New Plymouth in occupying Connecticut, 238 ; John Oldliam'a 
overland Journey, 339 ; Winthrop claims Connecticut, and Van Twiller replies, 
S39, 340 ; New Plymouth Expedition to the Connecticut, 240 ; Dutch Protest 
against the Settlers at 'Wiudsor, 341 ; Treaty between Massachusetts and the 
Pequods, 343 ; Afikirs at Manhattan, 343 ; I^vonia, Fort Nassau, Fort Orange, 
and Rensseiaerswycfc, 344 ; Van Twilier and Domine Bogardus, 346 ; English 
Complaints against the West India Company, and their Answer, 345, 346; 
IjubbertuB van Dincklagen appointed Schout of New Nelhevland, 24T ; Difficul- 
ties between the Patroons and the Directors, 347, 248 ; Surrender of Swaanen- 
dae o e Company, 349 ; Olaybome's Esplorations, 350 ; Motives for the Em- 
gra n of Roman Catholics from England, 351 ; Lord Baltimore's Patent for 
Ma y and 352 ; Saint Mary's founded, 353 ; Harvey deposed and sent to En- 
gand 354; Fort Nassau seized by a Virginian Party, 354; Retaken by the 
Du h and the English Prisoners sent back to Virginia, 255 ; Emigration from 
Mas. a husetts to Connecticut, 256 ; English Plantation Board, 357 ; Its Jealousy 
of the New England Colonists, 358 ; Long Island conveyed to Lord Stirling, 35? ; 
The New Engiand Patent surrendered, and the younger Winthrop appointed 
Governor of Connecticut, 359, 260 ; The Dutch Arms torn down at the Kievit's 
Hook, 360 ; Lion Gardiner at Saybrook, 361 ; William Pynchon at Springfield, 
381 ; True European Title to Long Island and Connecticut, 283 ; Domestic Af. 
fairs at Manhattan and Pavonia, 283, 364 ; Lands taken up on Staten Island and 
Long Island, 365 ; Van Dincklagen sent back to Holland, 366 ; Beverwyck and 
Rensselaerswyck, 366, 367 ; Van Twiller's private Purchases, 367 ; Bronck's 
Purchase in West Chester, 368 ; Quotenis, in Narragansett Bay, and Dutchman's 
Island at the Pequod River, 368 ; Traffic with New England, 269 ; The Pequod 
War, S6B-373 ; Complaints in Holland against Van Twiller and Bogardus, 373 ; 
William Kieft appointed Director Gener^ in Place of Van Twiller, 374. 

1638— 1G41. 
A rrival of Kieft at Manhattan, 375 ; Condition of Affairs there, 376 ; New Regula- 
tions, 377 ; Domine Bogardus retained, 278 ; Rensselaerswyck, Pavonia, and 
Long Island, 379 ; Jansen Commissary on the South River, 379 ; Swedish West 
India Company, 380 ; Minuit sails firom Sweden, and anchors at Jamestown, 381 ; 
Anives in the South River, and purchases Land, 383 ; Kielt protests against 
him, 383 ; Minuit builds Fort Christina, 384 ; Swedish Ship seised in HoDaad, 
384 ; The States General inquire into the Condition of New Netherland, 385 ; 
New Articles proposed by the Company, 286 ; By the Patroons, 287 ; Proclama- 
tion of freer Trade, 388; Its Eflfects, 288, 389; De Vries, Kuyter, and Melyn, 
339 ; Strangers attracted from New England and Virginia, 390 ; Captain John 
Underbill, 391 ; Ohligations and Privileges of foreign Settlers in New Netherland, 
3m -, Grants of Land near Coney Island, Breuckelen, and Deutel Bay, 393 ; Do- 

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mestie Administration, 293 ; Tribute proposed to be exacted ftom the Savages, 
393 ; New Haven, Stratford, Greenwich, and Hartford, 294 ; Aggressions of the 
Hartford People, SB5 ; The Dutch purchase West Chester Landis, S96 ; James 
Farrett, Lord Stirling's Agent for Long Island, 297 ; Lion Gardiner at Gardiner's 
Island, 398 ; English Intruders at Schout's Bay dislodged, 399 ; Southampton 
and Southold settled, 300 - De Vries goes np to Fort Orange, 301, 303 ; Affairs 
at Beverwyck and Rensselaerswyek, 303-305 ; The Cohooes, 306 ; Do Vries' 
Opinion of the North River, 307 ; Difficnities with the Savages, 307-309 ; The 
Dutch ordered to arm, 309 ; Expedition against the Raritans, 310 ; The Tappans 
refuse to pay Tribute, 310 ; New Charter for Patrooua, 311 ; The Reformed 
Dutch Church established in New Netherland, 313 ; Vriesendael, Hackinsack, 
and Staten Island, 313 ; Provincial Currency regulated, and Fairs established, 
314 ; The Raritans attack Staten Island, 316 ; Smits mordered at Deutel Bay, 
316 ; The " Tv^elve Men" appointed, 317 ; Kieft urges "War, 318 ; The Twelve 
Men oppose and avert Hostilities, 31B ; Swedes on the South River, 319 ; De 
Bogaerdt, Powelson, and Holtendave, 330 -, Death of Minuit, 331 ; lamberton 
and Cogswell's Expedition Irom New Haven to tlie Varken's Kill and the Schuyl- 
kill, 331, 333 ; Vexatious Conduct of the Hartford People, 323 ; Delegates sent 
to England ftom Massachusetts and Coraiectieut, 323 ; Hugh Peters commission- 
ed to treat with the West India Company, 324 ; Sir William Boswell's Advice to 
crowd oat the Dutch, 334. 

1G43— 1643. 
The Twelve Men again convoked, 325 ; They demand Reforms, 336, 337 ; Kieft's 
ConcesBionB, 339 ; Dissolves the Board of Twelve Men, 339 ; Expedition against 
the Weckquaesgeeks, and Treaty at the Bronx River, 330 ; Greenwich submits to 
the Dutch, 331 ; Roger Williams founds Eliode Island, 333 ; Em^ations from 
Massachusetts to New Netherland, 833 ; Donghty's Patent for Mespath, 338 ; 
Throgmort«n at Vredeland, 334 ; Anne Hutchinson at " Annie's Hoeck," 33t ; 
Strangers at Manhattan, 335; City Hotel for Travellers, 335; New Church at 
Manhattan, 330, 33T ; George Baxter appointed English Secretary, 337 ; New 
Haven Settlements on the South River broken up, 338 ; The Hartford People 
and the Dutch, 339 ; Threats in England against the Dutch, 340 ; Beginning of 
the Civi! War in England, 341 ; Van der Donck, Schout fiscal of BensselaerS' 
wyck, 341 ; Domine Megapolensis, 343 ; Church at Beverwyck, 343 ; The Jes- 
nits in Canada, 344 ; Father Jogiies captured by the Mohawks, 845 ; Benevolent 
Effbrts of Van Curler, 3*6 ; Van Voorst murdered by an Indian at Hackinsack, 
347 ; The Savages offer an Atonement, 348 ; Kieft demands the Murderer, 348 ; 
The Mohawks attack the River Indians, 349 ; Public Opinion at Manhattan, 349 ; 
Kieft resolves on War, 350 ; Warned in vwn against hw Rashness, 351 ; Mas- 
sacres at Pavonia and Corlaer's Hook, 35S ; The Long Island Indians attacked, 
353 ; The Savages aroused to Vengeance, 354 ; Vriesendael invested, 356 ; Pop. 
ular Indignation against Kieft, and Proclamation of a Day of fasting, 356 ; Prop- 
osition to depose Kieft, 368 ; Adriaensen and the Director, 357 ; De Vries and 
Olfertsen at Rockaway, 368 ; Treaty with the Savages, 359 ; The Indians still 
discontented, 360, 

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The United Colonies of New England, 361 ; Kieft addresses the CommiasionerB, 
363 ; Their Reply, 363 ; Murder of Miantonomoh, 364 ; The North River Sav- 
ages attack a Dutch Boat, 864 ; The Commonalty convoked, 364 ; " B^ht Men" 
chosen, 365 ; Warlike Measures anthorized, 3B5 ; English enrolled, and Under- 
liill taken into the Dutch Service, 366 ; Amue's Hook and Vredeland destroyed, 
366 ; Lady Moody's Settlement at Gravesend attacked, 367 ; Settlers driven 
away from Mespath, 361' ; Hackinsack attacked, and Pavonia surprised, 308 ; 
Alarm at Manhattan, 369 ; The Eight Men again convoked, 370 ; Application to 
New Haven for Aid, and its Result, 370 ; De Vries' parting Prophecy, 371 ; Let- 
ter of tie Eight Men to the West India Company, 371 ; To the States General, 
373; Father Jogues. at Manhattan, 373; Describes its Condition, 374 ; Sails for 
Europe, 374; Ctmrch at Beverwyck, 374 ; Missionary zeal of Megapolensis 
Mercantile Policy of Patroon of Renaselaerswyek, 376 ; Van derDonek's Con- 
duct, 377 i Attempla lo form a Settlement at KatskiU, and is prevented, 
John Printz appointed Governor of New Sweden, 378 ; Arrives at Port Christina, 
and builds Fort New Gottenburg, 379 ; De Vries at the South River, 380 ; Plow- 
den's Claim to New Albion disregarded by Printz and Kieft, 381 ; Lamberton ar- 
rested by Printz, 383 ; Exploring Expedition from Boston to the South River, 
383 ; Failure of the Boston Enterprises, 384 ; The Dutch and the Swedes oppose 
the English on the South River, 385 ; Expeditions sent to Staten Island and 
Greenwich, 386 ; Captain Patrick murdered, 387; Expedition against the Weck- 
quaesgeeks, 387 ; Stamford People settle at Heemstede, 387 ; Patent for Heem- 
stede, 388 ; Hostility of the Indians, and Ex^jodition sent to Heemstede, 389 ; 
Atrocities at .Manhattan, 389 ; Soldiers supplied ftom private Ship at Manhattan, 
390; Underbill's Expedition to Stamford, 390, 391; Thanksgiving at Manhattan, 
391 ; Peace with West Chester and Long Island Tribes, 882 ; Fence built at 
Manhattan, 393 ; Hostility of the River Tribes, 393 ; Bankruptcy of the West 
India Company, 893 ; The Eight Men oppose an Excise, 393 ; Kieft's arbitrary 
Imposition, 394 ; Excise enforced, and the Brewers retuse to pay, 895 ; The Peo- 
ple side with the Brewers, 396 ; Kieft's Misconduct, 396 ; Expedition to the North, 
397 ; Memorial pf the Eight Men to the West India Company, 398-400 ; Staple 
Right claimed for Reiisselaer's Stein, 400 ; Koorn and Loockermans, 401 ; Koom 
summoned to Manhattan, fined, and protests, 401 ; Father Bressani captured by 
thfi-Mohawks, and ransomed by the Dutch, 403; Affairs of New Netherland con- 
sidered in Holland, 403 ; Provisional Appointment of Van Diucklagen to succeed 
Kieft, 404 ; Report of the Company's Bureau of Accounts, 404-406. 

End of the Indian War, 407 ; Treaty at Fort Orange, 408 ; Genera! Treaty at Fort 
Amsterdam, 409; Conditionof New Netherland, 410; Lands purchased on long 
Island, 410 ; Settlement of Tlissingen, or Flushing, 410 ; Doughty at Mespalh, 
411 ; Lady Moody's Patent for Gravesando, or Gravesend, 411 ; Mineral Discov- 
eries near Fort Orange and among tlie Raritans, 413 ; Arendt Cargaen sent to 

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Hwllanil, and linX on tlie Way, 412, 413 ; Action of the West India Company re- 
specting New Netheiland, 413 , Peter Stuyresaat— His early Life, 413 ; Ap. 
pointed Director in Plai« of kieft, and Van DincMagen Vice Director, 414 ; In- 
StructioM for the Provincial Councii, 414, 415 ; New Arrangements, and Stuy- 
vesanf's Departure postponed, 416 ; Kieft denies the Right of Appeal to Holland, 
417 , Denounced by the People, and reproved by Bogarduis, 417 ; Quarrel be- 
tween the Director and the Domine, 41B , Restoration of Anne Hutchinson's 
Grand-dau^ter, 419 ; Van Curler and Van der Donek, 419 , Death of Kiliaen 
Van Rensselaer, and Appointment of Van Sleehtehhorst aa Director of Eensse- 
Jaerswycit, 430 ; Van der Donck'a Patent for Colendonck or Yonkers, 431 ; Van 
Slyek'a Patent for Katskill, 431 ; Brenckelen mcoi^orated, 433 ; Father Jogues 
visits Andiataroctfe, and names it " Lao du Saint Saciement," 433 ; Mnrder of 
Jogues by Uie Mohawks, 433 ; Hudde Commissary on the South River, 434 
Negotiates with Prints, 435 ; Purchases the Site of Philadelphia, 436 ; Discontt- 
eous Conduct of PrintB, 427 ; New Haven Tradmg-post on the Paugussett, 438 
Kieft protests, and negotiates with Eaton, 438 ; With the Commissioners, 439, 
430; Instnictionsof the West India Company,431 ; Stayvesant commissioned as 
Director, and awom, 433 ; Sails from the Texel, 433 ; Arrives at Manhattan, 433. 

Death of Frederick Henry the Stadtholder, 434 ; Treaty of Munster, and General 
Peace of Westphalia, 435; The House of Burgundy, 438 ; Great Charter of Hol- 
land, 437 ; Charles V. and Phihp II., 437, 438 ; The Reformation in Friesland 
and Holland, 438 ; Action of the Spanish Gorernraent, 439 ; Alliance of the No. 
bles, and Origin of the " Gueux," 440 ; Iconoclasts, 441 ; Alva in the Nether- 
lands, 441 ; Council of Blood, and Execution of Egmont and Hoom, 441 ; Cap- 
ture of the Brielle, 443 ; The People refuse to pay Alva's Taxes, 443 ; Haerlem 
and Alckmaer besieged, 443 ; Defense of Leyden, and Foundation of its Univers- 
ity, 443 ; Pacification of Ghent, 444 ; The Union of Utrecht, 445 ; DuMh Decla- 
ration of Independence, 446; The Dutch a self-governing People, 447 ; Theirre- 
publican System of Administration, 448 ; The States General, 449 ; Council of 
State, Chamber of Accounts, Stadtholder, and Admiralty, 450 ; The Province of 
Holland, 451 ; Industrial and democratic Spirit of the Dutch, 453 ; Municipal 
Governments of Holland, 453 ; Effects of the Dateh System, 454 ; Doetrme of 
State Rights, 455 ; Social and political Results, 455, 456; Prosperity of tiie 
Dutch, 456 ; Extensive Conunerce, 457 ; Free Trade ; Universal Toleration, 458 
Foreigners attracted ; Freedom of the Dutch Press, 458 ; Illustrious Men and 
Artists of the Netherlands, 460 ; Party Spirit ; the Hoeks and Kabheljaiia, 461 : 
Economy and Frugality ; Hospitality and Benevolence, 463 ; Establishment of 
free Schools, 463 ; Influence of Women, 463; Honesty of the Dutch,4e3; Thoii 
Firmness and Patriotism, 464. 

toniraencement of Stuyvesant's Administration, 465; Organization of his Coun- 
cil, 466 ; Police and Revenue Regulations, 466, 467 ; Church in Fort Amster- 

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dam, 467; Domine Backerus succeeds Bogardus, 468 ; Complaints against Kief t, 
468 ; Dismissed by Stuyvesant, 469 ; Kujter and Melyn. accused by Kieft, 470 ; 
Convicted and sentenced, 471 ; Right of Appeal again denied, 472; Shipwreck 
of the Princess, and Death of Kieft, Bogardus, and others, 473 ; Escape of Kuy- 
ter and Melyn, 473 ; Stuyvesant's Conceaaions to the People, 474 ; The " Nine 
Men," 474 ; Their Duties and Oath of Office, 475 ; Their Action on Stuyvesant's 
first Communication, 478 ; Forrester, Lady Stirling's Agent, arrested and ban- 
islsed, 477 ; Correspondence with New England, 478 ; Stujvesant seizes a Ship 
at New Haven, 47S ; Eaton's Retaliation, 480 ; Stuyvesant's Vindication, 481 ; 
Insults of the Swedes on the South River, 483 ; The Savages invite the Dutch 
to build on the Schuylkill, 483 ; Fort Beverarede, 483 ; The Swedes reproved by 
the Savages, 483 ; Carapanius returns t« Sweden, 484; Plowden again at Man- 
hattan, 484 ; Van Dincklagen and La Montagne at the South River, 48S ; Vexa- 
tious Conduct of the Swedes at Passayunk, and Protests of the Dutch, 486 ; Mii 
nicipalAflkirs at Manhattan, or New Amsterdam, 487 ; Recommendations of tlie 
Nine Men; Residence required ; Scotch Merchants, or Peddlers ; "Kennis," or 
Fair, 489 ; Contraband Trade in Fire-arms, 490 ; Van Slechtenhorst at Rensse- 
laerswyck, 491 ; Stuyvesant visits Fort Orange, 491 ; Soldiers sent there, 493 ; 
Van Slechtenhorst summoned to Fort Amsterdam, 493 ; Megapolensis and Back- 
erus, 494 ; Popular Discontent at New Amsterdam, 495 ; Delegation to Holland 
proposed by the Nine Men, 495 ; Correspondence with New England, 496 ; Stuy- 
vesant's Explanations of the Dutch territorial Rights, 497. 



Death of Charles L, 498; Threatened Rupture between England and the Nether- 
lands, 499 ; Death of Winthrop, and Correspondence with New England, 499 ; 
The Dutch and other Foreigners forbidden to trade with the New England Sav- 
ages, 500 ; Stuyvesant and the Nine Men, 501 ; Proceedings agamst Van der 
Donck, 502 ; Case of Kuyter and Melyn, 503 ; Memorial of the Nine Men to the 
States General, 504; Burgher Government demanded; Remarks and Observa- 
tions of the Nine Men, 505 ; Vertoogh, or Remonstrance of New Netherland, 
506 ; Delegates sent to Holland, 507 ; Domine Backerus succeeded by Megapo- 
lensis, 508 ; Van Tienhoven sent to Holland as Stuyvesant's Representative, 
509 ; Katskill, Claverack, aiul Wecltquaesgeelt, 510 ; Lands purchased on the 
South River, 610, 511 ; The popular Delegates at the Hague, 5il ; Publication 
of the Vertoogh, 513 ; Letter of the West India Company's Chamber at Amster- 
dam, 512; Measures to promote Emigration, 513; Provisional Order for the 
Government of New Netherland, 514 ; Opposed by the Amsterdam Chamber, 
615; Domine Grasmeer, 516 ; MunicipalAfikiTS ofNew Amsterdam, 517; Stuy- 
vesant's Opposition to Reforms, 517; The Director visits Hartford, 518 ; Provis- 
ional Treaty ananged, 519, 530 ; Dissatisfaction of the Commonalty at New Am- 
sterdam, 621 ; Atairs at Rensselaerswyck, 533 ; Van der Donck and Van Tien- 
hoven in Holland, 523 ; Return of Van Tienhoven, 524 ; Melyn on Staten Island, 
635 ; Van Dincklagen and Van Schelluyne oppressed, 536 ; Gravesend and Heem- 
stede support Stuyvesant, 5S6, 537 ; Expedition from New Haven to the South 
River defeated, 637 ; Van Slechtenhorst arrested at New Amsterdam, 528 ; 

Hosted by 


Stuyvesant visits the South River, 639 ; Fort Nassau demolished, and Fort Cas- 
imir built, 5S9; Dyokman appointed Commiasai-y atFort Orange in Place of Lab- 
batie, 530; Proposed Exploration of the Katskill Mountains, 531. 

Fiscal Van Dyck superseded, and Van Tienhoven promoted, 532 ; Troidtles at Bev- 
erwjck, 533 ; Stuyvesant again at Fort Orange, 534 ; Annexation of Beverwyck 
to Fort OraDge, 535 ; Mm Baptist van Rensselaer Director, and Gerrit Swart 
Schout of Rensaelaerawyck, 585 ; Settlement at Atkariarton, or Esopus, 636 ; 
Middelburg or Newtown, and Midwout or Fiatbnsh, on Long Island, 6S8 ; Tan 
Werckhoven's Purchases or Long Island and New Jersey, 537 ; Domine Dris- 
ius, 537 ; Doniine Schaats, 538 ; Opposition of the Arnsterdam Cliamber to the 
PrOTiaioual Older. 539 ; Burgher Government conceded to Manhattan, 540 ; In- 
structions for Sehout of New Amsterdam, 541 ; The States General recall Stuy- 
vesant, 541 ; His Recall revoked, 543 ; Proposed Union between England and 
the Netherlands, 543 ; English Act of Navigation, 543 ; Failure of proposed 
Treaty, 544 ; Naval War between the Dutch and Enghsh, 546 ; Precautions of 
the States General and the Amsterdam Chamber, 546 ; Maritime Saperiotity of 
Manhattan predicted, 547 ; Its Condition and Population, 64S ; Organization of 
the municipal Goverrmient of the City of New Amsterdam, 548, 549 ; Critical 
Condition of the Province ; Preparations for Defense, 549 ; First City Debt, 550 ; 
State of Peeling in New England; Charges against the Dutch, 550, 551 ; Agents 
sent to New Netherland, and Preparations for War, 563; Conduct of the New 
England Agents, and Propositions of the Dutch, 563; Stuyvesant's Reply to the 
Commissionere, 554 ; Substance of the Charges against him, 555 ; Underhill's 
seditious Conduct on Long Island, 556 ; Is banished, and goes to Rbode Island, 
556 ; Massachusetts at Variance with the Commissioners, 657 ; Prevents a War 
with New England, 558 ; Fort Good Hope seized by UnderhiD, 558 ; Stuyvesant 
sends an Embassy to Virginia, 559 ; Disagrees with the City Authorities of New 
Amsterdam, 560 ; Return of Van der Donck ; His " Description of New Nether- 
land," 561 ; De Sjlie appointed Counselor, and Van Ruyven Provincial Secretary, 
561; Domine Drisius sent on an Embassy to Virginia, 563; Affairs of Rensse- 
laerswyck, 563 ; The Mohawks and the French, 563 ; Father Poncet restored, 
564 ; Temper of the New England Govermnents, 564, 565 ; Piracies on Long 
Island Sound, 565 ; Libelous Pamphlet pubhshed in London, 566 ; The Bound- 
ary Question in Holland, 567 ; Stuyvesant surrenders the Excise to the City, 568 ; 
Disaffection among the English on Long Island, 568 ; Meeting of Delegates at 
New Amsterdam, 569 ; " Landtdag" or Convention called, 570 ; It meets at New 
Amsterdam, 571 ; Remonstrance of the Convention, 571 ; Its Character, 573 ; 
Stuyvesant's Reply, 573 ; Rejoinder of the Convention, 574 ; The Convention 
dissolved, 676 ; Letter of Burgomasters and Schepens of New Amsterdam to the 
West India Company, 575 ; Ijetter from Gravesend, 576 ; Affhirs on the South 
River, 576 ; Departure of Prints, 577 ; John Rising appointed Deptity Governor 
of New Sweden, 577, 

Hosted by 



)Jew Amsterdam Affairs, 578 ; Precautionary Measures, 579 ; Breuckelen, Amers- 
foort, and Midwout incorporated, 580 ; Church at Midwout or Fiatbush, and Dom- 
ine Polhemus called, 581 ; Illiberal Treatment of Lutherans at New Amsterdam, 
583 ; Cromwell's EKpedition against New Netherland, 583 ; Sequestration of 
Fort Good Hope by Connecticut, 583 ; New Amsterdam put in a State of Defense, 
584; Warlike Preparations in New England, 585; Treaty of Peace between En- 
gland and Holland, and Countermand of hostile Orders, 686; Thanksgiving in 
New Netherland, 587 ; Letters of llie Company to Stuyvesant and to the City 
Authorities, 587 ; Grant of a City Hall and Seal to New Amsterdam, 588 ; Kiiy- 
ter murdered, and Van Tienhoven continued as City Schout, 588 ; Ferry at Man- 
hattan regulated, 689 ; War Tax laid ; Excise resumed by Stuyvesant, 590 ; 
Troubles at Beverwyck, 591 ; Father Le Moyne discovers the Salt Springs at 
Onondaga, 693 ; Easing at the South Eiver, 593 ; Captures Fort Casimir, and 
names it Fort Trinity, 593 ; Swedish Ship seized at Manhattan, 594 ; English 
Settlements at West Chester and Oyster Bay, 595 ; Stuyvesant visits Lady 
Moody at Gravesend, 696 ; Delivers Seal and Coat of Arms to Burgomasters at 
New Amsterdam, 696 ; Sails for the West Indies, 597 ; Baxter, Hubljard, and 
Orover at Gravesend, 597 ; Protest against the Settlers at West Chester, 598 ; 
De Decker appointed Commissary at Fort Orange in Place of Dyckman, 699 ; 
Affairs at Gravesend, 599 ; The Boundary Question in Holland, 600 ; Stuyvesant 
ordered to recover Fort Casimir, 601 ; Letter of West India Company to Burgo- 
masters of New Amsterdam, 603 ; Stuyvesant returns from the West Indies, 
603 ; Expedition to the South River, 604 ; Capitulation of the Swedes, 606 ; Es- 
tablishment of the Dutch Power on the South River, 606 ; Indian Invasion oi 
New Amsterdam, 607 ; Hoboken, Pavonla, and Staten Island laid waste ; Eso- 
pus deserted, 607 ; Measures !br Defense ; Ransom of Prisoners, 608 ; Jacquet 
appointed Vice Director on the South River, 609 ; ABsistanee aslted from Hol- 
land, and Precautions against the Savages proposed, 610 ; Stuyvesant prohibits 
New Year andMayDay Sports, 611; Father Le Moyne atBeverwyck, 611; New 
Alliance between the Dutch and the Mohawks, 611 ; Chaumonot and Dablon ; 
Jesuit Chapel at Onondaga, 613. 

Proclamation to form Villages, 613 ; Stuyvesant and the Municipal Government of 
New Amsterdam, 613 ; Religions AfJ^ra in New Netherland, 614-616 ; Procla- 
mation against unauthorized Conventicles, 617 ; Disapproved by the West India 
Company, 617 ; Expedition sent t« West Chester, 618 ; Oostdorp or West Ches- 
ter, and Rustdorp or Jamaica incorporated, 619 ; Baxter escapes to New En- 
gland, 620 ; Swedish Ship seized at the South River, 630 ; Ratification of the Hart- 
ford Treaty by the States General, 631; Complaints of the Swedislv Government, 
633 ; Van Tienhoven dismissed from public Service, 633 ; Survey and Population 
of New Amsterdam, 633 ; Troubles at Beverwyclt about the Excise, 633 ; Van 
Rensselaer fined and ordered to give Bonds, 634 ; New Church at Beverwyck, fiS4, 

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625; LaMontagne appointed ViceDirector at Fort Orange in Place of De Decker, 
935 ; Unsatisfactory Coiresponilence with New England, 636 ; Lutherans at New 
Amsterdam, and Baptists at Flushing, 636 ; Affairs at Oostdorp, 687 ; Great and 
Small Burgher Riglit established at New Amsterdam, 688, 639 ; The West India 
Company conveys Fort C^imir and the adjacent Territory to the City of Am- 
Bterdam, 680 ; Colony of New Amstel ; Alrichs appointed Director, 630, 631 ; 
Transfer of Fort Casimir, and Organization of Colony of New Amstel, 633 ; Fort 
Christina named Altona, and Jacquet succeeded by Hadde, 633 ; Domine Welius 
and Church at New Amstel, 633 ; Cromwell's Letter to the English on Long 
Island, 634 ; Lutheran Clergyman at Now Amsterdam, 635 ; The People called 
Quakers, 635; Penal Laws of Massachusetts, 635; Liberality of Rhode. Island, 
636 ; Quakers at New Amsterdam, 636 ; Proclamation against Quakers, 637 ; 
RemonstnmceofFiuahing, 637; Its Charter modified, 638 ; Persecution of Quak- 
ers, 638, 639 ; Nomination of Magistrates allowed to New Amsteidam, 640 ; For- 
eigners ; Municipal Affairs ; Latin School, S40, 641 ; New Haerlem and Staten 
Island, 641 ; Bergen and Gamoenepa, or Communipa, 643 ; The "West India Com- 
pany enjoins religious Moderation, 643,^3; Jesuit Mission at.Onondaga; Saint 
Mary's of Genentaha, 644 ; Le Moyne at New Amsterdam, 646 ; Commerce be- 
tween New Netherlaiid and Canada, 646 ; Abandonment of the French Settle- 
ment at Onondaga, 646 ; Outrages of the Indians at Esopus, 647 ; Stuyvesant's 
Conference with the Esopus, Sayages, 648 ; Village laid out at Esopus, 649; Jer- 
eraias Tan Rensselaer Director cf Renaaelaerswyck, 649 ; Mohawks at Fort Or- 
ange, 650 ; Dirck Smit Commandant at Esopi», 651 ; Stuyvesant visits Altona, 
651 ; Willem Beeckman appointed Vice Director on the South Eiyer, 652 ; Af- 
fairs at New Amstel, 653 ; Death of Cromwell, and Downfall of the ProtectOT- 


Territorial Claims of Massachusetts, 654 ; Exploring Party refosed a Passage of 
the North Rher, 655 ; The West India Company allows New Netherland a For- 
eign Trade, 856 ; Curlius Latin Schoolmaster at Ne'tv Amsterdam, 656 ; Liber- 
ality in Religion enjoined, 656 ; Herm^nus Blom called to Esopus, 657 ; Fresh 
Troubles with the Savages, 658 ; Delegation from Beverwyck to the Mohawks 
at Cau^awaga, 659 ; Expedition from New Amsterdam to Esopus, 660 ; AfiWrs 
at New Amstel, 661 ; Copper Mine at Minnisinek, 663; Beeckman pnrchasea 
near Cape Hinlopen, 663 ; Designs of the Maryland Govermnent, 663 ; Utie at 
New Amstel, 664 ; Conference with the JOutch Officers, 665 ; Heerman's and 
Waldronls Embassy to MtU7land, 669 ; Negotiations with Governor Fendall, 
667-669 ; Death of Domine Welius and of Director Alrichs, 670 j Southampton, 
Easthampton, Huntington, and Setanket, on Long Island, 671 ; Letter of Com- 
missioners Ifl Stuyvesant in favor ofthe Massachusetts Claim, 673; Stuyvesant's 
Reply, 673 ; His Dispatches to the Company, 674 ; Tonneman Schout of New 
Amsterdam; Second Survey ofthe City, 674; New Haerlem incorporated, 674; 
Treaty with the Long Island and other Indians, 676 ; War against the Esopus 
SarageSj 676 ; Stuyvesant refuses to organize a Court at Esopus, 677 ; Opposes 
the Employment of the Mohawks, 677 ; Conference and Treaty with the Esopus 
Indians, 678; " Bosch-loopers" at Fort Orange, 679; Stuyvesant's Conference 

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with, the Senecas, 679; Domine Blom settled at Esopus, 680 ; Domine Selyns al 
Breuckelea and the Director's Bouwery, 680, 6S1; Lutherans at Bevetwyck, 
691 ; Hinoyossa sncceeda Alrichs at New Amatel, 683 ; Treaty between New 
Netherlaud and Virginia, 683 ; Sir Henry Moody's Embassy to Manhattan, 683 ; 
Berkeley's Correspondence with Stuyvesant, 684 ; Restoration of Charles II., 
684 ; Lord Baltimore and the West India Company, 685 ; The Company's Me? 
morial to the States General, 686 ; English Council for Foreign Plantations, 686, 

English Jealousy of the Dutch, 687; Liberal Conditions offered by the West India 
Company to English Emigrants to New Netherland, 688 ; Stuyvesant again per- 
secutes Qualters, 689 ; Charter of Wiltwyck, or Wildwjck, at Esopus ; R«elof 
Swartwout Schout, 690 ; Purchase of " Schonowe," or Schenectady Flats, 691 ; 
Bergen incorporated; Tiehnan vanVIeecfc Schout, 691, 692; Staten Island; 
Domine DiisLus preaches there in French, 693 ; New Utrecht and Boswyck, or 
Bushwiek, incorporated, 693 ; The " Five Dutch Towns," 693 ; Affairs at New 
Amsterdam ; a Mint contemplated ; Curtiiis succeeded by Luyck ; Reputation of 
the Latin School, 694 ; Salt-worlts on Coney Island, 694 ; Coniiecticut petitions 
the King fox a Charter, 695 ; Winthrop sails from New Amsterdam, 695 ; Pro- 
posed Pnritan Settlement in New Netherland ; Stuyvesant's Concessions, 696 ; 
Calvert on the South River, 697 ; Mennonists propose to colonise the Horekill, 
698 ; Singular Articles of Association, 698, 699 ; PlooWioy, their Leader, 699 ; 
Beeclraian and Hinoyossa, 699 ; Sir Ge«rge Downing, the British Ambassador at 
the Hague, 700 ; Lord Baltimore's and Lord Stirling's Claims, 701 ; Convention 
between the United Provinces and Great Britain, 701 ; Berkeley and Winthrop 
in London; RoyalCharterfor Connecticut, 703; Encroaching Claims of the Con- 
necticut Court, 703 ; West Chester and Long Island Towns annexed, 703 ; Le 
Moyne again among the Iroquois, 704 ; The Mohawks on the Kennebeck, 704 ; 
Governor Breedon's Complaints, and Stuyvesant's Interposition, 704; Tracy 
Viceroy of Canada, 705 ; Progress of Quakerism on Long Island, 705 ; Banish- 
ment of Bowne, 706; The West [ndia Company enjoins Toleration, and Perse- 
t' es, 707 ; Terms offered to Puritans desiring to settle themselves on 

th R t n, 708 ; Coimecticut eiiforces its Claims of Jurisdiction, 709 ; Eatth- 
q k 09 Small-pox at Bcverwyck, and non-intercourse Regulations of Con- 
t 710 ; New Village at Esopus ; " Ronduit" on the Kill, 710 ; Wiltwyck 
p is dby the Savages, 711 ; Expedition sent from New Amsterdam, 713 ; In- 
f the Esopus Country, and Destruction of IndJMi Forts on tlve Shawan- 
gunk kill 713, 713 ; Party sent to the Sager's Kill, 713, 714 ; The South River 
ceded to the City of Amsterdam, 714-7)6 ; Calvert at New Amstel and Allona, 
717; Hinoyossa and Beeckman, 717; Stuyvesant visits Boston, and negotiates 
with the Commissioners, 718 ; Difficulties on Long Island, 719 ; Dutch Commis- 
sioners sent to Hartford, 7S0 ; Unsatisfactory Negotiation, 731; Act of Connecti- 
cut respecting the West Chester and Long Island Towns, 733 ; Convention called 
at New Amsterdam, 732 ; Remonstrance to the West India Company, 733 ; Names 
of English Villages on Long Island changed, 733 ; Stuyvesant surrenders them 
and West Chester to Connecticut, 723 ; English Party on the Raritan ; Purchase 
of the Nevesinck Lands, 734; Baxter and Scott in London, 735; Scott on Long 

Hosted by 



Island, 738 ; Combination of English Villages ; Scott ch<Kon President, 726 ; Con 
ditional Arrangement at Jamaica, 737; Agreement between Stuyvesant and Scott, 
728; General Provincial Assembly at New Anisterdam, 739; Charter of the West 
India Company explained and eoiJirmed by the States General, 730 ; Letters to 
the Towns, 730 ; Arrival of Huguenots, 730 ; Treaty of Peace with the Eeopaa 
Savages, 731 ; Beecliman Commissary at Eaopus, 732 ; Settlement at Schaen- 
hecbstede, or Schenectady, 732 ; The Mohawka and the Abenaquis, 733 ; Ravages 
of the Mahicans, and Alarm at Fort Orange, 733 ; Winthrop's Proceedings on 
Long Island, 734 ; Stuyvesant atill hopeful, 734 ; Royal Patent to the Duke of 
York and Albany, 735 ; Royal Commissioners, 736 ; Colonel Richard Nicons dis. 
patched with a Squadron to surprise Now Netherland, 733 ; Grant of New Jersey, 
736 ; Preparations to defend New Amsterdam, 736 ; Stuyvesant goes to Fort Or- 
ange, 737 ; Koyal Commissioners at Boston, 737 ; Squadron anchors in Nyack 
Bay, 738; Manhattan summoned to surrender, 739 ; Stuyvesant tears Nicolls's 
Letter, 739 ; Ships anchor before Fort Amsterdam, 740 ; Condition, of the City, 
741; Capitulation agreed to, 742; SurrenderofNew Amsterdam, 743; Nicollspro- 
cl^med Governor ; his opinion of the City called "New York," 743; Surrender 
of Fort Orange ; named Fort Albany, 744 ; Reduction of the South River, 744 ; 
New York, Albania, and Yorkshire named, 745 ; Review ; Character and Influ- 
ence of the Founders of New York, 745-750. 


Note A Page "(51 

NoteB 752 

NoteC - 753 

NoteD 753 

Note E 754 

NotcF 755 

Note 6 755 

NoteH - - 756 

Note I - - 757 

NoteK - 758 

NoteL - 758 

NoteM -.- -.. 759 

NoteN -- - 760 

NoteO - -. 760 

Notep _... 760 

Note Q 761 

MoteR 761 

Note S , 763 

General Inoex ■ 765 

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In the beginning of the seventeenth century, moment- chie.i, 
ous events, which had heen agitating Europe, led the way^^^^^ '" 
to the permanent colonization of the northern regions of u™' 
America. The art of printing had gradually diffused the 
learning of the cloister through the marts of commerce ; 
a venerahle but abused faith no longer shackled emanci- 
pated mind ; a recent inductive philosophy was teaching 
mankind to seek the fruits of careful experiment ; and an 
irrepressible spirit of adventure, growing with the prog- 
ress of knowledge, prompted enterprise in the New World 
which the genius of Columbus had given to the Old. 

The immortal Genoese, who, in those late years fore- 1492. 
told at Rome, had verified the sublime prophecy of Sene- 
ca, and made the ocean reveal the long-mysterious eartli 
beyond the furthest Thule, had worked out his grand dem- 
onstration in Hie service of Spain. By her the splendid 
prize was claimed. But Portugal, having already ex- 
plored the Azores, boldly asserted a superior right. The 
question was referred to the Pope; and Alexander the Papal dona- 
Sixth decided that the sovereigns of Spain should hold,Ne™worid 
as a gift in perpetuity, all the heathen lands found or I493. 
to be discovered to the west of a meridian, one hundred ^utway. 
leagues westward of the Azores. The apostolic decree did 

Hosted by 



Chap. I. not Satisfy Portugal ; and it, was agreed that the line of 

"~T~~ partition should lie advanced two hundred and seventy 

■ leagues further to the west. Still, nearly all the New 

World remained actually included in the papal donation 

to Spain.* 

But the Pontiff's sweeping grant was not universally 
respected. Leaving Spain and Portugal to push their con- 
En^ish quests in the rich and sultry regions of the south, England 
liisQoveriea. Eud Frauce Commenced an early rivalry in exploring the 
rugged and picturesque territories of the north. Disre- 
garding the edict of the Vatican, almost simultaneously 
they began their grand career of transatlantio enterprise, 
cauot. "While the Cahots, under commissions of Henry the Sev- 
enth, after discovering Newfoundland, sailed along' the 
1497-8. continent, froin Labrador to the parallel of Gribvaltar, and, 
1517. in a succeeding reign, perhaps entered the Arctic Seas 
westward of Greenland, the fishermen of Normandy visit- 
1504. ed Cape Breton, and made rude charts of the great gulf 
1506. within; and Verazzano, under a commission of Francis 
veraiMQo. |.j^^ pirst, coasting northward from the Carolinas, explored, 
1524. with his boat, the "most beautiful" Bay of New York,i 
and anchored awhile in the " very excellent harbor" of 
Newport. But, though plans of colonization were sug- 
gested in England and France, permanent occupation was 


atd'8 Hi 

stoiicfil cau&t 


U,% 10 

: Ir^iHB' 

'a Columbus, > 

; Prescott's Ferd, and Isab., U., !lfl,'l-4 



1 Voyages, 

" Ac, 43-^T, rBprlnled hy ILe HaWuyt Sooiay 




lbs Narro; 

vs, and the Hay of New Yott ; " After pt 



Hundred leagues, we 

ety pleaeaiit aUnaiiim amoog some aieej 

1 hills. 



, lis monlh, (breed its way 10 iha sea. Ft. 



r, Bhj ship 

. boOTily Men might pass, with the help 

of the 

lich tlsei 

joishtlfeeL Butasvfe' 

iraie lidlng at anchor in a goad l»nh, we 



knowledge of the raoum ; therefbre we u 


va fiiund Ihe counlry on its banks waU peopled, ihe 

9, holng droBSBd out with the feaUiera of b 




iwart us with evident ddigllt, raising loud shonta o 



I mosl seoureiy land with onr boat. We 


Mut half a lesgue, when 

we found it Ibrmed a must bemlifia lak. 

lit, upon which tbey wer 

e rawing thirty or more ot their amall boal 



) happen 

, a violent i 

iionlrary wind blew In ttom Uie aea, and ft 

■ ship, greallj regreliing i 

10 leave Ihia region, which seeroEd an comr 




supposed I 

nasi also conlain Eteat riches, as tho hills 




to King Francis L, of July B, ISW, ttansl 


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delayed. Mot a solitary emigrant established bis home chap, i, 
along all the indented line of coast.* 

Jacqwes Cartier, an experienced mariner of Saint Male, cartior m 
following, a few years after Yertizzano's adventurous voy- 
age, discovered the mouth of the " Great River ol Cana- 1534. 
da." The next year, returning with three well-fitted ves- 
sels, Oartier passed westward of Newfoundland on the 
festival of Saint Lawrence, and, in honor of the martyr, 1535. 
gave his name to the noble gulf which stretched beyond. ^^ *"*"'' 
Pursuing his way up the great'river, and holding friendly 
intercourse with the Hurons and Algonquins along its 
hanks, the enterprising explorer visited the island of 
Hoohelaga, the fertile hill on which, he named " Montsoctoiier. 
Real." After wintering his ships in the little river just 
northof the present city of Quebec, Gartier solemnly ereet- 1536. 
ed a cross, and, claiming the surrounding regions as the^"""^* 
rightful possessions of his sovereign king, Francis I., set 
sail once more for Saint Malo. 

Gartier's reports on his return to France, though they 
did not arouse a general spirit of enterprise among his 
countrymen, stimulated Frangois de la Roque, lord of Ro- Rutcrvai. 
berval, a nobleman of Picardy, to obtain from the king a 1540. 
patent as viceroy over the newly-discovered French ter-^*''^"""* 
ritorics on the Saint Lawrence. With Roherval was as- 
sociated Cartier, as captain and pilot.- in-chief. Return- 19 ocwijbi, 
ing to the Saint Lawrence, Cartier built a rude fort, not 
far from the site of Quebec, and thus gave to his country 
the pre-eminence of having erected the first European post 1541. 

* HaiaH, i., 9, 10 ; Chalmers, 4, T, 8 ; Holmea's Annals, 1., 13-64 ; Bancroft, 1., 8-17, 
7S,76; BWdle's " Memoir of Caboi ;" C.Robinson's "Voynges to America!" Hakluyl'a 
" Divers VoyogeB." In 1501, Coitemal, ■ Portuguese, visLleii Newftundland and Labrs- 

no«reilanl,ofllieillamic const of the Uniled States, TnilBlaUonH of thai lauer are In 
N. Y, U. S. Collections, )., 'IS-EO (ftnm RamnElo), and in L (second series), 39-«T (l^am Uis 
Ua^abecchlan MSS.). <n the Hahluyt Society's reprint of " Hatdayt's Divers VoyageB," 
Hie ttanslstion of Veraiiano's letter (l^nn Ramusio) is ac^ouipaniedhy athoBlmlleofttie 
rare map which Micbael lock, of London, maSa and dedicated to Sir Philip Sydney, in 
1381. Tbia mep, it spears, viaa constraeted partly IVoni "an old aicellent mappe," 

llsbed his work (in 1583), was " yel in [lie custodle of Master Locke." The name by 

voy^e, applied to Ibe Northern ConHnent ; at all events. Vetaiiano does not use (ha 

Hosted by 




p. i. in the northern territory of America. But divided author- 
~ ity frustrated the discordant enterprise ; and, for a long 
generation, no further American discoveries were prose- 
cuted hy the subjects of France.* 
Prgbiaher's Forty years after Cartier first ascended the Saint Law- 
rence, Martin Frobiaher, "one of the holdest men who ever 
ventured upon the ocean," encouraged by the favor of Eliz- 
abeth to search for a northwest passage to China, made his 
1576. way to a group of islands off the coast of Labrador. A 
few stones brought back to London, from the desolate 
abode of the Esquimaux, were supposed to contain gold ; 
1577-8. and new expeditions were sent to the imaginary Dorado, 
But Frobisher's voyages were all unsuccessful. "While 
credulous avarice was signally disappointed, the coasts of 
North America remained unexplored by the Euglish.t 
With more definite purpose, and with sounder views, 
'modi''* Sir Humphrey Grilbert, a Icnight of Devonshire, obtained 
1578. a royal patent, authorizing him to discover and occupy 
II Jane, ^jjy rejxiote, heathen, and barbarous lands, "not actually 
possessed of any Christian prince or people." Grilbert's 
purpose was to begin that aotnal occupation of American 
territory which England had entirely neglected during the 
eighty years that followed the voyage of Cabot. The pat- 
ent gave G-ilbert abundant powers ; but various obstacles 
postponed the execution of bis design. $ Meanwhile, Eliz- 
abetii was stoutly denying. the exclusive pretensions of 
1580, Spain to the New "World, in virtue of first visitation, and 
of the Pope's donation, and was distinctly affirming the 
^'^'n^te principle that discovery and prescription, unless aooom- 
d^iH^-'ine. panied by possession, are of no avail.i Thus the Q,ueen 
*HBkinyt,m " " " ' 

: HiUBrd, i 

1 ; Chalmers 

', 39-3S, 47-139 ; Pbi 




.Huyl 1 

Soeletj-, 1B4£ 





juris ««, 

a posael ei Po 








lelDTilaleni ul 

ret. TUl m 

iiUam el obsdiBnU 

illom-tt quasi 








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of England, while she refused to recognize the double ch.p. i. 
Spanish title by exploration and investiture, at the same 
time virtually renounoed any English claim founded sole- 
ly upon Cabot's voyage. 

After a few year's delay, Gilbert, aided by the resources 
of hia half-brother, Sir Walter E-aleigh, equipped an ex- Gimen si 
pedition, and sailed directly to Newfoundland, where, for land, 
the first time, he set up the arms of England and pro- 1583. 
claimed the queen. On his return voyage, the intrepid**"^*"" 
adventurer perished at sea. But the English right to the b sspitsmb. 
island " first seen" by Cabot, was now formally published 
to the world " by the voice of a herald."* 

The untimely fate of his kinsman did not dishearten 
Raleigh, who readily procured from Elizabeth, whose fa- n^^"'^^™! 
vorite he had become, a new patent to discover and occu- 
py any remote, heathen, and barbarous lands, "not act- 1584, 
ually possessed of any Christian prince, nor inhabited ■by^Mntcu. 
Christian people." TJp to this time the English had lim- 
ited their views to the bleak regions near the fisheries at 
the mouth of the Saint Lawrence. Raleigh's enterprise 
was now directed to a more genial climate. Two vessels 
were soou dispatched toward Florida, under the com-STApru. 
mand of Philip Amidas and Arthur Barlow. Sailing by 
the circuitous route of the Canaries and the "West Indies, 
they safely reached the island of Wooockon,, at the Ocra- 
coke inlet, in North Carolina, where they too it formal poa-isJniy. 
session of the country in behalf of their sovereign. On 
their return to England, the adventurers made such glow- 
ing reports of the regions they had visited, that Elizabeth 
gave to the wilderness the name of Virginia, to commem- JJ^^" 
orate its occupation in the reign of a maiden queen. t 

But the time for permanent English settlements beyond coioniM- 
the Atlantic had not yet folly come. The colonists whom tompt^, 
Raleigh sent to the island of Roanoke in 1585, under 1585. 

* "Regtonffl 

m tNBwe™ 


AnglM JurLi 

— Csnidffii, Annalea 

ELli., 1583, 

Hakluyl, i.. 


; BWlWOfl, 1 

., 90, 91 




J-251 ; Bancr 

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Grenville and Lane, returned the next year, dispirited, to 
"England. A second expedition, dispatched in 1587, nn- 
' der John White, to found " the borough of Raleigh, in 
"Virginia," stopped short of the unexplored Chesapeake, 
whither it was bound, and once more occupied Roanoke. 
1590. In 1590, the unfortunate emigrants had wholly disappear- 
ed ; and, with their extinction, all iroraediate attempts to 
^Bban- estalilish an English colony in Virginia were abandoned.* 
Its name alone survived. After impoverishing himself in 
unsuccessful efforts to add an effoctive American planta- 
tion to his native kingdom, the magnanimous patriot was 
1603. consigned, under an unjust judgment, to a lingering im- 
prisonment in the Tower of London ; to be followed, after 
1618, the lapse of fifteen years, by a still more iniquitous exe- 
toM?'^ * cution. Yet, returning justice has fully vindicated Ra- 
leigh's fame ; and nearly two centuries after his death, 
1793. the State of North Carolina gratefully named its capital 
after that extraordinary man, " who united in himself as 
many kinds of glory as were ever combined in an indi- 
vidual, "t 

The reign of Elizabeth did not terminate before anoth- 
er step had been taken in the path of American adventure. 
Shakspeare's liberal-minded patron, the Earl of South- 
ampton, "having well weighed the greatness and good- 
ness of the cause," contributed largely to fit out a vessel 
m'Se*^ under the command of Captain Bartholomew Gosnold and 
Captain Bartholomew G-ilbert, to discover a "convenient 
place for a new colony" to be sent to North America. 
1602. Early in 1602, Gosnold sailed from Falmouth in a Dart- 
M March, j^q^jj^ bark, named the Concord, "holding a course for 
the north part of Virginia." Rejecting the usual circui- 
tous route by the Canaries and the West Indies, Gosnold, 
after being driven by an unfavorable wind " as far south- 
ward as the Azores," boldly steered his small vessel di- 

' Haiota, i., aM5 ; Hakloyl, lii., 351-985, 580^95; Chalmers, 514, 515; Eaiicrnft,!., 

UluEUated bta cdU«cUdds of '■ Vojngee." These were engraved t>om Ihs BlieUihes made, 
nader Raleigh's direclion, hy tbe dTaoghtamau Wythe, ^bo accon^jonied Laoe in IfiSlk 

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rectly across tlie Atlantic, by which he made the voyage cn*r. i. 
" shorter than heretofore by five hundred leagues."* In 
seven weelcs the Concord safely made the land, about the u^ay. 
latitude of ,43°, in the neighborhood of Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire, Here the adventurers were visited by several 
Indians in a French-built shallop, with "mast and sail, 
iron grapples, and kettles of copper," From their explana- 
tions, it appeared that some French vessels from the Basque 
Provinces " had fished and traded at this place." But 
seeing no good harbor, Gosnold stood again to sea south- 
wardly, and soon " found himself imbayed with a mighty 
headland." Here he wont ashore in his shallop, while his 
men, during the six hours ho was absent, caught so many 
"excellent codfish-, that they were compelled to throw 
numbers of them overboard again." Naming this head- 
land " Cape Cod" — a designation which it has ever since cape cod 
retained — Gosnold coasted to the southward as far as the Md named 
mouth of Bazzard's Bay, where he prepared to plant a 
colony on the westernmost island, which was called "Eliz- as May. 
aheth," in honor of the queen. Three weeks were spent 
in building a house, where Gosnold proposed to remain 
during the winter, with eleven of his men, and mean- 
while send the Concord home, in charge of Gilbert, " for 
new and better preparations." But his men, filled with 
"a covetous conceit of the unlooked-for merchandise" 
which had rewarded their traffic with the Indians, "would 
not by any means be treated with to tarry behind the 
ship ;" and Gosnold returned to England, after an absence 
of five months, with the moat favorable reports of "tbeaajmy. 
benefit of a plantation in those parts. "t 

Elizabeth's timid successor now sat on the throne of 1603. 
Great Britain. At the time of James's accession, Spain ]^cceaS 
was the only European nation that possessed any fixed""™"' 
Bettleraente in all the northern continent to which Colum- 


llnlo Virginia BrlM 

innla," by 

ehas. iv.,ie47! 

HiM. Qf Virsinta, I. 




by tHo Haklujt 


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?. I. bus had led the way, more than a century "before. South 
■~of the Saint Lawrence, not a foot of American territory 
' had yet been permanently occupied by England or France, 
But the time was now near at hand when these rival na- 
tions were to commence a long-enduring struggle for ul- 
timate dominion over vast regions far across the sea. Ra- 
leigh's enterprises, and (xosnold's successful voyage, had 
given a strong impulse to the national spirit of Great 
Britain ; for the development of which the anticipated 
termination, of hostilities with Spain, in consequence of 
James's accession to the throne, was soon to offer the most 
favorable opportunities. The south of England already 
felt the pressure of a redundant population ; and English 
adventurers foresaw that they would no longer be allow- 
ed to despoil, at pleasure, their enemies' rich "West India 
possessions. Enterprise must soon pursue more honest 
paths, and commerce and colonization must supplant pi- 
racy and rapine. The thoughts of the intelligent were 
naturally turned toward the North American Continent, 
where, between Mexico and Florida and the mouth of the 
Saint Lawrence, not a solitary European family was yet 
established. Among the foremost of these intelligent men, 
and the one to whorn " England is more indebted for its 
American possessions than to any man of that age,"* was 
|'"i the distinguished historian of maritime enterprise, Richard 
itiaa. Hakluyt, a prebendary of Saint Augustine's at Bristol, anij 
afterward of Saint Peter's at Westminster. Lifluenced by 
his enlightened zeal, some Bristol merchants fitted out two 
small vessels, manned with experienced crews, several of 
whom had accompanied G-osnold the year before ; and, a 
iprii. few days after the death of the queen, dispatched them 
^. from Milford Haven, under the command of Martin Bring, 
to explore the northern coasts of Virginia. Falling in with 
the land near Penobscot Bay, Pring coasted southerly along 
the mouths of the Kennebeck, Saco, and Piscataqua, un- 
til he reached the waters of Massachusetts Bay. After 
iMobet. an absence of six months, he returned to England, with 

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a, valuable cargo of sassafras, and a birch bark canoe, as a ch*p. i. 
specimen of the ir^ennity of the native savages.* 

Pring'a voyage stimulated aftesh the awakened enter- 
prise of England. James had, meanwhile, signalized his 
accession to the British throne by declaring himself at?™* "»"» 
peace "with all the princes of Christendom," and by re-^^™^- 
calling all letters of marque and reprisal against the Span- 
iards.t This step was followed the next year by a formal 
treaty with Spain, which by degrees repressed the preda- 1604. 
tory expeditions that English mariners had so long carried "^^ 
on against the American possessions of their recent foes. 
The northern voyage across the Atlantic was now divested 
of its terrors, and experience had ahundanlly demonstrated 
its advantages over the more circuitous route hy the "West 
Indies. The liberal Earl of Southampton, " concurrent 
the second time in a new survey and dispatch," in concert wej- _ 
with his brother-in-law. Lord Aruirdel, of Wardour, fitted 'oyBgfl, 
out a ship, in which Captain (xeorge Weymouth was dis- 
patched &om the Downs to visit the coast of Maine. In 1605. 
six weeks Weymouth found himself near the shoals of Nan- ^' ^f""^' 
tucket; whence, running nortliward about fifty leagues, isMaj, 
he landed upon an island between the Penobscot and the 
Kenneheck, which lie named Saint George. Pursuing 
" his search sixty miles up tlie most excellent and bene- 
ficial vjvor of Sacadehoc," which he found " capable of 
shipping for traffic of the greatest burdeii," Weymouth 
set up a cross, and took possession in the name of the king. 
After four months absence, Weymouth returned to En-iBJuij 
gland, bringing with him five native savages, whom he 
had decoyed on board his ship. Three of these were im- 
mediately " seized upon" by Sir Ferdinando Gorges, the 
governor of Plymouth, who afterward declared that " this 
accident must be acknowledged the means, under God, 
of putting on foot and giving life to all our plantations ,"t 

• Poretaa, Iv., IflM. t Rymer, Pedera, xvi., Slfl, 

t Sir F, Gorges, " Brief Namitioil," *c„ In Msss. HiM, Coll., xx"!., 50, 51 ; jivJlL, 

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Upon Weymouth's return to England, " his goodly re- 


""port joining with Captain G-osnold's," and heing confirm- 
l by the accounts given by the native Indians he had 
w'?pK^ brought over, kindled the ambition of " many firm and 
°^' hearty" British adventurers to colonize domains in the New 

World. Kext to Uichai'd Haklnyt, the most prominent 
among these master spirits of an enterprising age were Sir 
John Popham, the chief justice of England, and Sir Fer- 
dinaudo Gorges, the governor of Plymouth. Raleigh was 
npw lying attainted in the Tower, and his Virginia patent 
had been forfeited. But since the grant of Raleigh's pat- 
ent, extensive discoveries had been made far to the north- 
ward ; and within the limits of these new discoveries it 
was proposed that English emigrants should now be set- 
tled, simultaneously with a renewed attempt to colonize 
Virginia. To accomplish these purposes, a royal charter 
was thought necessary ; and all questions of rivalry, it was 
supposed, eould best be avoided by combining, both objects 
in the same instrument. The moment seemed favorable, 
and was improved. The world was aroused. A mighty 
inteUeotual revolution was just beginning ; the era of suc- 
cessful American colonization had come. About the very 
time that Bacon was putting forth his noble treatise on the 
"Advancement of Learning," some of the most influential 
men of England, including Haklnyt the historian, Popham, 
the chief justice, Gorges, Somera, Gates, and Smith, went 
to the king, and besought him to encouvage an undertak- 
ing whereby " God might be abundantly made known, his 
name enlarged and honored, a notable nation made fortu- 
nate," and themselves famous.* 

Obeying England's sublime destiny, to " make new na- 
tions" — 

"Wherever the bright sun of heaven shall shine — "f 
1606. James I. readily granted a new and ample charter for the 
oiSr* colonization of " that part of America commonly called 
graMed bj Yijg^ia^^ and other parts and territories in America either 
'™^' appertaining unto us, or which are not now actually poa- 

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sessed hy any Chriatian prin o p p b t en the h»p. l 
thirty-fourth and the forty-fi h d <n f e Ihe -,^„ 

grant included all the Kortl A u c a fr n Cape 

Fear to Kova Scotia. Two pa a pa es were 

named aa granteea of the p T fi o tl e e 

composed of Gates, Someis, Ha u a d "W j,h d vi 
their associated adventurers residing at London, was grant- c°^™ j, 
ed the privilege of occupying and governing a space of one 
hundred miles along the coast, in any pai't of the country 
between the thirty-fourth and the forty-first degrees. The 
second company, whose leading members, Hanhara, Gil- 
bert, Parker, and George Popham, with their aaaociates, 
lived in and near Plymouth and Bristol, tlie chief com- piynwoih 
mercial towns in the west of England — for Liverpool was 
then only an inconsiderable village, and the northern coun- 
ties almost entirely pastoral — was invested with similar 
privileges for any part of the territory between the thirty- 
eighth and the forty-fifth degrees of latitude. Thus the 
whole of the region between the thirty-eighth and the for- 
ty-first degrees — from the sea-coast of Maryland to Mon- 
tauk Point — was, by the terms of James's patent, nomin- 
ally open to colonization by either company. Yet, to pre- 
vent collision, the charter expressly provided that the col- 
ony which should be planted last should not approach its 
boundary within one hundred miles of that of the prior 
establishment.* But at the time the patent was sealed, 
no English navigator had searched the, American coast 
further south than Buzzard's Bay, nor further north than 
B-oanoke. The almost unknown intermediate region was 
entirely unoccupied by Europeans'; the Chesapeake itself 
was yet unexplored, nor had its Capes been discovered or 

The aumracr passed away in preparations, on the part of 
the patentees of the Southern or London Conipany, to or- ^ J™; 
ganize an expedition to Virginia ; and, on the part of the P^^^^f J* 
king, in drawing up a codeof laws for the colony, ^'"^ni". 

.1 lengtU in Haiarfl, L., 51-58 ; Ctialmers, 13 : Bancroft,!., ISJ-iai. 

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Chip, 1. Late in the winter, a little squadron of three ships sailed 
from England, under the command of Christopher New- 
iBBec, ' port; and, following the old roundaliout route hy the Can- 
1607. aiiea and "West Indies, it iirrived safely, the next spring 
^^ *'""* within the Chesapeake Bay. The headlands at the mouth 
of this ha,y wore immediately named Cape Henry and Cape 
Charles, in honor of the two sons of King James. A few 
days afterward, the colony of Virginia — the " Old Domin- 
fwmd'od™" ^°^" ^^ *^^ United States — ^was founded at Jamestown ; 
isMaj, and, during the two following years, Captain John Smith, 
" the adventurer o£ rare genius and undying fame," un- 
remittingly exerted the most strenuous efforts to sustain, 
amid constant discouragements, an enterprise which, hut 
for hie sagacity and devotion, must soon have utterly and 
disgraoefuliy failed.* 
niouiu'' '^^^ simultaneous attempt of Chief-justice Popham, Sir 

aS™en- Ferdinando Grorges, and other members of the Plymouth 
nebcck, qj Northern Company, to establish a colony upon the Sag- 
adahoc or Kenneheck, which "Weymouth had visited in 
1605t was unsuccessful. Soon after the charter was seal- 
ed, Gorges and some othei^ of the Plymouth Company 
1606. sent out a ship under the command of Captain Henry 
liAuguai. (;]jai!ons, to make further discoveries on the coast of 
Maine. But instead of taking the northern course, aocord- 
ijMions. ing to his orders, Challona sailed hy vray of the West In- 
and Ptin'g. dies, where he was captured hy a Spanish fleet and cairied 
into Spain. Meanwhile, Chief-justice Popham had dis- 
patched another ship, under the command of Captams 
Thomas Hanham and Martin Pring, to join Chalions on 
the coast of Maine. Failing to meet him there, Hanham 
and Prlng carefully explored the shores and harhois, and 
brought home with them the most accurate dcbcriptions 
of the country. "Upon whose relations," says the mani- 
festo of the Plymouth Company, " afterward the lord chief 
justice and we all waxed so confident of the business, that 
the year following, every man of any worth, foimeily m- 
l in it, was willing to join in the charge for the 

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aeiiding over a competent number of people to lay the chjp, i. 
ground of a liopeM plantation."* 

Under such auspices, a fly-boat, called the " Grift of popjiam ' 
God," con:iiiianded by George Popbam, the brother of the "|||i ^iJ,^'" 
chief justice, and a ship called the " Mary and John," com- ^'i""™'^'- 
manded by Ealeigh Gilbert, a nephew of Sir "Walter Ra- 
leigh, sailed from Plymouth in the summer of 1607, with 3i May. 
one hundred and twenty persons, to found a colony on the 
Kennebeok. Both the commanders were patentees of the 
new charter, and they now carried home with them two 
of the native savages vrhora Weymouth had taken to En- 

The adventurers arrived off Penobscot Bay early in Au- ' August, 
gust. Thence ranning westward, they anchored, a few la August, 
days afterward, at the mouth of the Sagadahoc. Popharainesasaia- 
and Gilbert then manned their boats and " sailed up into 
the river near forty leagues," to find a fit place for their 
settlement. On the return of the exploring party, " they le Auguist. 
all went ashore, and made choice of a place for their plant- 
ation at the mouth or entry of the river, on the west side." 
The next day, Richard Seymour, their chaplain, preached i9 AiigiisL 
them a sermon; after which the commission of George 
Popham, their president, and their colonial laws, were read. 
The next two months were diligently employed in build- 
ing a fort- and store-house ; while Gilbert, with twenty-two 
of his men, explored the adjacent coasts, between the Pe- 
nobscot and Casco Bay. Before long, the ship was sent 
home, in charge of Captain Davies, with news of their prog- 
ress, and with letters to Chief-justice Popham, asking for 
a supply of necessaries to be sent to them betimes the next 

After the departure of Davies, the remaining colonists 
finished their intrenched fort, which they named " Saint 
George," and armed it with twelve pieces of ordnance. 

* MasB, Hial. Coll., lij., 3, Pceoidenl and CooncU'a " Brief Eelalion," !6aa i Puichaa, 
iv.,'ieOT ; Prtnce, 113 ; Sltachey, 161, 193. 
t Slracboy, IM ; F, GorgEB, Brief Narralion, Msbs.HIbi. Col,, isvl. 

boOi He vessels BaUed Ox Englanfl on the ISili of Decemlier, 1607, leartng fony-flvo por- 
soDBOnly in the colony. Prince, UT. 

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ciiAP. I. Fifty houses, beaidea a church and store-house, were also 

"~~ oonstmcted within the intrenchmeiits ; " and the earpen- 

FitsiveBs'ei ^^'"^ framed a pretty pinnace of about some thirty tons, 

EumpMns "i^l^'ch ^*>y Called the Virginia ; the chief shipwright be- 

Tjniiert ""^ ^^g °^^ Digby, of London." GUbert, meanwhile, endeav- 

Siaiea. ^^^^ j^ esplore more fully the neighboring coasts ; hiit the 

winter proved so very severe, that " no boat could stir upon 

any business." To add to their distress, their store-house 

took fire, and their provisions in part were burned. Early 

1608, in the new year, their president, George Popham, died. 

*P'"'- In the mean time, the colonists on the Kennebeok had not 

been forgotten by their principals at home. In the course 

of the next summer, Davies returned from England with a 

ship " laden full of victuals, arms, instruments, and tools." 

On his arrival, he found that, notwithstanding the death 

of the president, the colony had prospered ; " all things in 

good forwardness," large quantities of furs obtained, a good 

store of ' sarsaparilla gathered, and "the new pinnace all 

finished." The " Virginia," of Sagadahoc, was thus the 

first vessel hudt by Europeans within the limits of the 

original United States. 

1607. But with welcome supplies, the mournful intelligence 
Deiih Df now reached the colony, that its liberal patron, Chief-jtis- 
chiof-jus- ^j^.g pQp];^J^JJl^ )ijid died, just after the first ships left En- 
Popiiam. gijy^d J* a^Qij Gilbert also learned that, by the decease of 

his brother, he had become heir to a fan estate which re- 

1608. quired his presence in England. As Popham, their pres- 
ident, was dead, and Gilbert was about to leave them ; as 
no mines, "the main intended benefit to uphold the charge 
of this plantation," had been discovered ; and especially, 
as they feared that all the other winters would prove like 
the first, "the company by no means would stay any lon- 
ger in the country." They therefore " all embarked in this 

* S[r lotm Fapliam dl«il oo Ibe lOlb orlune, I60T, He was a " huge, heavy, ngly 

ChlerJnsIiceofEngland,aDdm lAlB presided at Ibe uM of Sir Waltel Baleigb, wbom 
ha senienced lo death, Lortl Campbell, In liis biograpiiy of PapUam, eniLrely omits any 

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new-arrived ship, and in the new piimaee, the Virginia, chip. i. 
and set sail for England." Thus ended the Nortliem En- 
gljah colony upon the Sagadahoc. On the return of the 
fiiuitcring emigrants to England, their disappointed prin- flf„''"^o°y. 
cipals, vexed with their pusillanimity, deaiated for " a long 
time after" from any further attempts at American colo- 1608 
nization ; though a few vessels were still annually employ- ^61 4 
ed in the prosperous fisheries, and in trafficking with the 
Indians on the coast of Maine.* 

The year after the failure of the Plymouth Company's g^il^S' 
colony at the KennelJeck, the London Company obtained ^'"; g^Q 
a more ample charter fronj tlie king, hy which the affairs ss my. 
of Yirginia were placed upon a much better footing. The 
new grant essentially modified the first charter of 1606. 
" The treasurer and company of adventurers and planters 
of the city of London for the first colony in Virginia" were 
made a corporate body, to which the political powers, fee- 
fore resei-ved to the king, were now transferred. An abso- 
lute title was also vested in the company to all the toni- 
tory extending two hundred miles north from Point Com- 
fort, and the same distance to the south, and stretching 
from the Atlantic westward to the South Sea.t Thus, 
while the limits of Virginia were expanded westwardly, 
across the continent, to the Pacific, they were curtailed one 
degree of latitude on the north. Their first charter of 
1606 gave the Virginia Company the right to plant colo- 
nies as far north aa the forty-first degree. The aecond 
charter of 1609 fixed their northern boundary at two hund- 
red miles north of Point Comfort, or about the fortieth par- 
allel of latitude. The Plymouth Company continued to 
enjoy a nominal existence for eleven years longer, under 
their first charter ; but, though Smith and Gorges several 
times during that period endeavored to form new settle- 
ments, not a single English colony was permanently plant- 
ed north of Virginia, until 1630. 

Meanwhile, Prance had continued to look across the At- w^^r 

' Slfacbey, ITB, !8 

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K; history of the state of new YORK. 

CHif. I. laiitio. Nearly eighty years after Verazzano had reported 

to Franck I. the deep river he had found opening into "a 

most "beautiful lake,"* within the headlands forming the 
" Narrows," in New York harhor, and nearly seventy years 
after Cartier had fu'st ascended the Saint Lawrence, a com- 

1602. pS'iy of merchants was organized at E,o«eii, to develop the 
resources of Canada. An expedition was soon fitted out, 
under the command of the Sieur du Pont Grave, a wealthy 
merchant of Saint Malo, who had already made several 
voyages to Tadoussac, at the mouth of the deep and gloomy 

and chiin> Saguenay. By command of the king, Pont G-rav^ was 

Sjb. accompanied by Samuel de Champlain, of Saint Onge, a 

captain in the French navy, who had just before return- 

1603. ed from the West Indies. Early in 1603, Pont Grav6 and 
Champlain reached Tadoussac, where leaving their ships 
to trade with the natives for peltries, they pushed Wdly 
up the Saint Lawrence in a small skiff vrith five sailors, 
following the track of Cartier- as far as the Sault de Saint 
Louis at Montreal. t On thoir return to France, they found 

H Novcmii. that Henry IV. had granted to the Huguenot Sieur de 
Monts, one of his gentlemen of the hedchamher, who had 
D^M"5^ rendered him great services during the wars, a patent for 
Henry IV, planting a permanent colony in America, between the for- 
tieth and the forty-sixth degrees of north latitude.l: The 
king soon after granted to De Monts and his associates a 
monopoly of the fur trade in Acadia and the Gulf of Saint 
Lawrence. 5 
1604. I^ tli-G spring of the next year, a new expedition was 
TMircii. accordingly organized and dispatched from Dieppe. Pi- 
loted hy Champlain, and accompanied hy the Sieur de 
Poutrincourt, De Monts safely reached the shores of Aca- 
rouirin- dia. The beautiful harbor of Port Boyal, now Annapolis, 
ucmuni ai pleasing the taste of Poutrincourt, he obtained permission 
to establish himself there. De Monts, however, by Cham- 
cdon"""' pl^^^'^ advice, selecting for his own colony the island of 
^"' Saint Croix, in the river which now divides Maine from 

• " BeHiasirao Lego j" see Vetaiiano'B 1 

p. 60, nuoiBd, njiit, p. a. t 

t Champlain, 12 ; Hazard, i., 45. t 

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New Brunswick, built a fort, and passed tlie winter there ; chip, i. 
and thus, " at a time when there existed no English sub- ~ 
jeets in America, the first permanent settlement was made 
in Canada during the year 1604."* 

But the situation of Saint Croix proving inconvenient, 1605. 
Do Monts, the next spring, transferred his diminished col- ^5'?!,*'^" 
ony to Port E,oyal ; and, sailing along the coasts of Maine ^If^ "^^ 
and Massachusetts, contemporaneously with "Weymouth, ^^"''"" 
he claimed for France the sovereignty of the country as 
far as Cape Maleharre. The following autumn he return- septomnei 
ed to Europe, leaving his colony in chaige of Pont Grave, 
as his lieutenant, who, with Champlain and Champdoro, 
received instructions to explore the adjacent territory more 
accurately, and trade among the hostile savages.t On his 
an al n F n De Monts entered into a new engage- 
n t th P ut ncourt, who, accompanied hy Marc Les- 
a h t tl 1 t n,t returned to Port Uoyal with welcome 1606. 
uppl J ta th dispirited colonists were about emhark- 
n f i n Tl e French cabins remamed at Acadia , 
d und 3 d is managpment the colony pioopered, 
untl t a up sed and broken up by Samuel Argall 
th a V n force, in 1613 Meanwhile, Henry IV , 

d by tl plamtb ot the French tradeii, and fisher- 

n n 1 1 prived of their accustomed privileges on 

tl t k 1 the monopoly which he had conferred ^^^°°*' 

on De Monts, to whom, however, he granted a small in- ^^| "("""'' 
deranity for his loss. But the king soon afterward ratified 1607. 
and confirmed, by his letters patent, the quiet possession 
of Port Royal to Poutcincourt.^ 

After four years absence, Champlain returned to champiain 
France, filled with the ambition of founding a French col- cmiadn. 
ony upon the River Saint Lawrence. Moved by Cham- 
plain's earnest representations. Be Monts succeeded in oh- 1608. 
taining from the king a new commission to plant a settle- 

I; Cbamplain, 60. 

tChmmphiin, 68-98; 


ho published, In l«09, 

his " HlBloire de la Moo"^re Ftance, 


t de Paris, no aulenr exact, et JBdicien 


cotaie, <iue d'en tctire rhiswi™. " 

Hosted by 



cu«r. I. ment in Canada, and a monopoly of the fur trade for one 
' year.* Two ships were promptly equipped at Honfleur, 
13 Aptu ^^^ dispatched, under the command of Champlain, to the 
Saint Lawrence. On the 3d of June, the expedition an- 
chored at Tadoussac. After a short delay, Champlain as- 
cended the great river, examining, as he went along, the 
shores on both sides, for the most appropriate spot on whioh 
Quebw to establish the future capital of New France. Finding 
a July. none " more commodious or better situated than the point 
of Quebec, so called by the savages," the rude founda- 
tions of a town were laid, near the spot where Cartier 
had pt^sed the winter about three quarters of a century be- 
fore.t For five dreary months the secluded colonists en- 
dured the inhospitable climate, and saw the face of nature 
all around continually covered with a deep snow. Abright 
spring again opened the streams ; and in the following 
summer, Champlain, accompanied by two of his country- 
men, boldly ascending the River itichelieu or Saurel with 
a war-pai'ty of Hurons and Algonquins on an expedition 
1609. i*gainst the Iroquois, gave victory to his allies by his Eu- 
M juij. ropean fire-arms, and discovered the beautiful lake on our 
Jf^""" . northeastern frontier, which will ever commemorate his 

illustrious name.t 
ThoDui.;!! "While England and France were thus quietly appropri- 
competiwra ating, by royal charters, nearly all the northern territory 
jinriiBh of the New World, a fresh competitor in American discov- 

* Cliiimpliiiii, 114, t Ibia-, 1I8-1S4. 

i GhamplaiD (sdU.PaAs, lG3a),pa^ US, Blales thnc on llie n^lit of July 89, 1009, hlE 

[lie point of a capa wbleh runs onl Liilo Iho lake from llie west Gide." The Bnemy barrl- 

at Ihe haid of the imaflers, kiUecl two of the Iroquois cliieft vrtth a discUorge ofhis arque- 
buse, and pot their frightened followsts to flight. Ha adds (p. ISB), that '■ llie place wbata 

it' the Lake of Champliun." Co lite map wlucb aiKompanies Mb work, Champlain marks 

" a smell lake by wbleh one geea la Ihe Iroquois, alter haiing passed that of Champlidn," 
These pBitieulors seem 10 identify Tjcondetoga, in BaaeK county, as the Epot wheia the 

Yorli, Champlain dlstimjliy sWles UiBt he " alterwaid" mw Ihe " walarfall" or outlet of 
George, was first named " Salm Saerement," hy the Jesuit Father Jogues, in 164B. Trans- 
See also Tales and Moullon's Hialorj of New York, i., 117-161. 

Hosted by 



ery suddenly appeared, to divide with them the magnifi- cmr. i. 
cent prize. The red flag of England waved over Virginia, 
and tiie white hanner of France floated over Canada, aa the 
tricolor of a new nation was first unexpectedly displayed 
in the unknown intermediate region.* 

A generation of men had lived to see a powerful repuh- 1579. 
lie result from the confederation at Utrecht of the North- p^vmcea'' 
em Provinces of the Netherlands against the bigotry and erim^sT ' 
despotism of Spain. These provinces, whose whole popu- 
lation scarcely exceeded two raillions of souls, animated 
by a spirit which Sir Philip Sydney said io Q,ueen Eliz- 
abeth, "is the spirit of God, and is invincible," after a 
long and desperate conflict against a powerful adversary, 
finally ti-iumphed over their vindictive oppressor, and com- 1609, 
polled hhn to acknowledge their independence and sover- ^ ^i"^' 

The "Union of Utrecht," or^inally a league which 
bound the provinces together for mutual deforce and pro- 
tection, became the Constitution of a Confederated Repub- Their re- 
lic. This Constitution, though complex and not entirely cobbh™- 
popular, was nevertheless a decided and memorable step 
in human progress ; and it enabled the Dutch to establish 
and maintain a system of universal toleration, which, while 
contributing materially to the freedom of their own coun- 
try, made it an inviting asylum for the oppressed of other 

Providence early indicated to that singular country her Maritime 
destiny. While foreign despotic power inflamed the pa- Holland, 
triotism of her people, and forced them to struggle for civ- 
il and religious freedom, the natural disadvantages of 
her geographical position stimulated their enterprise, and 

* The nutional ensign of 

the United Pi 

-ovinces was adopted about the 

year 1582, at 


auggeBlior of William I., pi 

colors, orange, white, gnd 

blue, errang 

ed in three equal horlioota! sli 

fipBS, After 


death of Willism U. (1650) 

, a red stripe 

ensign, at lliepreaem day, 

temaioa wlu 



Soraprong del 

1 1 bMI inyatiably use the lerm " Out 

■CH," In its legHimwe English m 


eioliBJTely to the inhabits 

nta of tbe Sev 

en Vnited Ptoyincea of the Neib 


immitled in applying the naoB' 



in "Germans; 

," to the people of Germany in g 


Hosted by 



ciui-. I. taught them continual lessons of perseverance. A vast 
~7r~~ morass, protruding into the sea, and formed by the accu- 
■ mulations which the Rhine continually hrings down from 
the foot of the Alps, the Low Countries are only aaved from 
the encroaching ocean hy the ceaseless and irrepressible 
energy of their inhabitants. But the very ocean, which 
the untiring industry of the Dutch drives back from, their 
narrow shores, was destined to be their widest scene of 
triumph, and their open avenue to wealth, A few fisher- 
men's huts at the moutb of the Amstei, at a period when 
the cities of Flanders had attained celebrity, soon became 
the "Venice of the Worth ;" the sea, subdued by skillful 
toil, flowed quietly through her splendid canals, and 
brought treasures from the ends of the earth to the very 
doors of her cosmopolitan burghers ; and crowded streets, 
and rich warehouses, and stately palaces, and magnificent 
churches, usurped the ancient abode of the stork and the 
heron. Well might Fenelon describe the Tyre of his day 
as the " queen of all the seas."* 

Energetic, undaunted, and persevering at home, the 
Dutch could not fail to push their enterprising ooramorcc 
Thewsyofinto cvery zone. The very legend on their earliest coin- 
'■iaiho age predicted, in holy words borrowed from the Vulgate, 
the maritime destiny of that people, whose " way is in the 
sea," and whose " paths are in many waters."t Accus- 
tomed from childhood to play fearlessly with the waves, 
the natives of Holland and Zealand were foremost in ad- 
venture ; and the capital of the merchants of Amsterdam 
and Middleburg found abundant employment for the hardy 
crews which their own cities readily fm-niahod. Even 
while its poUtical existence was yet uncertain, the upstart 
repubhc " grasped the whole commerce of the world as its 

* " Celte granaa viHe sembla noger au-deasus ties eaui, el *tte la reine de lonl La met. 

leB pine Araeax maichands qu'il y ait dans I'lmlvera. Quaod or enire dans cette Title on 
eroLt d'abord que ce n'esl point nne viLlo qui apparlieono i un penplB parlLonlier, mais 

Hosted by 



portion, and tlms supplied itself with resources for a stiiig- CH*r. i. 
gle which was longer and more desperate than that of -„ ,~ 
Greece with Persia."* ^^^^■ 

While Charles V. was yet their sovereign, the Dutch ap- 
pear to have become familiar with part of the New "World, Eariy voj- 
which the Pontiff had granted, aa a perpetual donation, to 
the kings of Spain. But the Eevolution, which followed 
the accession of Philip II., interrupted for awhile the dis- 
tant voyages of the insurgent Batavians.t The same sum- 
mer that the United Provinces declared their independence 
of Spain, Thomas Buts, an English captain, who had five 
times visited the Spanish American islands, proposed to 1581. 
the states of Holland to conduct an expedition to the West '" ^""'** 
Indies. But though the projected adventure seems to have 
been viewed with favor, no results are reoorded. All the 
while, commerce flourished at home; and in spite of edicts, 
the Dutch maintained the command of the nearer seas. 1585. 
One thousand new vessels were annually built in Holland. 
Prom the Cape de Verd Islands to the White Sea, a profit- hoo.p cum- 
able coasting trade was carried on ; out of the Vlie alone uie Dmcu. 
sailed nearly six hundred ships, in one year, to bring com 1587. 
from the Baltic. Before long, William Usselincx, a native 
of Antwerp, who had spent many years in Castile, Portu- 
gaU, and the Azores, suggested the advantage of an associ- 1591. 
ation for trading to the West Indies. The views of Usse- 
lincx were listened to with respect, but his counsels were 
not immediately followed. Yet they were not without 
their effect. A few years afterward, Grerrit Bicker Pctevs- 
zoon, of Amsterdam, and Jan ComeliazoonLeycn, of Enck-VoyaEcsio 
huyson, under the patronage of the States of Holland, infl'es. 
organized separate companies for the "West India trade. 1597. 
Their enterprise was the forerunner of eventual success.? 
Meanwhile, the Dutch, sharing largely in the carrying 
trade of Europe, had sought distant regions for a more lu- 
crative traffic. In 1594, Cornelius Houtman, the son of a 

» Heeren. t Sir John Carr on the Commeree of Ite DntcJi. 

t VanMelEien,iiii„260,Ml; i:iY.,BB3,3a4; iii:.,419; Wagenattr, JmM., i., 407, «8, 

Dusseii), Bydraeen HI de GeaeniBiaiUa ooicr KoloniMXle in Koord Amerita, A., S-7. 

Hosted by 



ch*p.i. trewer of Gouda, returning from Lisbon, where he had 
~~~~~ spent the previous year, brought back tempting accounts 
of the gorgeous products of the East, which he Iiad seen 
crowding the quays of the Tagus. His glowing descrip- 
tions provoked emulation ; and nine merchants of Am- 
sterdam, forming an association, equipped a flotilla of four 
ships, equally fitted for war and for trade, of which Hout- 
MM loUe ^^^ undertook the command . Following the track of the 
EMiin- Portuguese, he doubled the Cape of Good Hope, and in two 
1596. years returned to Amsterdam with rich cargoes of Eastern 
products.* And thus began the marvelous Indian com- 
merce of the Dutch, The edicts of Philip could not ex- 
clude the independent Netherlanders from the free navi- 
gation of the seas. Thenceforth they determined to vindi- 
cate, by force of arms, their right to participate freely in 
that commerce which despotic selfishness was vainly at- 
tempting to monopolize. The privateers of the Batavian 
Provinces were every where victorious ; and the ware- 
1598. houses of their owners were soon filled with the choicest 
iiiJnn-"^pi«l"<'tions of the Indies, and ornamented with the ensigns 
ih^E^!" of the conquered galleons of Spain. And while the cir- 
cuitous voyage round the Cape of Good Hope thus gave 
ample returns, mercantile enterprise sought shorter ave- 
nues to the East. "Under the influence of the vigorous 
Balthazar Moucheron, of Middlehurg, expeditions were dis- 
1594. patched from Zealand and HoUand to explore a more direct 
passage to China, and Cathay or Japan, by way of Nova 
M^ 'se?* Zembla and the Polar Seas. Again, and a tliird time, un- 
1595-6. successful attempts were repeated ; and the daring enter- 
prise, in which Barentsen, Comelissen, and Heemskerk en- 
dured almost unparalleled trials, and won a renown as last- 
ing as that of WiUoughhy or Davis, was at length aban- 
doned in despair.t 
1600. The wealth of the East, which soon began to pour into 
Holland, naturally produced competition among the partic- 
ipants in the open traffic. Influenced by the representa- 

• KichcBse dB la Hollande, i., 35 ; Van Meleren, iilll., S09. 

+ Van Meleren, xvliL., 371, 376 ; xls., 40t, 419 1 LambreclllaBn, 7, 8 ; Davlea, 11., 30O- 
SM, jas i Mnilkerk, A., IS, 10. 

Hosted by 



tions of tke merchants, who feared in an unrestrained rival- chaf, i. 
ry a diminution of theii individual profits, and looking also 
to the political advantages which the repuhlic itself might 
gain in its conflict with Spain, the States G-eneral now re- 
solved that the vaiious adventurers engaged in commerce 
with the East should be united in one corporate body. A 
charter waa accordingly granted in the spring of 1602, by 1602. 
which those merchants were incorporated for a period of '" " 
twenty-one years, under the name of the "East India tuc Doict 
Company," with a capita! of 6,600,000 of livres, the ex- company, 
elusive privilege of trading in the Eastern Seas beyond 
the Cape of Good Hope on the one side and the Straits of 
Magellan on the other, and large powers for conquest, col- 
onization, and government within those limits.* 

While this powerful commercial monopoly was covering 1607. 
the E astern Ocean with its fleets, and returning to its share- 
holders, in a single year, three fourths of their invested cap- 
italjt men's minds had been earnestly considering whether 
the "Western World might not also offer a tempting field 
for Dutch mercantile enterprise. "William "Usselinox, who 
had already suggested an association to trade in the West * wear in- 
Indies, was again among the most zealous to urge the im- ly^pro- 
mediate establishment of a company in the Netherlands, 
modeled after the one which had proved so successful in 
the East. He represented his project as an additional 
means of humbling their arrogant enemy on the very seas 
from which Philip was endeavoring to shut out the com- 
merce of the repuhlic ; and besides the mercantile advant- 
f^es which would result fi'om securing the traffic with 
those affluent regions, he pressed the higher motive of the 
conversion of their heathen inhabitants to the Christian 
faith. The proposals which TJsselincx circulated won gen- 
eral assent ; and, aided by the influence of Plancius, Lin- 
schoten, and other leading scholars and merchants of Hol- 
land and Zealand, an application was made to the States 

Hosted by 



ckai-. I. G-eneral for the incorporation of a " West India Company," 
to trade exclusively, for tiiii'ty-six years, to the coast of 
Africa, from the tropics to the Cape of Good Hope, and to 
iaiSmsi- America, from the Straits of Magellan to Newfountlland, 
Doned. g^j; j;]jQ Dutch government was now engaged in negotia- 
tions for a peace with gpain, which G-rotius and Eame- 
voldt feared the proposed charter might prejudice ; and the 
trace, which was finally concluded in 1609, suspended for 
several years any definite action on the subject.* 
jienry Meanwhile, a shorter passage to China and Cathay, by 

■.oyagm Way of the Worthem Seas, continued to be a favorite the- 
dontntta ory in England, as well as in Holland and Denmark. A 
company of wealthy and energetic men in London, not dis- 
couraged by the ill-luok of all previous efforts, determined 
to attempt again, in 1607, the enterprise in which so many 
others had failed. Contributing the necessary means for 
an expedition, they intraated the command to a skillfal 
and experienced mariner, Henry Hudson, a native of En- 
gland, and a friend of the famous Captain John Smith, who 
had just before sailed with the first colony for Yirginia, 
and whom, in boldness, energy, and perseverance Hudson 
strongly resembled. But the expedition was unsuccess- 

1608. fill, as was also a second voyage in the following year, and 
the London Company suspended further efforts.t 

Kot disheartened by his two failures, Hudson uow re- 

1609 , solved to go to Holland, in the hope of meeting there encour- 
""s'o'hoi- agement to attempt again the venturesome enterprise he 
""^ was so ambitious to achieve. He was not disappointed. 

His proposition to the East India Company, though opposed 
by the Zealand department, where Balthazar Moucheron's 
long experience in former fruitless voyages influenced his 
colleagues, found favor with the more liberal Amsterdam 
>i directors. By their orders, a yacht, or "Vlie-hoat, called 
u'the "Half Moon," belonging to the company, of forty 

Hosted by 



age, and manned fay a crew of twenty sailors, partly Dutoli cmi-. i. 
and partly English. The command was intrusted to Hud- 
son ; a Dutch " under-scMpper" or mat© was appointed ; 
and instructions were given to explore a passage to China 
hy the northeast or northwest.* 

The Half Moon left Amsterdam on the fourth of April, 
1609, and on the sixth took her departure from the Texel. J af"- 
Doubling the Cape of Norway on the fifth of May, Hudson ^"^'*™ 
found the sea so full of ice, that he was ohliged to aban- 
don hia purpose of penetrating eastward of Nova Zemhla. 
Some of his motley crew, who had heen used only to the 
East India service, could ill endure the severity of the cold, 
and now began to murmur. Upon this, Hudson proposed 
to them two alternatives. The first was to sail directly 
to America, in about latitude 40°, where, according to the 
letters and charts which Smith had sent him from Yir- 
ginia, he would find a sea affording a passage to the East 
round the English colony. The other proposition was to 
penetrate westward, through Davis's Straits ; and this be- 
ing generally approved, Hudson sailed toward the island 
of Faro, where he arrived on the last of May, and remain- 3i May. 
ed a day to water. Thence he stretched westward across 
the Atlantic ; hut failing to see the islands which Frobish- 
er's ships had visited in 1578, he shaped his course for 
Newfoundland. After a stormy and perilous voyage, in 
which he lost his foremast overboard, Hudson arrived, ear- 
ly in July, on the Banks, where he was becalmed long 
enough to catch more cod than his " small store of salt" 
could em'e. He then stood further to the west, and lun- 

aietilam. A ■' Viic-boat" is so called from lis Iwlng luilt esptoasly ittr ihe difilciilt navi- 

UBoally of about one Imndred toua burden. The namef els well as tiie model of lliia Dutch 
craft, was soon adopted In other countries. The French called it " Flibot {" the Engllsb, 
" Fly-hooi ;" and the Spanlatda, " Flibols." Some of our wrilera hare, nnlbrtunalelj, id- 
lered the hiatotical name of ilie "Half Moon" to ilm fhncjflil name of the "CreHcanl." 
Hadean's veasel waa really called hy her owners " de HaWe-Maan," and not " do Waa- 
sende-Maan," of which lallar phrase only Is " Creaoeni" the proper EagllBh equivalent, 

• Van Meteren, xul., 674 ; N, Y. H. S. Coll., H. (second series), 3e&-3TD ; Lsmbreisht- 
sen, S, ID, and in N. Y. H. S, Coll., 1. (seeood series), 84, BS ; Uuillierk, 18, 19. Robert 

Hosted by 



ch^p. r. ning along the coast of Nova Scotia, arrived at Penobscot 
Bay, where he remained a week, cutting a new foremaat 
18 July. ^^^ mending liis tattered rigging. "While there, he was 
Pontfbsmi ^i***! ^J two French-tuilt shallops full of Indians, some 
"'>■ of whom even "spake some words of French," and pro- 
posed to traffic. But Hudson, suspicious of his visitors, 
kept a vigilant watch ; while a part of his ship's compa- 
ny seized one of the shallops, with which they landed, and 
wantonly despoiled the eahins of the friendly natives. 
Fearing tliat the lawless conduct of his turhulent crew 
sc Jinr might provoke retaliation, Hudson set sail the next day to 
the southward, and kept at sea for a week, until he made 
3 Auj!U(it. the land again, and sent his shallop in to sound the shore. 
The next morning he anchored at the northern end of a 
headland, where his hoat'a crew landed, and found the na- 
tives rejoicing to see them. Supposing it to he an un- 
known island, Hudson named the region New Holland, 
in honor of his patrons' fatherland. But after trying in 
vain to find an opening to the westward, he put ahout, and 
Atcupo passing the southern headland, which he now perceived 
was the one which Gosnold had discovered in 1602 and 
named " Cape Cod," he stood off to sea again toward the 
le AofUEi. In a fortnight Hudson arrived off the mouth of the Ches- 
apeake Bay, which he recognized as "the entrance into 
AtiiiB the King's River in Virginia, where our Englishmen are." 
^pMof iho -gj^^ ^j^^ temptation to meet his fciend Smith, who, disguat- 
^™ '■ ed with the distractions in the colony at Jamestown, and 
maimed hy accidental wounds, was preparing to return to 
England, did not divert Hudson Irom the great ohject of 
hia voyage. Contenting himself with a few soundings, he 
stood again to sea, and passing nort,hward along the coast 
aa Augusi. of Maryland, he ran into a " great hay with rivers" — aft- 
dL^covera crward called the " South Eiver," and " New Port May" 
Mawa"" hy the Dutch, and "Delaware" hy the English — where 
°''' the Half Moon anchored,* 

Hosted by 



Finding tlie navigation so difficult, that "he that will ch«p. i. 
thoroughly discover this great hay must have a small pin- 
naoe that muat draw but foui or five feet water, to sound 
hefore him," Hudson stood out to sea again, and, running 
northwBjd several days along a low sandy coast, with 
" broken islands," arrived, on the evening of the second of a sepi. 
September, in sight of the " high hills" of Navesinok, then, 
as now, " a very good land to fall in vnth, and a pleasant 
land to see." The next morning he sailed onward until s sepi 
he came to " three great rivers," the most northerly of 
which he attempted, to enter, but was prevented by the 
" very shoal bar before it."* So, sending his boat before 
him to sound the way, he went in past Sandy Hook, and 
on the evening of the third of Septemher, 1609, anchored AncLoia in 
the Half Moon in the bay, where the waters were alive Hook Ba,. 
with fish.t 

For a week Hudson hngered in the lower bay, admiring Hudson m 
the " goodly oaks" which garnished the neighboring shores, aej. 
and holding frequent intercourse with the native savages 
of Monniruth in New Jer ey The Half Moon was visit- 
ed m letuin b) the viondeimg Indians, who flocked on 
hoard the stiange \e'-bel, cbthed with mantles of feath- 
ers and lobes of fnr and adorned with rude copper neck- 
laces Meanwhile i boats crew was sent to sound theesept 
n\er which opened to the northward. Passing through 
the NairoM s they found % noble harbor, with " very good 
ridmg for ships A little further on, they came to " the 
Kills," between Staten Island and Bergen Neck, " a narrow 
river to the westward, between two islands." The lands 

New Port May, alter Cornelia Jacoliaen May, of Hoorn, Many of our wrilera assert IJiat 
Lord Delaworr louchod at this hay, on liia way to Virginia io 1610. But libs ia an error. 
On Ihal occasion Lord Doliwart aalied by way of the Weat Indies, and approached Vir- 
ginia ttom Itie aonthward. Indeed, Ibere is no evidence tbal Lord Delaware ever saw tbe 

• Two ofllieae were, nodout)t,lhs Raritan and the Narrows; and Ibe third one, lo Ibe 
norlhnard, wilh the shoal bar hefiire it, probaljly aockaway Inlet. 

t " So we weighed and went in, and rode in five fathoms ooie ground, and saw many 
BaimoDB, and oiulleta, and rays very great. The height Is Ibrty degreea thirty mlDutea." 
TMs etalemeni in Jnel'a Journal agrees, very nearly, with the actual latilude of Sandy 
Hook, which is flirty degrees Iwenty-taght minutes. Doctor Mitehill, in N. Y. H. S. Coll., i.. 

Hosted by 



. en both side« were " as pleasant with grass, and flowers, 
~ ind goodly trees, as e\er they had seen, and very sweet 
■ imells came fiorn them." Six miles up this river they 
saw ' an open sea," now known as Newark Bay. In the 
evening, is tlie hoat was returning to the ship, the explor- 
ing party was set upon by two canoes full of savages ; and 
one of the English sailors, John Cohnan, was killed by an 
arrow shot in his throat. The next day Hudson buried, 
upon the adjacent beach, the comrade who had shared the 
dangers of his polar adventures, to become the first Eu- 
ropean victim of an Indian weapon in the placid waters he 
had now reached. To commemorate the event, Sandy 
Hook was named " Colman's Point." The ship was soon 
visited by oanoes full of native wai-riors ; but Hudson, sus- 
pecting their good faith, took two of the savages and "put 
red coats upon them," while the rest were not suffered to 

Cautiously sounding her way throi^h tlie lower bay, 
;the Half Moon at length "went into the river" past the 
Narrows, and anchored near the mouth of the Kills in "a 
very good harbor for all winds." The native savages came 
at once on board, " making show of love ;" but Hudson, 
remembering Colman's fate, " durst not trost them." The 
next morning twenty-eight canoes, " made of single hol- 
lowed trees," and crowded with men, women, and chil- 
dren, visited the yacht. But none were suffered to come 
on board, though their oysters and beans were gladly pur- 
chased. In the afternoon the Half Moon ran six miles 
further up ; and the crew were enraptured by the loveli- 
ness of the surrounding country. " It is as beautiful a 
land as one can tread upon," said Hudson, " and abounds 
in all kinds of excellent ship timber,"* 
^ The first of Europeans, Hudson now began to explore 
■■ the great river which stretched before him to the north, 
'■ opening, as he hoped, the way to the Eastern Seas. Slow- 
ly drifting upward with the flood-tide, he anchored over 
night just above Yonkers, in sight of " a high point of 

Hosted by 



land, which showed out" five leagues off to the north.* chip. i. 
The next day, a southeast wind carrying him rapidly np 
'lappan and Haverstraw Bays, and beyond the " strait" j^ gj,pj ' 
between Stony and Verplanok's Points, Hudson sailed on- 
ward through the majestic pass guarded by the frowning 
Donderberg, and at nightfall anchored his yacht near 
West Point, in the midst of the sublimest scenery of the 
" Matteawan"t Mountains. 

The next morning was misty until the sun arose, and is sept, 
the grandeur of the overhanging highlands was again re- 
vealed. A fair south wind sprung up as the weather be- 
came clear ; and wliile the Half Moon was getting under 
way, the two savages who had been detained captives on 
board at Sandy Hook, watching their opportunity, leaped 
out of a port-hole and swam ashore, acornftilly deriding 
the crew as the yacht sailed onward. A bright autumnal 
day succeeded the misty morning. Running sixty miles 
up along the varied shores which lined the deep channel, 
and delighted every moment with the ever-changing scen- 
ery, and the magnilicent virgin forests which clothed the 
river banks with their gorgeous autumnal hues, Hudson 
arrived, toward evening, opp<Bite the loftier " mountains The iiair 
which lie from the river's side,"t and anchored the Half caiskiii. 
Moon near Catskill landing, where he found a " very lov- 
ing people and very old men." 

The friendly natives flocked on board the yacht, as she lo sept, 
remained lazily at anchor the next morning, and brought 
the crew " ears of Indian corn, and pumpkins, and tobac- 
co," which were readily bought " for trifles." In the aft- 

' The North Rivet 


: aftPtward i 



own lendmatk, 

just north 




. It Is al 

hundred Ret bigb, mi 

iu name becanee ii 

■ long in t 

light of tke 

Ing aloopa «t 

(btmeidaya. The «, 


ve, Is stil 

lUouEh o 

at muine mo 



Indian name 

ighlanda, aa 


to SpaKbril, 

, and Moulion, i 



," ot CM> 

ikill Moontal 

most eloTa 

ige along 

1 eisht milee 


and extend 


. ofSangertic 


!t county, to 



Dlitude, i: 

ist point in 





High Peak," the nt 

jxl tn 1 


n oflt 

lurists, is a 

acres, or 



s ^aut 3314 


tre .b= rive 


eiity mil* 


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. ernoon, Hudson went six miles further up the river, and 
~ anchored over night near the marshes ■whioh divide the 
■ channel, opposite the flourishing city which now bears his 
name. Early the next morning he set sail again, and 
slowly working his way through the shoaling channel and 
among the " small islands" which emharrassed navigation, 
anchored, toward evening, ahout eighteen miles further 
up, between Schodac and Castleton. 

Here the Half Moon remained at anchor all the next 
day. In the afternoon, Hudson went ashore "with an old 
savage, a governor of the country, who carried him to his 
house and made hira good cheer." The visit is graphic- 
ally described in the original Journal preserved by De 
Laet. "I sailed to the shore," says Hudson, "in one of 
their canoes, with an old man who was the chief of a tribe 
consisting of forty men and seventeen women. These I 
saw there, m a house well constructed of oak bark, and cir- 
cular in shape, so that it had the appearance of being built 
with an arched roof. It contained a great quantity of 
maize or Indian com, and beans of the last year's growth ; 
and there lay near the house, for the purpose of drying, 
enough to load three ships, besides what was growing in 
the fields. On our coming into the house, two mats were 
spread out to sit upon, and some food was immediately 
served in woll-made red wooden howls. Two men were 
also dispatched at once, with bows and arrows, in quest of 
game, who soon brought in a pair of pigeons which they 
had shot. They likewise killed a fat dog, and skinned it 
in great haste, vrith shells which they had got out of the 
water. They supposed that I would remain vrith them 
for the night ; hut I returned, after a short time, on board 
the ship. The land is the finest for cultivation that I ever 
in my life set foot upon, and it also abounds in trees of ev- 
ery description. These natives are a very good people ; 
for when they saw that I would not remain, they supposed 
that I was afraid of their bovra ; and, taking their arrows, 
they broke them in pieces and threw them into the fire."* 

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With the early flood-tide on the following morning, the ch.p. i. 
Half Moon " ran higher up, two leagues ahove the shoals," '" Ij'"" 
and anchored in deep water, near the site of the present ^g g^^^^ 
city of Albany, The people of the country oame flocking liaon^'k^ 
on hoard, and brought grapes and pumpkins, and heaver'^"*'' 
and otter skina, which were purchased for heads, knives, 
and hatohcts. Here the yacht lingered several days. The 
carpenter went ashore, and made a new foreyard; while ai scpi, 
Hudson and his mate, "determined to try some of the 
chief men of the country, whether they had any treachery 
in them," took them down into the Half Moon's cabin, and 
" gave them so much wine and aqua vit<B that they were 
all merry." An old Indian, stupefied with drinlc, remain- 
ed on board to the amazement of his simple countrymen, 
who "could not tell how to take it." The traditions of Re»eion 
the aborigines yet preserve the memory of this first revel,* 
which was followed, the next day, by another visit from 
the reassured savages, one of whose chiefs, addressing Hud- 
son, "made an oration, and showed him all the country 
round about," 

Every thing now seemed to indicate that the Half Moon End or tn. 
had reached the head of ship navigation. The downward 'oj- age. 
current was ftesh and clear, the shoaling channel was nar- 
row and obstructed ; yet Hudson, unwilling, perhaps, to 
abandon his long-oherjshod hope, dispatched the mate, with aa stpt. 
a boat's crew, to sound the river higher up. After going 
" eight or nine leagues" further — probably to some dis- 
tance above "Waterford — and iinding " but seven feet wa- 


aDmebdwn. Onihoo 


SI expressly slate 






son's own Jour 

nal, me passage V) 



a. The place whoraE 

udeon landed ts 

Slated by Be Laot 


in taii- 

tiiae4a°18'. This would aeom 


tlx niLlea 

above the ptosam eUy oflludson 

whichisinl*"M'. BuUalLtudes were n 




careful compnlail 


nccs run 

by ihe I 

n Joet's log-boo 




e landing nccurred, Hlie 

npBix leagues higher" IhanH 



M CaBtl«on. 


among the Iroquois or Six Nation 

J dlBllnclly preaeryed, of 

Dr. Mllief 8 DLh 





p. 3i ; Hecheweldor, in 

Moidlon's N. 1 






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UiiAF. I. ter, and inconstant soundings," the exploring party return- 

— ed late at mght, and rpported that they had " found it to 

■ be at an end for shipping to go in."* 

iiuds™ re- Hud-ion now reluctantly prepared to return. His ascent 

ihs ri'cr, o£ the rivei had occupied eleven days ; his descent con- 

33 scpi. sumed as many more. Bidding adieu to the friendly sav- 

ages among whom he had tarried so pleasantly, and slow- 
ly descending the difficult chamiel for nine or ten leagues, 
-ii suiir. he ran aground again, the next afternoon, on the " bank 
of ooze in the middle of the river," opposite the present city 
of Hudson. Here he remained wind-bound for two days, 
which were occupied in wooding the vessel, and in visit- 
86 sepi, ing the neighboring shores. While the yacht was lying at 
anchor, two canoes full of savages came up the river six 
miles from Catskill, where the crew had "first found lov- 
ing people" on their upward voyage. In one of these oa- 
noes was the old man who had reveled on board the Half 
Moon " at the other place," and who had followed by land 
the yacht's progress down the river. He now brought 
" another old man with him," who gave " stropes of beads" 
to Hudson, and "showed him all tJie countiy thereabout, 
as though it were at his command." The visitors were 
kindly entertained ; and as they departed, made signs that 
the Europeans, who were now within two leagues of their 
dwelling-place, " should come down to them." 

But the persuasions of the friendly old chief were of no 
a; scpi. avail. Weighing anchor the next day with a fair north 
wind, Hudson ran down the river eighteen miles, past the 
wigwams of the "loving people" at Catskill, who were 
"very sorrowful" for his departure, and toward evening 
anchored in deep water near Ked Hook, where part of the 
as scpi, crew went on shore to fish. The next two days were con- 
sumed in slowly working down to the " lower end of the 
long reach" below Pokeepsic, where the yacht was again 
visited by friendly Indians ; and then proceeding onward, 

* De Last, i» cap, tH., bIbWs Ihol HudBon eiplorea ilie rivBt " to nearly 43'' of noitli 
latitude, where it tecaniB bo narrow and of so Utflo flopiti, thai he tbund it necesaarj to 

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Hudson anchored in the evening under the northern edge ch*p, i. 
of the Highlands. Here he lay wind-honnd for a day, in 
a very good roadstead, admiring the magnificent mount- j^ g^.^,, ' 
ains, which looked to him " as if some metal or mineral 
were in them." 

Early the next morning a fair wind sprung up, and the i ottotei. 
Half Moon, sailing rapidly through the wmding Highlands, 
anchored, at noon, near Stony Point. Here some of the 
" people of the mountains" came on board, wondering at 
the "ship and weapons." The same afternoon, a thievish 
native, detected in pilfering some articles through the cab- 
in windows, was shot without mercy by the mate; and Indiana 
the stolen things were promptly recovered from the canoes stony 
of the frightened savages, who lost another life in their 
flight. This was the first Indian blood shed by Europeans 
on the North Eiver. After this sanguinary atonement had 
been exacted, the yacht dropped down two leagues further, 
through Haverstraw Bay to Teller's Point, near the mouth 
of the Croton. 

The next day, a brisk northwest wind carried the Half a ooioner 
Moon seven leagues further down, through Tappan Sea to 
the head of Manhattan Island, where one of the captive 
Indians, who had escaped from the yacht in the Highlands, 
on the upward voyage, came oif from tlie shore with many 
other savages. But Hudson, "perceiving their- intent," 
would suffer none of them to enter the vessel. Two ca- The Hotr 
noes fall of warriors then came under the stem, and shotiiioi"''ne 
a flight of arrows into the yaoht. A few muskets wereins'on. 
discharged in retaliation, and two or three of the assail- 
ants were killed. Some hundred Indians then assembled 
at the point near Fort Washington, to attack the Half 
Moon as she drifted slowly by ; but a faloon-shot killed 
two of them, " whereupon the rest fled into the woods." 
Agtun the assailants manned another canoe, and again the 
attack was repulsed by a falcon shot, which destroyed their 
frail bark; and so the savages "went their way," mourn- 
ing the loss ofnineof their warriors. The yacht then " got Hudson i 
down two leagues beyond that place," and anchored over Hotok™ 

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Chap.!, night " OH the other side of the river," in the tay near Ho- 

"~~"boken. Hard Ijy his anchorage, and upon "that side of 

' the river that is called Manna-hata" Hudson noticed that 

" there was a cliff that looked of the color of a white 

green."* Here he lay wind-hound the next day, and "savF 

iiUMiKT. no people to trouble" him. The following morning, just 
one month after his arrival at Sandy Hook, Hudson weigh- 
ed his anchor for the last time, and coming out of the 
" great mouth of the great river" into which he "had run 

sauafrom SO far," hc set all sail, and ateered off again into the main 

Sandy ° 

The Half Moon's company now held a council, and were 
of various minds. Thoy were in want of stores, and were 
not on good terms with each other, " which, if they had 
heen, they would have accomplished more." The Dutch 
mate wished to winter at Newfoundland, and then explore 
the northwest passage through Davis's Straits. But Hud- 
son, fearing his mutinous crew, who had lately begun to 
"threaten him savagely," opposed this proposition, and 
au^ested their immediate return to Holland. At last they 
The Hair all agreed to winter in Ireland. So they sailed eastward 
for a month, without seeing any land by the way, and on 
the seventh of November, 1609, arrived safely at Dart- 
mouth, in Devonshire. 

Thence Hudson immediately sent over an account of 
5 his voyage to the Duteh East India Company, at Amster- 
. ' dam, proposing to renew the search for the northwest pas- 
sage in the following spring, after refitting the Half Moon 
in England, and superseding several of the most turbulent 
of her crew. But contrary winds prevented his report 
from reaching Amsterdam for some time. When at length 
the East India directors heard of Hudson's arrival at Dart- 
mouth, they instructed him to return with his vessel to 
Holland as soon as possible. As he was about complying 

* The miDeraloglat may spenil an agreeable day In vlslllng this cliff, near the " Eiysian 

t See Juel's Joomal of Hadson's Uiird vnjage, in Purebas, and in I. N. Y. H. S. Coll., 
I.,ll)a-He; ondDeLaet, in second series of same ciii1eDti(ins,i.,SS9-3ie. An inUresUng 
analysis ofllie Half Moon's voyage up and down Hie rlTer, is in Sales andMonlton's HIa- 
toiy of New Yotk, -vol. i., p. 301-275. 

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with these orders early in tlie following year, he was ar- chaf. i. 
Htrarily forbidden to leave his native country by the En- 
glish authorities, who were jealous of the advantages j^^^ ' 
which the Dutch had gained by reason of Hudson's dis- 
coveries while in their service ; and the Half Moon was 
detained for several months, quietly at anchor in Dart- 
mouth harbor.* 

The American territory, which had thus been discover- ti« »»i.tii 
ed by the agents of the Dutch East India Company, though m Nof* 
included within James's first Virginia patent of 1606, was 
actually unoccupied, and unpossessed," by any ChriBtian 
prince or people." In the south, John Smith's exploring 
parties were visiting the upper waters of the Chesapeake, 
and far oif in the north the arquebuses of Samuel Cham- 
plain were dealing death to the aborigines on the " Lake 
of the Iroquois," when, with extraordinary coincidence, 
Henry Hudson was about piloting the first Eiiropean ves- 1609. 
sel through the unknown " River of the Mountains" which 
flowed between. No stranger but Terazzano seems to have 
passed the " Narrows" before those wondering mariners 
who navigated the Half Moon of Amsterdam up that ma- 
jestic stream, to which the assent of the world has given 
the name of its illustrious explorer.t All above was new 
and undiscovered. The lethargy of uncivihzed nature 
reigned throughout the undisturbed solitude. The wild 
game sprung from their famihar retreats, startled by the 

lorre, et lefut commandoment ie Be point panlr, na 

^eurs urcHiverent fOii strange, ie ix qa'on ne pel 
comptef et de ftdre rapport de Bon voyage el de qu'Q 1 

iiaTlgaUous. CeciB«'&eu Janvier. 1610. On esdi 

—Van Meleren,*xJi., 674, 675, edit. 1618. Emanuel Van Meleten, llie author of tiiis es- 
cellent Rietsiy of tlia Nethetlaula, was fbr many years Dutch cansui in England, and 
died in London, at tho age of seventy-esven, on the IStb of AprU, 1613. 

t It ia stated, indeed, in the " Report and AdvicB" prsgented by tha Chamber of Ac- 
omntG of the West India Company, oa the IMh of December, 1644, that Non Netherland, 
" atrelching ftom the Sonth Elver, sitnsted in thirty-eight and a half degrees, to Cape Mal- 
ebarte, in the latitude of Ibrty-one and a half degrees, was firsl visited by Ihe Inhabltann 
of this country, in the year 1S9S, and especially by those of Ibe Greenland Company, but 
nithont making Hied babitationa, and only as a rellige in tlie -ninter."— Holland Docu- 

me Hndson 6tait p 

r6t de partir 

■.i en Angle- 

rice 4 aa pa- 

ce que plu- 

IMt pas au patron 


en commnp de lojiles sortes de 


'oulaient en- 

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unusual echoes which rolled thr 1 tl an lent forests, 
~ as the roar of the first Dutch cann "b n I over the si- 
" lent waters, anii the first Dutcl tr p t hi v the inspir- 
ing national airs of the distant Fatl 1 d The simple 
Indiana, roaming unquestioned thr 1 tl native wood.s, 
which no sounding axe had yet hegun to le el, and pad- 
dUng their rude canoes along the base of the towering hills 
which lined tlie unexplored river's side, paused in solemn 
amazement, as' they heheld their strange visitor approach- 
ing ftom afar, and marveled whence the apparition came* 
Thus the triumphant flag of Holland was the harhinger 
of civilization along the banks of the great river of New 
York, The original purpose of the Half Moon's voyage 
had failed of accomplishment ; but why need Hudson re- 
pine ? He had not, indeed, discovered for his employers 
the long-sought passage ta the Ef^tern Seas ; hut he had 
led the way to the foi(ndation of a mighty state.t The at- 
tractive region to which accident had conducted the Am- 
sterdam yacht, soon became a colony of the Netherlands, 
where, for half a century, the sons and daughters of Hol- 
land established themselves securely under the ensign of 
the republic ; transplanted the doctrines of a Reformed 
faith ; and obeyed the jurisprudence which had governed 
their ancestors. In the progress of events, a superior pow- 
er took unjust possession of the land ; and nearly two hund- 
red years have rolled by since the change came to pass. 
Yet the hereditaiy attributes of its earliest settlers have 
always happily iniiuenoed the destinies of its blended com- 
munity ; and many of the noblest characteristics of its Ba- 
tavian pioneers have descended to the present day, rmim- 
paired by the long aseendeney of the red cross of Saint 
George, and only more brightly developed by the inter- 
mingling of the various races which soon chose its inviting 
territory for their home. 

The pictur^que shores, along which Hudson lingered 
■with enthusiastic delight — and the magnificence of which 

* See AppeadiXf nots B, 

-f 1850, woa 3.007,368; aSoul eyiai to that 
of Uie United Siaiss wlieii ttie Definitive Treaty of Peace waB aigned in 1783. 

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drew from liiiii tlic told eulogium, "it is as beautiful a d 
land as tho foot of man can tread upon" — ^have tecome the ~ 
favorite seat of elegance and refinement, and have witness- 
ed the resistless rise of " empire and of arts," The silent 
Uivor of the Mountains is now the highway of a hound- 
less traihe, and bears upon its bosom the teeming wealth 
which grand artificial channels, connecting it with the 
mediterranean seas of a broad continent, bring down to its 
tides, &om coasts of vast extent and illimitable resources. 
Swift steamers now crowd those waters, where Fulton's 
native genius first 

" by flame compelled the angry sea, 

To vapor rarefied, his bark to drive 

In triumph, proud, through the loud sounding surge ;" 

while the yet more " rapid car" rushes incessantly along 
the iron road which science, obeying the call of enterprise, 
has stretched along the river's bank. The rights and in- 
terests of millions are now secured by equal laws, ordain- 
ed by freely chosen agents, and enforced by the common 
consent. And whUe, at the head of tide-water, the political 
affairs of the oonimonwealth are watched and administer- 
ed, and the people declare their sovereign will, the ocean- 
washed island of Manhattan, at the river's mouth, is the 
cosmopolitan emporium of an eager commerce which whit- 
ens every sea. 

Hosted by 





cmp. ii. At the time of Hudson's grand discovery, tha United 
~~~ Netherlands had just talten the ranli of an independent 
«n ind^ nation. Eor more than forty years they had maintained 
^Bon*" ^"^ unequal strife against the tigotry and despotism of 
™«-ie^in ^P'^i^' ^■'i" confederation of the Provinces, in 1579, had 
iheir serv- heen foUowed, in 1581, hy the noblest political aot which 
the world had then ever witnessed — the declaration of their 
national independence. Q,neen Elizabeth, who had warm- 
ly espoused the cause of the revolted provinces the year be- 
fore the Union of Utrecht, formally opened diplomatic re- 
lations with the States General in 1585, and even sent 
troops to their succor, under tlio command of her favorite, 
the Earl of Leicester. In 1604, James I. not only re- 
ceived ambassadors fconi the states, but, in conjunction 
with Henry IV. of France, agreed to use his best eiforts to 
procure the recognition of their independence by Spain. 
A large number of the people of England, at the same time, 
were warmly in favor of an alliance with the Netherlands. 
The naturally unambitious character of the Dutch audtlie 
convenience of their country for trading, rendered them 
safe and profitable allies ; -while the difficulty of securing 
the English coast ftora their attacks, and the English mer- 
chant vessels from their privateers, would have rendered 
them equally mischievous and formidable enemies. Yet 
James himself, though he agreed to permit contingents of 
troops to be raised within his kingdom for their defense, 
heartily disliked the Dutch ; and the more so, because he 
found that the English soldiers who served in the Nether- 

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lands, returned home filled with notions of popular rights ch*p. ir. 
and civil liberty ■which they had imbibed in the repub- 
lican provinces.* But Providence had determined that 
the soldiery of England were to learn in Holland, during 
the reign of James, lessons in human freedom and govern- 
ment, which were soon afterward to receive a stern appli- 
cation in the reign of James's unfortunate son. 

Three years more of varied war, in which the success- 
os of Spinola's armies on land were splendidly overbalanced 
by the victories of the Dutch fleets at sea, and the King 
of Spain, wearied with an apparently interminable contest, 
which had baffled all his calculations, and nearly drained 
his treasury, sent ambassadors to the Hague early in 1607, 
to open negotiations for a peace with the Netherlands. 
But the Dutch were not yet unanimous for a ce^ation of 
hostilities. Since their triumphs over the Spaniards, they 
had begun to imbibe a spirit of ambition and conquest 
alieii to their former sober national chairacter ; and, from 
being patient traders and brave defenders of their country 
against invasion, they had. become adventurous and victo- 
rious aggressors. Perceiving these changes in the habits 
of the people, and fearing still greater and more inconven- 
ient modifications, Bameveldt, the Advocate of Holland, 
and many other patriotic statesmen, ardently wished for 
peace. But the clergy, who mistrusted the bigotry of Phil- 
ip, deemed an equitable treaty vrith Spain impracticable ; 
and the stadtholder, Prince Maurice of Nassau, naturally 
opposed the termination of a war in wliich he was gaining 
both laurels and emolument as general-in-chief. A large 
party sided v^-ith Maurice, urging that war was more safe 
and advantageous for the provinces than peace, which 
would, at any rate, throw out of employment vast num- 
bers of people ; and many of the merchants feared that 
with the end of hostilities the trade and commerce, which 
had been transferred to Amsterdam, would return to more 
commodiou sly-situated Antwerp. Fortunately the coun- 
sels of peace prevailed, and the negotiations which were 

Hosted by 



p. li. opened by the Spanish amlDE^sadors, requesting a tempora- 
ry truce, received unexpected emphasis from Heemskerk's 
' splendid victory over D'Avila, before Gibraltar, on the' 
twenty-fifth of April, 1607, But Philip, though he E^eed 
t« acknowledge the sovereignty and independence of the 
provinces, refused to grant them, by treaty, a freedom of 
tirade to India ; while the states, on the other hand, were 
determined, at all hazards, to insist upon their right to a 
commerce in which they employed upward of one hund- 
red and fifty ships and eight thousand men, and the an- 
nual returns of which were estimated at forty-three mill- 
ions of guilders. "Witb. the acknowledgment of their po- 
litical independence, they claimed the recognition of the 
consequence of independence — ^the free navigation of the 
seas. Upon this tender, point, the progress of the negotia- 
tions was arrested.* 

At length, after two years of discussion and vicissitude, 
the conferences which had kept Europe in suspense re- 
ptii. suited in the signing, at the Town Hall at Antwerp, on 
the ninth of April, 1609, of a truce for a term of twelve 
years, instead of a definitive peace. The fulfillment of the 
treaty was guaiunteed by England and France ; the United 
Netherlands were declared to be " free countries, provinces, 
and states," upon which Philip and the archdukes had no 
claim ; mutual freedom of trade between the contracting 
parties was established ; and, by a secret article, the King 
of Spain engaged to offer no interruption to the commerce 
of the Dutch with India. The truce, after being ratified 
by the archdukes at Brussels, and by the States Creneral, 
who were specially convened at Bergen-op-Zoom, wa^ pub- 
Aptii. licly proclaimed at Antwerp and the other chief towns of 
Flanders, amid deraonsfj'ations of universal joy, the ring- 
ing of bells, and salvos of artillery. The great bell at Ant- 
werp, which had not sounded for many years, was rung by 
twenty-four men, and its glad peal was heard twelve miles 
off, at Ordam and Lillo. The prieste ohaunted " Te Deum 

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Laudamua ;" the inhabitants of the towns promenaded ohap. ii. 
outside of the walls, like newly-liberated prisoners; and 
boat-loads of passengers came through the canals, from 
Zealand and Holland, to visit friends whom they had not 
seen for a long generation. But the now martial people 
of the Northern United Provinces tempered their triumph 
by a recollection of the sufferings which they and their 
fathers had undergone. The States General proclaimed a 
solemn fast ; and the day was rel^iously celebrated in all a m^j . 
the churches of the United Netherlands by hearty prayers 
" that the Provinces might be maintained and preserved in 
a firm union, amity, and ooiTespondence, under a properly 
authorized government."* 

By foreign nations, the publication of the truce was re- 
ceived vfith astonishment and admiration. They could 
scarcely persuade themselves that the haughty Spaniard 
could ever he forced to acknowledge the independence and 
sovereignty of his rebel subjects, and tacitly allow them a 
free trade to India. But no sooner had the ratifications 
of the treaty been exchanged, than the powers of Europe 
and Asia formed new estimates of the. resources of the 
Dutch, and of the wisdom and energy of their counsels, 
and immediately began to vie with each other in courting 
their alliance and invoking their support. Soon after the 
signature of the treaty, the States General sent the Sieur 
de SchoonewaUe on an embassy to England. The king 
received him at once "as ambassador of a free country 12 My. 
and state," and immediately commissioned his Master of 
E-equests, Sir Ralph Winwood, to reside in Holland as his 
ordinary ambassador. Thenceforward, the Dutch were 
universally esteemed " as a free and independent people. 
Having gained immortal honor by tlie magnanimity which 
they had displayed during the continuance of the war, 
they were now considered as having obtained the reward 

' Corps Dip., v., 99-101; OratinB,xyiii.,8l2; Van Meteren. sxi., fl08. Ths prmlamii- 
Oon by governmeni authoriiy, in thia stale, of days of faaiing ani days of thanksgiving, 

Netiierland imllaud Uie pious example of the Falberland, will be fbimd in the Iblloiving 

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oh^p. It. which their virtue merited, and were every where vespect- 
cd and admired. Their ministers at foreign courts were 
■ now received vrith the same distinction as those of other 
sovereign powers."* It is a somewhat singular coinci- 
dence, that the treaty was signed just three days after 
Hudson had sailed from the Texel on his voyage of dis- 
covery. So far, therefore, as England, France, and Spain 
were concerned, the nationality and sovereignty of the 
United Provinces were recognized with sufficient distinct- 
ness at the period of Hudson's voyage ; and the Dutch were 
certainly, from that time foi'ward, abundantly competent 
to take and enjoy any rights derived from discovery under 
the law of nations.t 
iiuiiBiin's Hudson him.-ielf, never revisited the pleasant lands he 
ioiira''^^''had discovered and extolled. The hardy mariner, still 
English intent on solving the problem of the northern passage to 
China, and prevented by the jealousy of English authority 
from leaving his native country to engage again in enter- 
prises for the benefit of foreigners, re-entered the, service 
of his early London patrons, and sailed from the Thames 
in " The Discovery," on his last and fetal voyage to the 
1610. north, in the spring of 1610. Passing Iceland, where he 
IT April, saw the famous Heola " cast out much fire," he doubled 
the southern Cape of Greenland, and penetrated through 
Davk'a Sti^aita into the vast and gloomy waters beyond. 
"While Hudson's recent companions in the Half Moon were, 
under another chief, renewing a happy intercovirse with 
the native savages along the River of the Mountains, the 
intrepid navigator himself was buffeting with arctic tem- 
pests, in fi-uitless efforts to explore the " labyrinth without 

en, iKsl., 862; WMson, ill., S 

■B ; Davles, i 



Pifl. Aon., S68, InlhnatcB doni 


, Bu 

It Ihlfl biased annai- 

ihongh a B 

tanflard aulhorily on manyjw 




caution in oil 

t ho writes 

wiUi reftrence 10 the early his 






HOB coDBUinUy led him hito bstIous mlsats 

«>m6nB in regard! 

.loos. The 

m York had 

inly not he, 

red" helbre 

Hudson's vnyage. Calot eaii 

1 nut atrictiy 


he said 


undlandl Of Euro- 

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end" in which he had become involved. At length, after chap. 11. 
spending a dreaiy winter of suffering and privation on the " 
frozen coast, he was basely abandoned by his mutinous 
crew on midsummer's day, 1611, in a forlorn shallop, in 1611. 
the midst of fields of ice, to perish miserably in that sullen Hudson's 
and inhospitable Bay, the undying name of which perpet- 
uates the memory of his inflexible daring.* 

The Half Moon having, as we have seen, been detained The nair 
eight months in England, did not reach Amsterdam, until '""is 10 
the summer of 1610, and the direotors of the East India d»m. 
Company, indisposed to continue efforts in a quarter which jj j,,, ' 
did not seem to promise the coveted passage to Cathay, 
and which was not strictly within the limits of their char- 
ter, took no further steps to make available the discoveries 
whioh their yacht had effected. t 

But, meanwhile, if the glowing account of the country nmch en- 
he had visited, wliich Hudson sent from England to hiscuert. 
Duteh patrons, corroborated by his companions in dbcov- 
ery, on the Half Moon's return to Amsterdam, did not at 
once induce active efforts to transfer to those pleasant re- 
gions permanent colonies from the over-populated Father- 
land, it did not fail to stimulate commercial adventure in 
a quarter which promised to yield large returns. 

Toward the end of the sixteenth century, in the midst 
of their war with Spain, the Dutch had opened a prosper- Tueir j\ir 
ous commerce at Archangel ; and, in 1604, they had ob- bhssio. 
tained from the Czar concessions of such a liberal charac- 
ter as to attract to that port from sixty to eighty Holland 
ships every year. From Archangel, their traders had in- 
tercourse with Novogorod and the great irdand towns, and 
carried on a large traffic in the furs of ancient Muscovy. 
The wise simplicity of the first Russian tariff laid a duty 
of five per cent, on all imported goods, and allowed an 

- K. Y.H.S. Coll., i., 146-168. 

t The subsequent csreer of the Half Moon nmy, perbaps, interesl Uie cndons. The 
smsll " ship boDli," befttte referreii 10, which I found, in 1841, in Uie company's ariiiTm 

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. equivalent amount to be exported duty fruc. Whoever ex- 
~ ported more than he imported, paid a duty of five per eent. 
■ on the difference.* 

A new temptation vras unexpectedly offered t-o the ex- 
panding commerce of Holland, Yast regions in North 
America, which Hudson had seen abounding in beaver 
and other valuable furs, and where native hunters, unre- 
strained by arbitrary regulations of excise, furnished ready 
and exhaustless cargoes, were now open to Dutch mercan- 
tile enterprise. The tempting opportunity was not neg- 
lected. Another vessel was immediately fitted out, and 
ji. dispatched from the Texel in the summer of 1610, to the 
great Uiver of the Mountains, witli a cargo of goods suit- 
able for traffic with the Indians. The new adventure was 
undertaken at the private risk of some merchants of Am- 
sterdam, t who, perhaps, as directors of the East India 
Company, had read Hudson's report to his Dutch employ- 
ers. The Half Moon had now just returned to Amster- 
dam after her long detention in England. A part of her 
old crew manned the new vessel, the command of which 
was probably intrusted to Hudson's Dutch mate, who had 
opposed his early return ;J and the experienced mariners 
soon revisited the savages on the great river, whom they 
n had left the autumn before. Tradition relates, that when 
the Europeans arrived again among the red men, "they 
«e. were much rejoiced at seeing each other."^ 

Meanwhile, the occupation of Yirginia by the English 
had become well known in Holland, and the States Gen- 
eral, through Caron, their ambassador at London, had even 
*a made overtures to the British government "for joining 
with them in that colony," A proposition had also been 
ng made to unite the East India trade of the two countries. 
But the statesmen of England would not favor either of 

* Richesae de la Hollande. 1., Sl;MoCuU8gli'8 Indusirial Hlsioty, il., 255. 

+ Be Laet, look HI., cap. tii, ; Albany Records, xilv., 167. It is scMeely neoessaiy to 
add, that Ibe slatemenla in Smilli's HiBlory at New Yoth, i., S, 3, respecting Hudaon 
Saving " sold the country, or rather liiB tight, 10 iha Dutch," Ac, are ntterly fcbuloua, 

f Hoi. Doe!, i.p'sii ; Heekswelder, In li. N. Y. H. S. Coll., 1., p. T3 ; and In Yates and 

Hosted by 




the Dutch projeots. They feared, they aaid, " that in case chip, n. 
of joining, if it be upon equal terraa, the art and industry „ "„~ 
of their people will wear out ours."* 

The theory of a northern passage to China hy way of tlo duicIi 
Nova Zerahla had continued, in the mean time, to heopimoci- 
warmly supported hy many learned men in Holland, nonuont 
Among these was Peter Planoiua, of Amatordani, who, like ctina, 
his contemporary Hakluyt, was distinguished no less as 
a clergyman than as a promoter of maritime enterprise. 
Plancius insisted that Heemskerk had lailed in 1596, be- 
cause he attempted to go through the Straits of "Weygat, 
instead of keeping to the north of the island. In compli- 
ance with Planoius's opinion, the States General, early in 
1611, directed that two vessels, the " Little Fox" and the 1611. 
" Little Crane," should be furnished with paasporfe for voy- ^' ^''''' 
ages to discover a northern passage to China. But the ice 
arrested the vessels long before they could reach the 80th 
. degree of latitude, to which they were ordered to proceed.t 

About the same time, Hendriok Chiistiaensen, of Cleef, ciiri=iiam. 
or Cleves, near Nymegen, returning to Holland from a voy- wyase'iu 
age to the West Indies, found himself in the neighborhood ™ ° ™ 
of the newly-discovered river, which the Dutch had already 
begun to call the " Mauritius," in honor of their stadthold- 
er, Prince Maurice, of Nassau. But deterred by the fear 
of losing his heavily-laden vessel, and remembering that a 
ship ftom Monichendam, in North Holland, had been cast 
away on that coast, Christiaensen did not venture into the 
river at that time, resei:ving the enterprise for a future oc- 
casion. On his arrival in Holland, Christiaensen, in com- ciiriaimrn 
pany with another " worthy" mariner, Adriaen Block, ac- blooi's 
cordingly chartered a ship, " with the schipper Ryser, and ngc- '" 

nwood (EnBliali ombaesodor at th' 

be will canfet with tlie States 

Indoatry of their people wiH 
i., 9M, T43 ; Neg. de JcBnnin, 

Hosted by 



i:si*p. 1!. accompliahed hia voyage thither, hringing laa^k with him 
two sons of the chiefs there."* 

The reports whicli the comrades made on their retnm 
to Holland, and the personal presence of the two young 
savages, named " Orson and Valentine," whom they had 
hrought over as specimens of the inhahitants of the New 
"World, added a &esh impulse to the awakened enterprise 
I'Qbucai- of the Dutch merchants. Public attention iu the Nether- 
Houaai lands soon hecame alive to the importance of the newly- 
' discovered regions in North America. A memorial upon 
the subject vras presented to the Provincial States of Hol- 
T scjji, land and West Friesland by " several merchants and in- 
habitants of the United Provinces ;" and it was judged of 
sufficient consequence to he formally communicated to 
the cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Hooin, and Enck- 
1612. The experience which Christiaensen and Block had now 
gained, naturally recommended them for further employ- 
ment. Thj'ee influential and enterprising merchants of 
Ships BEm Amsterdam, Hans Hongers, Paulus Pelgrom, and Lam- 
aierdamio hrccht Van Twcenhuyscn — of whom Hongers was a di- 
nndsr rcotor jn the East India Company — soon determined to 
sen and avail themselves of the favorable opportunity thus offered 
to their enterprise. Equipping two vessels, "the Fortune" 
and " the Tiger," they intrusted the respective commands 
to Christiaensen and to Block, and dispatched them to the 
island of Manhattan, to renew and continue their traffic 
with the savages along the Mauritius River. 

Other merchants in Worth Holland soon joined in the 
oiher Bbips trade. The " Little Fox," under the charge of Captain 
sem om. j^-^ -p^ "Witt, and the " Kightingale," under Captain Thya 
1613. Volokertson, were fitted out by the Witacns and other prom- 
inent merchants of Amsterdam ; while the owners of the 

IB prepared and pubUabed 

Hosted by 



ship "Fortune," of Hoorii — ^the city wliioh was soon to give cmr. u. 
its immortal name to the southern Cape of America — dis- 
patched their vessel, in charge of Captain Comelis Jacoh- 
aen May, to participate in the enterprise of their metropol- 
itan Mends, on tlie Mauritius River.* 

The admivahle oommeroial position of Manhattan Isl- commei. 
apd soon indicated it, hy common consent, as the proper ance of 
point whence tlie furs collected in the interior could be percaiveii. 
most readily shipped to HoUand. To secure the largest 
advantages from the Indian trafho, it was, nevertheless, 
perceived that inland depots would heoome indispensable. 
Thus, cargoes of furs could be collected during the winter, 
so as to be ready for shipment when the vessels had been 
refitted, after their arrival out in the spring. Manhattan 
Island, at tins time, was in a state of nature ; herbage was coodiiion 
wild and luxuriant; but no cattle browsed in its fertile Sba.° 
valleys, and the native deer had been almost exterminated 
by the Indians. The careful kindness of the Dutch mer- 
chants endeavored to remedy, as well as po^ible, the 
want of domestic animals for the use of their solitary trad- 
ers ; and Hendrick Christiaensen, by his ship-owners' di- 
rection, took along with him, in one of his voyages, a few 
goats and rabbits to multiply at Manhattan. But these 
animals — ^the first sent from Holland to New York — were 
soon poisoned by the wild verdure, to which they were un- 

Up to this time, the Dutch traders had pursued their Tho Dutcn 
lucrative traffic in peltry, without question or interruption, lualnfed 
No European vessels but theirs had yet visited the regions Swib w 
around the Mauritius Eiver. Their ships returned to Hoi- rw™. "' 
land freighted with large cargoes of valuable furs, which 

* Hoi. Doc, i., 89 ; Mniltark, A, M. Tlia " Littlo Foi" was ptobaljly Ihe BHme Tessel 
vrUcta had been sent 10 Hovs ZemblB in 1611. 

t Wessenaat, Ix., 44. It seems horn Wassenaar's nccount, (bal Ilie native epeeies <^ 
dogs, In Mew Metherland, vtaa qmte Hltiiil] ; fbr ntaen Lgmbredlt von Tweenbuysen, one 

(o nke ont «ilb him, ths Indians, conung on board the sblp, were rery mnch Blt:aid of 

tbey hod eier seen. The nansMLon in Doc, Hist, N, Y., ill., 40, In inaceurele. Van 
Tweenbuyaen gave the dog to his acbipper ; he visb nol a " echipper" blmseli; but a 
" reeder," or ship-owner, and he floes nol appear ever to bavfl Tiailed Manhattan. 

Hosted by 



i^iiAP. n. yielded cnonnoua profits to their owners. From Manhat- 
tan, small trading shallops were dispatched into the neigh- 
■ boring creeks and bayg of " Scheyiohhi," or New Jersey, 
and np the Mauritius E.iver, as far as the head of naviga- 
tion. The Dutch had been the first, and, hitherto, the only 
Europeans to visit the Indian tribes in these regions, with 
all of whom they had continued to maintain a friendly and 
cordial intercourse. But while the Holland mei'chants pro- 
moted new explorations, they do not appear, as yet, to have 
directed the construction of permanent defenses ; although 
it has been said that, " before the year 1614," one or two 
small forts were built on the river for the protection of the 
gi'owing peltry trade.* 
LoMi of By accident, Adriaen Block's ship, the Tiger, was burn- 
Khip and ed at Manhattan, while he was preparing to return to Hol- 
nyachiai Isjid. Undismayed by Ms misfortuue, the persevering mar- 
iner set about building a small yacht, out of the admirable 
ship timber with which the island abounded. This work 
occupied Block during the winter of 1618, and until the 
spring of 1614. To accommodate himself and his com- 
Firetcab. panlons during their cheerless solitude, a few huts were 
ihoiBiand. uow fiTst erected near the southern point of Manhattan 
Island ; and, in the absence of all succor from Holland, the 
friendly natives supplied the Dutch, through a dreaiy win- 
ter, " with food and all kinds of necessaries, "t 

pany say, Ibal " under Out 


1614, there were one or twi 

3 little IbrlB bnilt ibere, 

tind proTlded Willi 

fbr Ibe 

protection of Ibe liade."— H 

oLDos.,il,,138. DeLE 

.el, howevet, who wrote in 1634— ton 

j-ears before tl,eeon««o,ya 

memorial— dlslincllj ea 


w place he 

was built id !615.-De Lael, boel! iii., cap. Til., hi. 

For varionfl (esse 



near Albany; and that it w 


I. i Be Yrles, 181 ; " Breeden Raedt aen di 

c.,j.U,J5. Thislatle 

r very tare tract (fb 

r the .isa of which 



leputj librarian al t 


Ibr the itestUme quoted in 

onrhlelorj. The «ate. 

nent in Ibe Bteedei 

1 Eaedt, of 


were boiWlng anolhet new 

sblp, they (the Sim^es; 

1 aaaislad our people with fbod 

and all 

Knds Df necessaries, and p 

rovidod fbr Ibem, thnrngh two wbaeri, nnlil 

the ship 1 

ished." re Last, in his isi 

IM editions of 1633 and 

1640 (hook ill., cap. 

lives, "our people tema 

lued there during tc 

e Vries, 

ji the Breeden Haedt, thai BlMkbuUl 

hla yMhl *mV^ lie tWn/er, 


ionflrmed. That Ihe -vessel vu 


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The infant colony of Virginia had, meanwhile, suffered chip. n. 
strange vicissitudes, TJndei the seoond charter of King 
James, which passed the great seal early in 1609, Thomas yi,^i„j|i^f. 
Lord Delawarr was appointed governor for life ; Sir Thomas ^'Mnj, 
Gates, lieutenant governor ; Sir G-eorge Somers, admiral ; 
and Christopher Newport, vice-admiral. An expedition, 
consisting of nine vessels, was equipped and dispatched for 
Virginia, with five hundred emigrants, a few days hefore 
the charter was actually sealed. Lord Delawarr himself 15 May. 
did not leave England with the expedition ; but he dele- 
gated the command, in the interim, to G-ates, Somers, and 

"When near the end of their voyage, a hurricane sepa- 
rated the ship in which the three commissioners had em- 
barked from the rest of the squadron, and wrecked it on siiipwrerk 
Bermuda, t The remnant of the fleet reached Virginia to- du. 
ward the end of the summer ; and to avoid anarchy, John 11 Augusi. 
Smith, who had now been two years in the colony, assumed 
the chief coramimd, in the absence of the newly-commis- 
sioned officers, whose fate was yet unknown. But the new 
colonists consisted of " many unruly gallants, packed hither 
by their friends to escape ill destinies," Against every pos- 
sible discouragement, Smith resolutely maintained his au- 
thority, and his influence introduced something like order 
among the unruly emigrants. At length, an accidental ox- 
plosion of gunpowder, which mangled his person, disabled 
him from duty, and obliged him to return home for surgical 
aid. Disgusted at the opposition he had met with in the smiiii re- 
colony, which owed him so much, the " Father of Virginia" EiigUnri. 
delegated his authority to G-eorge Percy, and embarlced for oaober. 
England, a few weeks after Hudson had set sail for Eu- 
rope with the news of his grand discovery, 1^ 

In the mean time, Gates and his companions, who had 
been cast away on Bermuda, had subsisted upon the nat- 

dnrlng the winter of 1013, and was flniahed and nscd in Die spring of 1014, seema also ter- 
tsin ftom Ho). Doc., i.; W, 53. 

*SijiiUi,t„SS3! Furetns, iv., 1729, 

t Slracheir'a Btconm of Ihis Hliipwreck in Purolias,iT,, 1734, is supposed by Malom to 
be tliB fbondaiion of Shskapeare'e " Tempesi." Ttds opinion, iowovcr, has rocenQy been 

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Chip. II. uial produots of that fertile island, the luxuriance of which 
"~~~ afterward won from Waller the matchless panegyric, 
Galas sails " Heaven Sure has left tMs spot of earth uncura'd, 

™S ^to^' '^° show how all things were created first." 

I'lrginia. j)ui.ijig i]^^ autiimn and winter, with admirable persever- 
ance they constructed two small pinnaces out of the wreck 
of their old ship and the cedars which they felled on the 
island. After a nine months' sojourn in their delightfiil 
ahode, they emharked in these vessels, in the spring of 
1610. 1610, and in a few days arrived safely at Jamestown. 
^^ ^'"' But instead of a happy welcome, they met a scene of rais- 
Tiie"aiarv- ery, and famine, and death. The four hundred and ninety 
j.iVLiginia. persons whom Smith had left in the colony, haxJ, in six 
months, thi-ough vice and starvation, dwindled down to 
sixty. In their extremity of distress, they all now determ- 
ined to desert ¥irginia, and seek safety and food among 
the English fishermen at Newfoundland. Emharking in 
ejano. four pinnaces, the colonists hade adieu to Jamestown. 
" None dropped a tear, for none had enjoyed a day of hap- 
Arrival of But Unexpected relief was at hand. After nearly a 
warr. ycai's delay in England, Lord DelaWarr emharked at 
Cowea on the fii-st of April, 1610, and set sail for Virginia 
with three vessels laden with supplies. The squadron fol- 
lowed the old route, hy the roundabout way of Terceira and 
Gratiosa ; and, early in June, Lord Delawarr &st made the 
land "to the southward of the Chesapeake Bay." Running 

6 June, in toward the shore, he anchored over night at Cape Hen- 

7 jirne. ry? where he landed and set up a cross. The next morn- 

ing he sailed up the Chesapeake to Point Comfort, where 
he heard the sorrowful tale of "the starving time." At 
that very moment, the pinnaces conveying the remnant of 
the dispirited colony were slowly falling down the James 
River with the tide. The governor instantly dispatched a 
boat with letters to Gates announcing his arrival. The 

8 JiuM. next day, the pinnaces were met descending the river ; and 

Hosted by 



Gates immediately putting about, relanded his men the cmr. ii. 
same night at Jamestown. 

Lord Deiawarr soon arrived before the town with hisiuj„„e/ 
ship ; and, after a sermon "by the chaplain, cominenced the 
task of regenerating the colony. A council was sworn in ; 
" the evils of faction were heated by the unity of the ad- 
ministration, and the dignity and virtues of the governor ;" 
and the rejoicing colonists now began to attend to their 
duties with energy and good- will. To supply pressing ib Jnno. 
want, Sir Greorge Somers was promptly dispatched with somora and 
Samuel Argall, "a young sea-captain of coarse passions Jtrtieii'io 
and arbitrary temper," in two pinnaces, to procure fish and 
turtle at Bermuda.* 

After being a month at sea, the pinnaces parted com- 
pany in a fog ; and Argall, despairing of rejoining his com- 37 .tiiij-. 
rade, made the beat of his way haeic to Virginia. Falling 
in with Cape Cod, he sailed to the southward, and in aiOAu^^y,!- 
week found himself again within twelve leagues of the 
shore. Early the next morning, he anchored " in a very 57 aiujusi. 
great bay," where lie found " a great store of people which oigrem 
were very kind." The same evening, Argall sailed for the ^^^ 
Chesapeake, after naming the southern point of the bay in 
which he had anchored, " Cape La Warre." This Cape 
is now known as Cape Henlopen. The bay itself, which 
Hudson, in the Half Moon, had discovered just one year 
before, was soon commonly called by the English "Dela- 
warr's Bay," in honor of the Governor of Virginia ; but, 
notwithstanding received statements, there is no evidence Lord oeia- 
that Lord Deiawarr himself ever saw the waters which thwc him- 
now bear his name.t 

Prosperity at length began to smile on Virginia, But 
Lord Delawarr, finding his health sinking under the cares 
of his office and the effects of the climate, sailed for En- ^ Marcn. 
gland in the spring of 1611 ; and Gates having previously rMutosw 
returned to London, I the administration of the colonial gov- 

' Lort Delawarfa letter otllh of July, 161», in MS. Hari. Bril. Museum, 7008, ftil. Eg, 
printed by UieHsWuyt Society 1 Furohas, iv., 1T54 ; Bancroft,!., 141, 
t Argall's, 1761; Strachey'B Virginia Britannia, 43-, DcVries, 

Hosted by 



Chip. II, eminent Vt'os committed, during his absence, to Captain 
George Percy. Soon after Delawarr's departure, Sir Thom- 
■ as Daie, "a worthy and experienced soldier in the Low 
Countries," to whom, at the request of the Prince of Wales, 
aojannary.the States General had juat granted a three years' leave 
of absence from their service to go to Virginia,* arrived at 
aoMay. Jamestown, and assumed the government. Finding that 
the colony needed more assistance, ho wrote at once to 
England. Lord Delawarr, on his return home, confirmed 
Dale's accounts ; and, with unusual promptness, the coun- 
cil at London dispatched six ships to Virginia, with three 
hundred new emigrants and large supplies. 
AJminis- Sir Thomas Gates, who, like Dale, had served in the 
Gotca, Netherlands, and, in 1608, had heen allowed by the States 
General to resign the commission he held in Holland, " to 
take command in the country of Virginia, and to c 
the same,"t was now sent out with the new e 
invested with full authority as lieutenant governor, and 
August, arrived safely at Jamestown in August. Under his care- 
fid administration, the English settlements on the Chesa- 
peake rapidly prospered, and soon appeared to be iirmly 
1613. established. In 1;he summer of 1613, Captain Argali, who 
had been sworn by Lord Delawarr one of the colonial 
council, while on a fishing voyage from Virginia to Nova 
Argait OH Scotia, was overtaken by a storm, and driven ashore on the 
MoijiB. coast of Maine. Here he learned from the Indians that 
some French colonists had just arrived at the island of 
Mount Desert, a little to the eastward of the Penobscot. 
On this island, the Jesuit missionaries in the company, aft- 
er giving thanks to the Most High, had erected a cross, and 
celebrated a solemn mass. The island itself they had 
iiis pirouc- named "Saint Sauveur." Ascertaining the weakness of 
^i^^ ' the French, Argali hastened to their quiet retreat, and soon 
^nch' overpowered them hyhis superior force. De Thet,one of 
alios! ' the Jesuit fathers, was killed by a musket-ball ; several 
others were wounded ; " the or(ss round which the faith- 
ful had gathered was thrown down ;" and Argali returned 

Hosted by 



to Virginia with eighteen prisoners, and the plunder of a cii*p. 
peaceful colony, which the pious zeal of Madame de 
Gruercheville had sent to Araeiica to convert the savages 
to Christianity. 

Gates no sooner received the report of thia piratical ad- Areaii 
venture ofhis suhordinate, than, hy the advice of his coun- Mame^a 
oil, lie determined to undertake a new enterpriae against na. 
the French in Acadia, and destroy all their settlements 
south of the forty-sixth, degree of latitude. Three armed 
vessela were immediately dispatched, under the command 
of ArgaJl ; who, returning to the scene of hia former out- 
rage at Mount Desert, set up the arms of the King of En- 
gland, in place of the broken cross of the Jesuits. Aigall 
next visited St. Croix, and destroyed the remnants of De 
Monte' former settlement. Thence he sailed to Port Roy- 
al. Meeting no resistance there,. Argall loaded his ships 
with the spoil of the ruined town ; and having thus effect- 9 Nov. 
ed all his purposes, he returned to Virginia ahout the mid- 
dle of November.* 

The pretext under which Argall had been dispatched to Preiej 
gather inglorioua laurels on the coasts of Acadia, was the ai pro. 
alleged encroachment of the French settlers there upon the 
territory comprehended within James's sweeping grant, 
in 1606, to the London and Plymouth adventurers. Grates 
naturally leaned toward the most grasping interpretation 
of an instrument in which he was named first among the 
original grantees of an enormous monopoly. But James's 
patent, nevertheless, distinctly excepted from its purview 
all lands "possessed by any other Christian prince or peo- 
ple ;" and the French had unquestionably been in quiet 
possession of the neighborhood of Acadia two years before 
the first English charter passed the great seal. By his 
second charter of 1609, James had also expressly restrict- 
ed the Virginia Company's northern boundary to a line 
two hundred miles north of Point Comfort, or about the 
fortieth parallel of latitude. The predatory proceedings 
of Grates and Argall were, therefore, entirely unwan-anta- 

• Champlain, 101-11)9; LeBearliM ; Baneron, 1,, 148. 

Hosted by 



Chap. 11, Me ; and they were promptly resented by the court of 

France. As soon as inteiliaenoe of the outrage reached 

p^y^^jj-Europe, the French amhassador at London made a formal 
Frencham- Complaint to the English government. The privy council 
5^^" " immediately demanded explanations from the Virginia 
1614. Company ; who excused themselves by stating in reply, 
*'""""^'that they had received no information from Virginia " of 

any such misdemeanors."* 
1613. On his return voyage from Acadia to Virginia, late in 
November, November, Argall is said to have "landed at Manhatas 
Aiiegedvia-lsle, in Hudson's River," where, finding "four houses 
to Manual. buUt, and a pretended Dutch governor," he forced the Hol- 
landers to submit themselves to the King of England and 
to the government of Virginia. But this favorite story is 
very suspicious ; it is inconsistent with authentic state 
papers ; it has been deliberately pronounced to be " a pure 
fiction ;" and it certainly needs to be sustained by better 
authority than any that has yet been produced, before it 
can be received as an historical trt(th.t 
1614, In the spring of 1614, explorations began to be vigor- 
^chdis^^o'^^ly prosecuted around Manhattan, by the several trading 
cdvety. ycsscls which had been dispatched from Holland. Be "Witt, 
sailing up the Mauritius River, in the '* Little Fox," gave 
his name to one of the islands near E,ed Hook. May, in 
the " Fortune," coasting eastward, beyond the Visscher's 
Hook, or Montauk Point, visited a large "white and clay- 
ey" island, around v^hich Gosnold had sailed twelve years 
before. This island, the Indian name of which was Ca- 
packe, the Butch for awhile called "the Texel;" but it is 
now known as Martha's Vineyard.^ 

By this time, it was perceived that, to secure the larg- 
est return from the peltry trade, a factor should reside per- 
manently on the Mauritius Kiver, among the Maquaas, 
or Mohawks, and the Mahicans, at the head of tide-water. 

' Chttinplain, US 

Lond, Dqc, 


t S8<^App 


,eap,Ylll. OnV. 







Hosted by 



Hendrick Christiaensen, who, after his fast experiment in 
company with Adriaen Block, is stated to have made " ten 
voyages" to Manhattan, accordingly constructed a trading (,^, 
house on " Castle Island," at the west side of the river, af™J 
little below the present city of Albany. Ihis building, ™'j 
which was meant to combine the double purposes of a"'^"' 
warehouse and a military defense for the resident Dutch 
traders, was thirty-six feet long, by twenty-six feet wide, 
intjlosed by a stockade fifty-eight feet square, and the 
whole surrounded by a moat eighteen feet in width. To 
compliment the family of the stadtholder, the little post 
was immediately named " Fort Nassau." It was aimed 
with two large guns, and eleven swivels or patereros, and 
ganiaoiied by ten or twelve mep. " Hendrick Christiaen- 
sen first commanded here;" and, in his absence, Jacob 
Eelkens, formerly a clerk in the counting-house of an Am- 
sterdam merchant.* 

It has been confidently affirmed that the year after the No 
erection of Fort Nassaii, at Castle Island, a redoubt was 
also thrown up and fortified " on an elevated spot," near 
the southern point of Manhattan Island. But the assertion 
does not appear to be confirmed by sufficient authority .t 

Adriaen Block had, meanwhile, completed the building bii 
of his yacht, which he appropriately named the Otirust, yl 
or " Bestless." "With this small vessel, about sixteen tons 
in burden, and the first ever constructed by Europeans at 
Manhattan,^ Block proceeded to explore the bays and riv- 
ers to the eastward, into which the larger ships of the Dutch 


Mow Albany, and, after 1630, tfhs knonn as Vgn Bensselner'e, or Fntroon'9 Island. 
The rBt4a progress of Imptovemenl las, howevM, now nearly oblilerated to ftrmer insa- 
lu cliorBcter, onfl " anneiod" tc to tha ibtlvlng cafltal of out stals. 

t See Appendii, note F. 

t Ttie " ResUess" was fony-Ginr and a half feet long, eleven and a half f^et wide, and 
ofabonl eight lasts ot aiileen tons bntden.— De I^et, bonkili., cap. s.; Hoi. Doc, i., 53. 
Mr. Cooper, in his Naval History (L., p. 41), speaks of Block's yacht as "the tlrst decked 
vessel built within the old United States," Sntthe honor of precedence in Ameiican na- 
val arobitedure must, iiirly, be yielded to Popham's unflwtunalB colony on the Kenne- 
heck. Tbe "Virginia, of Sagadahoc," was tlie Clial European-buill vessel wilbin Ibe 
original Thirteen States— if Maine be considered as part of Massachusetts. Tlie " Rest- 
less, of Manliatlan," was (he pioneer craft of New York 

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(;hap, 11, traders had not yet ventured. Sailing boldly through the 
then dangeroiis strait of "the Hell-gate,"* into "the Great 
SiuiH Eay," or Long laland Sound, he carefully " explored all the 
jw™^io places thereahout," as far as Cape Cod. Coasting along 
iBiara""* the northern shore, inhahited by the Siwanoos, Block gave 
^uHTid ^j^g name of "Archipelagos" to the group of islands oppo- 
DiMoverg £,ite Norwaik, At the present town of Stratford, he visit- 
loiiic ed the " River of Roodenberg," or Ued Hills, now known 
as the Housatonic, which he described eis about " a how- 
shot vride," and in the neighborhood of which dwelt the 
indolent tribe of Quiripey Indians. Passing eastward 
along the bay at the head of which New Haven now 
stands, and which, on account of the red sandstone hills 
in its neighborhood, the Dutch also soon called the " Roo- 
touiores denbetg," Block came to the mouth of a large river ran- 
ticot Kver. ning up northerly into the land. At its entrance into the 
Sound it was " very shallow ;" and Block, observing that 
there were but few inhabitants near it-s mouth, ascended 
the river to the rapid«, at the head of navigation. Wear 
Wethersfield, he found the ntimeroua Indian tribe of Se- 
quins. At the latitude ot 41 48' — ^between Hartford and 
Windsor — he came to a fortified village of the Nawaas 
tribe, who were then governed by their Sagamore Mora- 
hieck. Here he heard ot "another nation of savages, who 
are called Horikans," dwelling " within the land," proba- 
bly near the lakes west of the upper part of the river, 
and who navigated the waters " in canoes made of bark." 
From the circumstance that a strong downward current 
was perceived at a short distance above its month. Block 
immediately named this beautiful stream the " Versch," 

"Our people (tl 

JB DlIcU) 

eall UiiB I^fmii 

OS, or the Ilelle-i 

■at," sajs the 

: accurate Ue 


Ise oiiginally 

called the wMe of 

1 EDon more bm 

iliariy kno.™ as 

iver," hy the 

re deacillieil as 


one anotiiei near Nuneii lOovei 

mot's) Island 



Zealand, ieeallt 


"after which 


nBDied Ibe whi 

.Qgh which he v 

raa tbe first kno 

«n European 

pUot. Mod- 

has eaim 

ivored to improi 

1 hi lorloia appflHalloB tnlo 

irt-gale." But 

Jem soience has 

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or Fresh "Water River. By the native savages it was call- 
ed the " Connittecock," or Q,uonehtacut ; and the aborig- 
inal appellation survives to the present day, in the name 
of the river and the state of Connectiout.* 

Continuing liis course eastward from the mouth of the Biotk 
Connectieut, Block came to the "Biver of the Siccana- Tto 
mos," afterward called hy the English the Pequod or 
Thames River, vfhere he found the powerful tribe of Pe- 
quatoos or Pequods, who were "the enemies of theWapa- 
noos," in possession of the country. From there, stretch- 
ing "over across the Sound," he visited the "Visscher's 
Hoeck," or " Cape de Baye," now known as Montauk 
Point, which he discovered to be the eastern extremity of 
" Sewan-haoky," or Long Island, " on which a nation of 
savages, who are called Matouwaoks, have their abode." 
A little to the northeast of Montauk Point, he next visited vui 
a large island, to which the Dutch . immediately gave the una. 
name of " Block's Island," in honor of their oountryman.t 
Thence, following the track of Verazzano, Block ran 
across to Nassau, or Narragansett Bay, which he thorough- 
ly explored. The western entrance was named " Sioup 
Bay," and the eastern " Anchor Bay ;" while " an island 

vsDtnrera, wlio diBDovered tie gteal continent of Nonb Ametlag, or Nev; England, made 
any diMoteiy of Ibis river, 11 docHnot sppearlbal it -iiiraB known lo any civlllied nation 
onU! BDOie years attsr Iha Bstliement of the English and Dnlcb at Flymonlli snd New 
Netberland." Tet Hubbard (Mass. CoU., it,, IS. ITOI disUucUy slalea that tbe Dntcb 
first discovered it ; and if Tnunbull had consuiled Uie gecurste deloils of De Lset, he 
would liaye tbund Ihe clearest evidenoE tllBl Block explored not only the river, but the 
wbnie ceast oT Connecticul, in lfil4, or six years befbre the first Puritan Engiisb colonists 
landed at Plymouth Rock. Baoergft, ii,, 473, Mlowbig Hubbard, says tbal "the discov- 
«y of ConnectiDut Hiver is undoubtedly due to tbe Dutcb," It would bave been sal^ to 
have added that Block was '■ its first Bnropean navieilor." 

t It has been usual to consider Block as Ibe UrsI discoreror of the island wbicb still 
bears his name. But while we llius honor tiie memory of the B;iplo[er of Long Island 
Sound, we should not (brget to do justice lohlsptedecessor Verai!ano,wbo, inl5a4, after 
sailing elong tbe AUauUc coast ofLong Island (wbicb he look tobelbemaio land), for 
Bfiy leagues eastward from Sandy Hook, " disoofered an island of a triangular fiJtni, 

island, whieh was undoubtedly Biock Island, Vetnizano named " Claudia," in honor of 
Ihe motber of King Francis I. It la so laid down in lock's map of 158a.— Haklnyt So- 
dety's-mterB Voyages," SS, Mi N. Y.H. S, Coii„l„SS ; l.isecondseriesj.M.m The 


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i;uj.,: n. of a reddish appearance" was observed lying -within. This 
was soon' known by the Dutch as " Roode" or Eed Island, 
EininrM" ^°^ which IS derived the name o£ the present State of 
'^*2jf^' Rhode Island. Along the western shore of the bay dwelt 
Mai^!'"^^ the tribe of Wapanoos, whom Block described aa " strong 
of limb and of moderate size," but somewhat shy, " since 
they are not accustomed to trade with strangers." Run- 
ning out of the Narragansett, he stood across the mouth 
of Buzzard's Bay to the southward of the Elizabeth Isl- 
ands, formerly visited by G-osnold, and sailed by the large 
" white and clayey" island, commonly called " Texel" by 
the Dutch, and " Gapacke" by others, and which is now 
known as JIartha's Vineyard. South of the Texel, Block 
VMis Mar- observed another small island, which he immediately 
ya'rd. """ nained " Hendrick Christiaensen's Island," in compliment 
to his early comrade. This island, which Gosnold bad 
discovered, and named Martha's Vineyard, is now called 
" No Man's Land ;" while, with a happier fate, Block Isl- 
and, retaining to this day the name which the Dutch first 
gave it, preserves the memory of the hardy pioneer of 
Long Island Sound. 

Sailing onward through the " Zuyder Zee," to the north 
of the island of "VHeland," or Nantucket, Block passed 
near the " Vlaoke Hoeck," or Cape Malebarre, and ran 
along the shore of Cape Cod, until he reached its northern 
BiMk pass- point, which ho named "Cape Bevecbier." Thence he 
€00!''''^ coasted along the " Fuyck," or " Wyck Bay," or " Staten 
Bay" — which names the Dutch gave to the waters now 
known as Cape Cod Bay' — and explored the shore of Mas- 
sachusetts as far north as " Pye Bay, as it is called by some 
of our navigators, in latitude 49° 30', to which the limits 
of New Netherland extend," This Pye Bay is now known 
visiis Boa- as Nahant Bay, just north of Boston harbor, and, at the 
and fia-" time Blook first visited it, " a numerous people" dwelt 
there, who were " extremely well-looking, but timid and 
shy of Christians," so that it required "some address to 
li them."* 

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On his return from Pye Bay to Cape Cod, Block fell ii 
with the ship of Hendrick Christiaensen, which seema, ~ 
meanwhile, to have been sent around from Manhattan to gj 
the northward. Leaving there his yacht, the Itestless, '^^^'J, 
which had already done such good service, in charge of anlrMnriw 
Cornelis Hendiicksen, to make further explorations on the "Ho"""''- 
coast, Block embarked in his old companion's ship, the For- 
tune, and returned with hor to Holland, to report tlie dis- 
coveries which he and his fellow-navigators had made in 
the New World* 

In the mean time, the States General, anxious to encour- 
£^e the foreign commerce of Holland, had granted, early st January, 
in 1614, a liberal charter to an association of merchante, Tiie 
for prosecuting the whale fishery in the neighborhood of company" 
Nova Zembla, and the exploration of a new passage tobytna 
China. Of this association, which was named ' ' the North- erai. 
em Company," Lambreoht van Tweenhuysen, one of the 
owners of Block's ship, was an original director ; and 
among his subsequent associates were Samuel Grodyn, 
Nicholas Jacobsen Haringcarspel, and Thymen Jacobseu 
Hinlopen, whose names have also become historical in our 
annals, t 

The importance of a similar concession of privileges in 
favor of the merchants, at whose expense new avenues of 
trade were now being explored in the neighborhood of Man- 
hattan, was soon perceived; and the States of Holland so h»"*- 
were petitioned to recommend the general government to 
pass an ordinance which should assure to all enterprising 
adventurer's a monopoly, for a limited time, of the trade 

Lliard by Ms otiBsrvattons. See alBOIhe " Kguialive Map," or chart, (bund in Ihe aichivOB 
al the Hflgne (no doubt tJie ona lo which De Laet reftrs on page 864), upon whleh Plym- 
Olilh hortot is maitod aa " Crane Day," and Boston harbor ss " Fox Havco," while 
is caUed " dmai Hendricli's Bay" (Appandix, noU G). The same designa- 


and Koal 

lalitude of Nahant is 42° 80', which cottespandj 
lay." as given by De Laet, 

booh iil., cap. x. ; Hoi. Doc., i., 53-59, De Laet, ai^er eta 
le ndsbhorhood of Cape Cod, in the Beatleaa, adds, " whi 

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. with tlie lands they might discover. The States G-eneral 
"accordingly passed the desired ordinance, declaring it to 
■ he " hohorahle, useful, and profitahle," that the people of 
the Netherlands should be encouraged to adventure them- 
- selves in discovering unknown coixntries ; and, for the pur- 
pose of malting the inducement " free and common to ev- 
ery one of the inhahitants," granting and conceding that 
" whosoever shall from this time forward discover any new 
passages, havens, lands, or places, shall have the exclusive 
right of navigating to the same for four voyages." The 
ordinance also required that reports of such discoveries 
should he made to the States General within fourteen days 
after the return of the exploring vessels, in order that the 
promised specific trading privileges should he formally pass- 
ed, in each case, to thfe adventurers appearing to be enti- 
tled to them ; and that if simultaneous discoveries should 
be made by different parties, the promised monopoly ahoiild 
he enjoyed by them in common.* 
cr. Upon Block's arrival at Amsterdam with the details of 
the Batch explorations on the coast of America, the mer- 
chants of Worth Holland, whose enterprise had been re- 
warded by such interesting results, hastened t^ appropriate 
to themselves the advantageous trade opened to them there, 
and to exclude all other rivalry. Uniting themselves into 
Lama company, they took the necessary steps to obtain the 
\y special privileges which were promised in the General Or- 
dinance of the 27th of March. A skillful draughtsman 
was employed to construct an elaborately finished " Fig- 
urative Map" of their transatlantic discoveries, which was 
probably prepared under Block's immediate supervision, 
and from the data that he furnished.! The associates 
then deputed some of their number to go to the Hague, 
and lay before the States General an account of their dis- 
coveries in America, and to obtain the desired special and 
exclusive license to trade to those regions. 
!. The deputies, probably accompanied by Block, acoord- 

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ingly proceeded to the capital. Unlike other Dutch oit- ctur. ii. 
ies, the Hague owed its importance, not to commerce or 
manufactures, but to having early been made the seat of p^ |„,iie:, ' 
government of the United Provinces, and to the constant ^"^J"'"" 
pres,enoe of the officers of state and the foreign ministers 
accredited to the republic. For four centuries the abode 
of the counts of HoUand, it derives its name from the 
" Haeg" or hedge encircling the magnificent park which 
formed their ancient hunting ground, and the majeatio 
trees in which, at this day, attract the admiration of Eu- 
rope. On an artificial island in the centime of that beauti- 
ful town — its long fa9ad6_ bordering the quiet lake which 
fronts the Yyverberg — stands a straggling pile of build- 
ings, of irregular forms and of various eras, surrounding a 
vast quadrangle, quaintly paved with small yellow bricks, 
and inclosing a lofty and venerable hall, the rival of West- 
minster, formerly hung round with trophies of the victo- 
rious confederacy, and in which were held the solemn and 
extraordinary meetings of the States G-eneral. Spacious 
galleries and corridors, now consecrated to the preaervation 
of the archives of the Netherlands, stretch over long ar- 
cades and gilded apartments, the faded magnificence of 
which yet attests the former splendor of the republic, when 
her calm statesmen sat there in the days of her pomp and 
power. This is the " Bimienhof," or inner court — tlie an- The ein- 
cient palace of the counts of Holland. Here the States 
General constantly held their ordinary meetings, in a su- 
perbly-decorated apartment facing the old Gothic Hall ; 
their clerk or "greffier" occupying a small, meagerly-fur- 
nished adjoining closet, where ambassadors were frequent- 
ly received, and the weightiest affairs of state transacted. 

Hither came the deputies of the Amsterdam Company imerviow 
to tell their story of adventure and discoveiy, and to askstBiesOpi 
the reward promised to their successful enterprise. Around 
the oval counoil-tahle sat twelve " high, riiighty lords" of 
the States G-eneral. One of the assembly was John van 
Olden Barneveldt, the Advocate of Holland. Spreading 
upon the council-board the " Figurative Map" of their 

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161.4. , 


. transatlantic discoveries, the petitioners related to the 
" statesmen of Holland the adventures of their agents in 
the New World ; and, detailing the " heavy expenses and 
damages" they had suffered during the current year 
" from the loss of ships, and other great risks," they asked 
a special and exclusive license to trade to the regions 
which they had explored. The assembled statesmen list- 
ened to the narrative with interest and favor. Dutch com- 
mercial enterprise had now achieved the exploration of 
unknown and extensive regions in North America, which 
might soon hecome of great political importance to the re- 
puhlio. These regions were sparsely inhabited hy various 
roving tribes of aboriginal savages, who had already shown 
kindness to the Hollanders. Wo Europeans but the Dutch 
traders were in possession of any part of the territory. 
Why should not the Amsterdam Company now receive 
their, promised charter? The States General promptly 
complied with the prayer of their countrymen ; and the 
ti ocioiier. greffier, Cornelius Aerssen, at once drew up the minute of 
Sd'SJ^' a special trading license or charter, the original of which 
«)°b? Sre"'' yet records, in almost illegible oharactei^, the first ap- 
^;^'"^''" pearanoe of the terra "Kew Netherland" in the annals of 
the world. The formal instrument, bearing date the 11th 
of October, 1614, was immediately' afterward duly sealed 
and attested ; and thus the government of the United 
Provinces, by its solemn act, officially designated the un- 
occupied regions of America lying between Virginia and 
Canada by a name which they continued to bear for half 
a century, until, in the fullness of time, right gave way to 
power, and the Dutch colony of New Netherland became 
the English province of New York,* 



ade iQ t 



ue, ill 1841. by direction 


ttda state. 

in im, rofetii to IC In ehapter 









ig at Nb' 


Yet Chalmets, in tHe teeth of Do Laet's Haie- 

le Dutch West India Company was flna 


7 tho name ol 

ior'8 chapter re- 



:w York 

:, aahas 

already been 1 

ntimattd, abonndg In grt 



<o eagerly adoptod by American wiliera 

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The special charter thus granted hy the States General cam. ii. 
licensed the memorialiats " exclusively, to visit and navi- 
gate to the aforesaid newly-discovered lands lying in Ameri- p„visiini"a 
ca, hetween NewFrance and Virginia, the sea-coasta whore- Keteria™ 
of extend from the fortieth to the forty-fifth degree of iati- ""'"'"■■ 
tude, now named New Netherland (as is to he seen on 
the Figurative Map prepared by them), for four voyages 
within the period of three years, commencing on the first 
day of January, 1615, next ensuing, or sooner ;" and it ex- 
pressly interdicted all other persons, directly or indirectly, 
from sailing out of the United Provinces to those newly- 
discovered regions, and from, frequenting the same within 
the three years reserved, under pain of confiscation of ves- 
sels and cargoes, and a fine of fifty thousand Ketherland 
ducats to the henefit of the grantees of the charter.* 

At the time the Ilutoh government perfected the New views or 
Netherland cha(^;er, the discovery and possession of Canada oenersi m 
and Acadia by the French was notorious ; and the patent tte°hn* 
which James I. had granted to the London and Plymouth "' 
Companies had likewise, for eight years, been known, to 
the world. British colonists had already partially occu- 
pied Virginia, the title of England to which the Dutch 
never questioned. The States General themselves had 
ofiicially recognized it, in permitting Gates and Dale to 
leave their service to go thither, and in making overtures 
to join with England in that colony. Upon ijie Figura- 
tive Map of New Netherland, referred to in the charter of 
1614, New France was represented as extending north- 
WMd of the forty-fifth degree, and Virginia southward .of 
the fortieth degree. The Dutch discoveries were defined 

Tbecbarur sets fittth then 




'essels 1 


plains, a, 

is: " Gerrit JacobBen Wit 



m; Jona 

en, and Simon Mollis™, 0- 


'LUtle Foi-!,' 

■ CapUi 


1 Hongers, Paulua PelBrom 

,, and Lambrecbt van 


1 named the 'TiffiT' ana til. 



and Hen 




Bissn, owners of «ie Bhip named the • Nighiiiigiil 


plain is 



merchama of the aforesaid 





^nlsen Kles, and Cornelia 


the Ml 

■.y of tt 

Unpnamca tllc'Jb^ft<«e,■' 


n May,' 




53; a 


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fi4 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK. 11. in that charter, as lying between New France and Vii- 
■ ■ ■"" giiiia, and the sea-coasts of New Netherland wore declared 
■ to extend from the fortieth to the forty-fifth degree of lat- 
itude. This intermediate region, which Block and his 
comrades had described as inhabited only by aboriginal 
savage tribes, was yet "unoeoupied by any Christian 
prince or state." The Plymouth Company, by the pat- 
ent of 1606, were merely authorized to begin a colony at 
any convenient place between the thirty-eighth and forty- 
fifth degrees of latitude ; were promised aU tlie land ex- 
tending along the sea-coast, fifty milea on each side of 
" the first seat of their plantation," and one hundred mile,^ 
into the interior ; and were assured that they should not 
be molested by any British subjeots. After the return of 
their dispirited colomata fr jm the Sagadihoc in 160S, that 
company had seemed to relinquish anj further attempts 
to settle emigrants withm th^ limits a aigntd to thpm bj 
the patent; under which in fact no suhsequent Enghsh 
colonization e\ ei took plaCe Though Frit^h fishing ves- 
sel^ continued to that neighborhood, the country 
Nev,- En- it^clf was esteemed as " a cold, barren, mountainous, rocky 
teemada^ desart," and was declared to be "not habitable" by En- 
glishmen.* In the same summer that Block was explor- 
ing Loi^ Island Sound and the regions to the north and 
east, Smith was visiting the bays and coasts of Maine and 
Massachusetts', and the Crown Prince of Great Britain was 
confirming the name of " New England," which Smith 
had given to the territories north of Cape Cod, about the 
very time that the States General were passing their first 
charter of. trading privileges to the " Directors of New 
Netherland." But New England, though it had a nom- 
inal existence, was yet uncolonized in any part. Its re- 
cent name had not even reached the ears of the Dutch 
statesmen at the Hague. They might justly have con- 
npw Houi- sidered the territory which they novf formally named 
"'t^m "New Netherland" as a "vacuam doTiiicilmm,'" fairly 
uS^^'n open to Dutoh enterprise and occupation. In granting 

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tlie cliartor of 1614, the States General certainly exer- t 
ciseil a distinct act of sovereignty over that territory by ~ 
giving it the name of New Nether] and. But while tJiey ' 
specifically defined the houndaries of their grant as in- 
cluding the regions " between New France and Virginia," 
they only assured to the associated merchants, whose en- 
terprise had been rewarded by impoi^tant discoveries, a 
monopoly of the trade of that country against the compe- 
tition of other Dutch subjects, without for the present as- 
serting the right to exclude the rest of the world. 

After the procurement of the New Netherland charter, 
Block's connection with American discovery ceased. Van 
Tweenhuysen, who had been one of the joint owners of 
" the Tiger," was anxioua to secure the services of his en- 
terprising captain for the newly-organized " Northern Com- 
pany," and offered him the command of some vessels to be 
employed in the whale-fishery near Spitzhergen, Block 
accepted his patron's proposition, and sailed for the Arctic bim* muu 
Ocean early in 1615.* He does not appear to have ever '1= ooogn. 
revisited the scenes of his auccessfnl adventures on the 
coasts of America. Of all the early follower's of Hudson 
in the exploration of New Netherland, the honored names 
of only two are now commemorated by Block Island and 
Capa May ; yet the annalist of commercial New York will 
ever gratefully record the " ResUess" as the pioneer ves- 
sel launched by white men upon her waters, and as her 
first ship-builder, Adriien Block. 


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ohap. ill. The Holland merchants, who had obtained from the 

States Greneral the exclusive right of trading for three 

Th !^ ys^s ^ New Nethevland, though united together in one 
NCThetiand company to secure the gi'ant of their charter, were not 
strictly a corporation, but rather "participants" in a spe- 
cific, limited, and temporary monopoly, which they were 
to enjoy in common. No Dutch, vessels might visit the 
coasts of America, between Barnegat and Nova Scotia, 
except those belonging to the grantees of the charter, who 
resided at Amsterdam and Hoorn, iu North Holland. But 
these grantees were intrusted with no political powers for 
the government of New Netherland. The objects they 
had chiefly in view were traffic and discovery ; and to pro- 
mote these objects the States General had sealed their 
charter. Agricultural colonization was not their present 
purpose ; and their few men in garrison at Castle Island 
were rather armed traders, holding formal possession of an 
unoccupied territory, than emigrants to subdue a wilder- 
Murder of Not long after Christiaensen had completed Fort Nas- 
cbriBi'i»=n- aau, the first murder recorded after Hudson's voyage oc- 
curred in New Netherland. The two young savage.'S, Or- 
son and Valentine, who had been carried to Holland, were 
soon afterward safely restored to their native country. 
They were described as " very stupid, yet adepts enough 
in knavery." Of the two, Orson seems to have been iJie 
most mischievous: "an exceedingly malignant wretch, 
who was the cause of Hendriok Christiaensen's death," is 

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Wassenaar's quaint record. No motive is assigned for tlie chsp. hi. 
murder, which, however, the Hollanders speedily avenged ; "TTTl^ 
and the treaoherons Orson " was repaid with a tuUet m 
hia reward,"* 

Meanwhile, Jacob Eelkens continued actively employed EBiiiena 
in prosecuting a quiet traffic with the Mohawk and Maht- the in*an 
can Indians about Castle Island, and in collecting valu- 
able cargoes of furs, which, from time to time, were sent 
in shallops down the river to Manhattan, for shipment to 
Holland. Scouting parties were, at the same time, con- 
stantly engaged in exploring all the neighboring country, 
and in becoming better acquainted with the savage tribes 
which surrounded them ; with all of whom it was the con- 
stant policy of the Dutch to cultivate the most friendly 

"While the sober spirit of oommeroial Holland wt^ thus ThcPrennn 
quietly searching out new avenues for trade along the Ontario 
coasts of Long Island Sound, and on the boi-ders of the ^a. 
Mauritius River, the more impetuous spirit of chivalrous 
France wt^ intrepidly exploring the waters of Lake Onta- 
rio, and invading the territories of the " Konoshioni," or 
Iroquois,+ near the valley of Onondaga. After discovering 
the lovely inland waters which perpetuate his name, Cham- 
plain thrice revisited France ; and having engaged some 
wealthy merchants of Saint Malo, Uouen, and Boehelle, 1614. 
to form an association for the colonization of Canada, he 
obtained, through the influence of the viceroy. Prince de 
Conde, a ratification of the contract hj the Icing. Setting 
BaQ from Hoiifleur early in the spring of 1615, he soon 1615. 
reached Tadoussac, accompanied by four RecoUet mission- *^' 
aries, who were the first ministers of Christianity settled 
in Canada.? On bis arrival at Montreal, Champlain found 

t TI18 File ConMersKd NolionBofNoiv York Indians. "Lenoin A'Iriujdois est pure- 
iiiiri ; 81 He Kmt, qui eat uo ori, tantit de niBlease, lorscju'en le proiionee en Inilnart, el 

1 ChamplBin, iei-940. Jesail 1 

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[, tlie Hurons and their allies preparing for an expoditioa 
■" against their anoient enemies, the Iroiiuois. Anxioua to 
' reconnoitre the hostile territory, and ako to secure tho 
friendship of the Canadian savages, the gallant Frenchman 
resolved to accompany their warriors. After viaiting the 
tribes at the head-waters of the Ottawa, and discovering 
Lake Huron, which, because of its "great extent," he, 
iiamsd " La Mer Douce," Champiain, attended by an arm- 
ed party of ten Frenchmen, accordingly set out toward 
the south, with his Indian allies. Enraptured with the 
"very beautiful and pleasant country" tlirough which 
they passed, and amusing themselves with fishing and 
hunting, as tliey deacended the chain of " Shallow Lakes," 
which discharge their waters through the River Trent, the. 
expedition reached the banks of Lake Ontario.* 

Crossing the end of the lake " at the outlet of the great 
River Saint Lawrence," and passing by many beautiful 
ialandd on the way, the invaders followed the eastern shore 
of Ontario, for fourteen leagues, toward their enemy's coun- 
try. In the vicinity of the present village of Henderson, 
ain in the county of Jefferson, the party landed, and the sav- 
'li ages hid all their canoea in the woods near the bank of 
the lake. After proceeding about four leagues, over a 
Bandy tract, Champiain remarked " a very agreeable and 
beautiful country, traversed by several small streams and 
two little rivers which empty into the lake." These riv- 
ers were the Big and Little Sandy Creeks, and the " beau- 
tiful country" was the northern edge of the present coun- 
ty -of Oswego. Leaving the shores of the lake, the in- 
vaders continued their route inland to the southward, for 
twenty-five or thirty leagues. For four days they pressed 
onward, meeting no foes, and crossing in tlieir way a num- 
ber of rivulets, and a river forming the outlet of Oneida 
Lake ; which Champiain described as " twenty-five or thir- 
ty leagues in circuit, in which there aj-e beautiful islands. 

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and when our Iroquois enemies oateli their fish, which are rfi 
very ibundant " Here the Canadians ca.ptured eleven Ir 
oquDja \\ho had come about four leagues from their fort, 
to fiih m the Oneid* Lali.e. Among the prisoners were 
four squaWB Piepaiations were immediately made for 
the Uiual aavage tortures , but Champlain humanely prd- 
testmg agamat the cruelty of his allies, as "not the ttct 
of a warrior," succeeded m saving the lives ofthe woraeil, 
though the men all sufleied death. 

In the iftemoon of the next day the expedition arrived Tt^iro- 
before the tortified village of the Iroquois, on the northern »' ooonda- 
bdnli. of the Ontnddga L^ke, near the site ofthe preaenteii. 
town of Liverpool * The village was inclosed by four 
rows oi pahsidea, made of large pieces of timber closely 
inteilaced The stockade was thirty feet high, with gal- 
leiies lunning around hke a parapet, which were garnish-* 
ed with double pieces of wood, arquebuse-proof ; and the 
fortification stood close by a " pond where water was nev- 
er wanting." 

Some skirmishing took place as soon as the invadera 
reached the Onondaga Fort ; though their first design was 
not to discover themselves until the next morning. But 
the impatience of the savages overcame their prudence. 
They were anxious to see the effect of the fire-arms of their 
French allies ; and Champlain, advancing with his httte A^ 
tachment agauist the Onondagas, quickly " showed them 
what they had never seen or heard before." As soon aa 
the Iroquois heard the reports of the arquebuses, and felt 
the balls whistling about their ears, they nimbly took ref- 
uge within their fort, carrying with them their killed and 
wounded. The assailing party then fell back upon their 
main body, with five or six wounded ; one of whom died. 

Bi. of Oncndaga, 1,, 5Se, The i 
id Marshall (liiU Ihe lake miisl I 

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I. Contrary to Champlain's advice, the invaders now re- 
~ treated a cannon's shot from the fort. This provoked his 
■ earnest remonstrances ; and his genius soon suggested a 
plan of attack, boiTowed from the ancient modes of war- 
fare. A movable tower, in which four French marksmen 
could be placed, was to be constructed, sufficiently high 
to command the palisades ; and while the besieged Iro- 
quois were thus securely picked off, the stockade itself was 
to be set on fire. The plan was promptly approved of by 
the Canadians, who commenced the work the next day, 
and labored with such diligence that the tower was com- 
pleted in four hours. They then wished to wait for a re- 
inforcement of five bundled men which they expected ; 
but Champlain, judging that delay in most cases is prej- 
udicial, pressed them to attack the fort at once. 
ler. The invaders, yielding to his arguments, followed his 
advice. The tower was carried, by two hundred men, to 
within a pike's length from the stockade ; and four arque- 
busiers, well protected from arrows and stones, began to fire 
on the invested Iroquois. The besieged savages at iirst 
answered with warm disdhaiges of arrows ; but the fatal 
balls of the French marksmen soon drove them from their 
galleries. Champlain now directed the Huions to set fire 
to the stockade. But instead of obeying, they began to 
shout at the enemy, and discharge ineffective flights of ar- 
rows into the fort. Ignorant of discipline, and impatient 
of control, each savage did as he liked. At length they 
lit a file, on the wrong side of the fort, contrary to the 
wind, so that it produced no effect. The besiegers then 
began to pile wood against the palisades, though in such 
small quantity that it did little good. The noise now be- 
came overpowering. Champlain attempted to wai'n the 
savages against the results of tlieh- bad judgment ; but the 
great confusion prevented him from being heard. Per- 
ceiving that he was only "splitting his head by ciying 
out," he directed the remainder of bis French party to fire 
upon the besieged. Many of the Iroquois were killed; but, 
observing the disorder of their assailants, they poured wa- 

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ter from the gutters in suoh alrandanoe, tliat every apark ch.p. hi. 
of fire was soon extinguished. Meanwhile they disoharged ' ' _ 
incessant flights of arrows, which fell upon the hesiegers ' ' 
like hail. The oomhat lasted about four hours. Two of 
the Huron chiefs and fifteen warrioi's were wounded. Tiie canu- 
Champlain himself was twice severely injured hy arrows ; era te- 
and the repuked besiegers retreated to their encampment. 
Here they remained inactive several days. No argu- 
ments of Champlain could induce the Hurons to renew 
the attack until their expected re-enforcement of five hund- 
red men should arrive from Canada. A few skirmishes 
occurred ; hut whenever the Iroquois saw the French ar- 
quehusiers approaching, they promptly retreated within 
their fort. At length the invaders, tired of waiting for 
their re-enforcements, broke up the siege, contrary to Cham- ic octoi»c 
plain's earnest remonstrance, and began their retreat. The 
gallant Frenchman, himself disabled by his wounds from 
walking, was placed in a frame of wicker-work, and car- 
ried for several days on the hacks of the savages. The 
Iroquois pursued their enemies for half a league, hut the 
retreat was conducted in suoh good order that the invaders 
suffered no loss. 

In a few days the party reached the spot where they bo octt*8r 
had hidden their canoes on the shore of Lake Ontario, and 
were overjoyed to find that they had not been discovered 
and destroyed hy the Iroquois. Champlain was now anx- 
ious to return to Montreal by way of the Saint Lawrence, nemm or 
over the upper waters of which no European had yettimw" 
passed. But his savage allies refused to furnish him with " " 
a promised guide and canoe ; and he was obliged to ac- 
company them home, an unwilling guest, and pass a 
dreary winter in the Huron country. The following 
spring Champlain set out on his return, and, after forty 1616. 
days travel, reached the French settlements toward the^""' 
end of June. His countrymen received him with joy, as june. 
one risen from the grave ; for the savages had long before 
1 him dead.* 

* Voyages de CtumpMn, HO-^K ; Hoc, Hist. N'. Y., iii., 10-17. See el 

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(Jhaf, III. Tl tl F h e e the fi st Europeans who visited 
t o of tl e n fi nt lal e vhich pEirtially bound the 
te t f N Y I Aim t contemporancoasly with 

Hud pi a n f tl 'n xt River of the Mountains, 

Gl Ti[ 1 ui 1 ad d d tl e beautiful watei's on our 

nthatnfnt 11 v bear hig brilliant name. 

S y I t tl ad ntm Frenchman, again the first 
f E n" j an , a t ng al ng the southern shore of 

Lako Ontario, and penetrating the valley of Onondaga. 
But the progress of French discovery waa the pregress of 
French arms. The exploring voyages of Hudson and his 
followers were visits of peaceful agents of commercial Hol- 
land in search of new avenues for trade, and intent chief- 
ly on its rewards. No predatory movements marked their 
onward way. Enterprising and patriotic, they were dis- 
creet and humane. If blood was early shed, it was shed 
in retaliation, or to repel attack. But the expeditions of 
Champlain were incursions of bold adventurers from gal- 
lant France, seeJcing trophies of victory in the unknown 
territories of the Iroquois. The placid waters of Laliea 
Champlain and Onondaga were alike stained by unoffend- 
ing native biood ; and the roar of the few French arque- 
buses which iirat echoed through the frontier forests of New 
Netherland, but preluded the advance, in after years, of 
serried battalions over northern New York, bearing to bat- 
tle and conquest the triumphant lilies of the Bonrbon, 
itoriginai The valley of the " Cahohatatea,"* or Mauritius E.iver, 
omMorMi'^at the time Hudson first ascended its waters, was inhab- 
*"' ited, chiefly, by two aboriginal races of Algonquin lineage, 
afterward known among the English colonists by the ge- 
neric names of Mohegans and Minoees. The Dutch gen- 
erally called the Mohegans, Mahicans ; and the Mincees, 

Df Ule NorUi or Hild 
e enclGDl Indian Inu 
Ullchlll to Dr. Miller, 

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Sanhilians. These two tribes were subdivided into nu- CHrtP.UL 
merous minor bands, each of which had a distinctive name. 
The tribes on the east side of the river were generally 
Mohegana ; those on the west side, Minoees. They were 
hereditary enemies ; and across the waters which formed 
the natural boundary between them, war-parties frequent- 
ly passed, on expeditions of conquest and retribution. But 
however much the tribes of River Indians were at va- 
riance among themselves, they were sympathetic in their 
enmity against the powerful Iroquois, or the Five Confed- 
erated Nations, whose hunting-grounds extended over the 
magnificent regions, as yet unexplored by the Dutch, west- 
ward and northward from Fort Nassau.* 

Long Island, or " Sewan-hacky," was occupied by thei^ng lai- 
savage tribe of " Metowacks," which was subdivided into dUins. 
various elans, each having a separate appellation, and 
whose lodges extended &om "the Visscher's Hook," or 
Montauk Point, to "Ihpetonga," or "the high sandy 
banlts," now known as Brooklyn Heights. Staten Island, 
on the opposite side of the bay, was inhabited by the Mon- 
atons, who named it Monaoknong, or Eghquaous.t In- 
land, to the west, lived the llaritans and the Hackin-NewJn^ 
sacks ; while the regions in the vicinity of the well-known ^wns. 
"Highlands," south of Sandy Hook, were inhabited by a 
band or sub-tribe called the Nevesincks, or Navisinka, 
whose name denotes their interaiediate position between 
the Atlantic and the TLaritan Bay.t To the south and 
west, covering the centre of New Jersey, were the Aqua- 
machukes and the Stankekans ; while the valley of the 
Delaware, northward from the- Schuylkill, was inhabit- 
ed by varioiis tribes of the Lenape race, who were col- 
lectively known to the Dutch as " the Minquas," and by 
their hereditary northern foes, the Iroquois, were named 
" Ogehage.'H 

The " Island of the Manhattans" was so called " after Manhai- 

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Chip. III. tlie aiioient name of ihe tiite of savages among whom the 
~ Butch first settled themselves."* This tribe, ■wMoh inbab- 
' ited the eastern shore, was always "very obstinate and un- 
friendly" toward the Hollanders, On the west side of the 
sonhifcans, bay, and of the river above Bergen Point, lived the Sanhi- 
kans, who were " the deadly enemies of the Manhattans, 
and a much better people. "t North of the Sanhikana, on 
the broad bay between the Palisadoes and "Verdrietig Hook, 
mi>pana. dwolt the tribe of Tappans,! whose wigwams extended 
baek from Wyack toward the hilly regions of Rockland and 
Orange counties. This unexplored territoiy, the early ira- 
t maps of New Netherland ti'ansmitted to Holland, 
laly represented as an " effen veldt," or a level, 
open country. 

The eastern bank of the river, north of Manhattan, and 
the valley of the Nepera or Saw-mill Creek, was possessed 
by the tribe of Weckquaeageeks. The region above, as far 
aa the Croton, or Kitchawan, was inhabited by another 
[8. band called the Sint-Singa, whose chief village was named 
Ossin-Sing, or " the Place of Stones ;" and the famous mar- 
ble quarries now worked near " Sing-Sing," while they 
commemorate the name, vindicate the judgment of the ab- 
origines. 5 

The Highlands above were occupied by a band called 
. the Pachami, beyond whom dwelt the Waoranacks. North 
of these, and in what ia now the county of Dutchess, lived 
the tribe of "Wappingers, whose name is still preserved in 
that of the picturesque stream which empties into the riv- 
er near New Hamburg. Their chief locality was the val- 
ley of the Fishkill, or " Matteawan" Creek, the aboriginal 
name of which, according to the popular traditions of the 
country, signified " good furs," for which the stream was 
anciently celebrated. But modem etymology more accu- 

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rately deriving the term from " metai," a magician or cmp 
medicine man, and " wian," a skin, it would seem that ~~ 
the neigkhoring Indians esteemed the peltries of the Fish- 
kill aa " charmed" hy the incantations of the ahoriginal 
enchanters who dwelt along its hanks ; and the beautiful 
scenery in which these ancient priesi^ of the wild men of 
the Highlands dwelt is thus invested with new poetical 
A few miles north of the " Wahamanessing," 
i Creek, was a sheltered inlet at the mouth 
of the Fallkill, affording a safe harbor for canoes uaYigat- 
ing the " Long E-each," between PoUepel's Island and 
Crom Elbow.* The ahoriginal designation of this inlet 
was Apokeepsing, " a place of shelter fi-om storms ;" and 
the memory of this once famous harbor for the canoes of 
the river tribes is perpetuated in the name of the flourish- 
ing city of Pokeepsie. Still further north, near E-ed Hook poitc 
landing, lived another clan of the "Wappingers, Here tra- 
dition, asserts a great battle was fought between the river 
Indians and the Iroquois confederates ; and the bones of 
the slain were said to be yet visible, when the Dutch first 
settled themselves on the spot. The wigwams of the "Wap- 
pingers and their sub-tribes extended eastward to the 
range of the Tachkanio, ov Taconick Mountains, which 
separate the valley of the North Iliver from that of the 

On the west side of the river, -northward from Verdriel- 
tig Hook and the Kumoohenaok, or Havei-straw Bay, the 
tribes were remarkably mixed and subdivided. Parts of 
the present county of Eockland, and nearly the whole of 
the county of Orange, were inhabited by the "Waronawan- Wi 
kongs, whose hunting-grounds extended along the Shaw- 
angnnk mountain range.t Further. north, and occupying 

• Fdlepel'a Island is Ibe one in the middle Dptho rivsrjnat nonb o! the Highlands. 

Dnichla"Pullepel." The abrupt bend in ihc river, between Pokeepsie and Hyde Part, 
Hirmerly cabad " Kroin Elleboog," ot crookad elbow, is now known as nroin Btbow. 

t SehDOlonifl, lOJ-lOa, 

i These mounlains ate said lo have obtained their 'name ftoni tbe predomioalln!! wMto 
or graj color of Iheir rocka ; the word " Shawan-gunk" being eiplained by the Indians 
of the CDunlry lo mean " while rocks."— See Matber'H Geology of N. Y., 355. Schoolcrnft, 

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r. the present counties of Ulster and Greene, were the Min- 
~ qua clans of Minnisincka, Nanticokea, Mincoen, and Dela- 
' wares. These clans had pressed onward frona the upper 
valley of the Delaware, which tlie Dutch expressively 
named " the Land of Baca,"* and, following the course of 
the Nevesinok River and the valley of the " Great Esopua 
Creek," had at length reached the tides of the Worth E-iver. 
n- They were generally known among the Dutch as the Eao- 
pu3 Indians. The doubtful etymology of this name is 
traced to " Seepua," a river ; and the Esopus Creek, hav- 
ing long been celebrated as the aboriginal channel of com- 
munication with the upper waters of the Delaware, it was 
probably called " the Seepus," or river, by way of emi- 
nence. t The word was soon modified Into " Sopus," or 
Esopus, in whioh form it has ever since been in use. At 
an early period , the Dutch are said to have erected a ' ' E,on- 
[ duit," or small fort, near the mouth of the creek, which, 
from this circumstance, obtained its present name, the 
" Rondont." Part oi' the adjoining region was afterward 
named "Wiltwycli," or Indian village; but the familiar 
term Esopus continued in popular use long after the pres- 
ent legal designation of Kingston was adopted,* 

The name of the Minnisinck tribe was derived from the 
island, or " Minnia," in the upper waters of the Delaware, 
where the self-denying missionary Brainerd afterward en- 
dured so many trials. Their wigwams, with those of the 
other clans of Esopus Indians, extended over the area of 
the present counties of Ulster and G-reene, along the banks 
of the river, and through the valley of the Catakill,* to 
Goxaokie, or Kuxakee. This word, in then' dialect, sig- 
nified " the place of the cut banks," where the current, 
deflected against the western shore, had gradually worn 
away the land. Beyond the Minnisinoks and Esopus In- 
dians, the vfest side of the river, near Castle Island, was 

i SchoolcmH, 168, t Hoi. Doc, xi., 86 ; nee Appendij, nnW H. 

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inhabited hy the fierce Maquaay, or Mohawks, whose hunt- 
iiiff-cnrounds extended northward to the " Lake of the Ir-' 


oquois," or Lake Champlain, westward through the val- ^ 
ley of the Mohawk, and sovithward to the sources of the ''"'"'™' 

Above the Wappingers, on the east side of the river, the 
lodges of ths Mahioana, or Mohsgans, extended northward Tiia M»hi- 
and eastward from Tloelof Jansen's Kill, and occupied the 
whole area of the present counties of Columbia and Eens- 
aclaer. The ancient seat of their counoil-fire was near 
Schodac ; and opposite to the present city of Albany, they 
had early fortified a village against the dreaded attacka 
of their hereditary enemies, the Mohawks.* Beyond the 
Mahicans dwelt the tribe of Horikans, whose hunting- The Hmi- 
grounds appear to have extended from the waters of the 
Connecticut, across the Green Mountains, to the borders 
of that beautiful lake viiLich might now well bear tlieir 
sonorous name.t 

From the time that Hudson first passed the MahioanTheDui* 
villages at Schodao and Caatleton, and Block visited theiennawitij 
upper waters of the Connecticut, a friendly intercourse had aisna. 
been maintained between the Dutch and the native tribes 
on the east side of the North River. With the fierce Mo- 
hawks on the west side, upon whose ten-i tory they had built 
Fort Nassau, they were careful to keep on the bast terms ; 
and from them the Dutch learned that the Canadian French 
were in the habit of coming in boata from Q,uebec, to trade 
in the upper part of their territories, adjoining the Lake of 
the L'oquois, or Lake Champlain J But the inland tribes, 
towai^d the south and west, had as yet been unvisited by 
; though Champlain had just carried death and 

DK^ in honor ^ Ais nt^uEjr, imt 
a neiomtms W lliB like, sbDUld ce 

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Chap. in. the teiTor of the French arms to the Iroquoia castle at 
~' Onondaga. 

Anxious to explore the unknown regions, of which only 
a vague idea had heen gathered from the imperfect expla- 
nations of the Mohawks, three traders in the service of the 
New Netherland Company seem to have adventurously set 
Bipioring out from Foit Nassau, on an expedition " into the interior, 
Fon Nas- and downward, along the New River, to the Ogehage," or 
the Minquas, " the enemies of the northern tribes."* The 
route of the party is not accurately deiined ; hut they, per- 
haps, followed the trail of the Esopus Indians to the sources 
of the Delaware, the vraters of which they descended to 
the Schuylkill, At this point of iiieir progress, they ap- 
pear to have teen taken prisoners hy the Minquas ; ajid 
the news reaching the Dutch on the Mauritius River, ar- 
rangements were promptly made to ransom the captives, 
as well as undertake a more thorough examination of the 
country where they were detained. 
The yacht Accordingly, the yacht " Restless," which Block, on his 
eipio^the return to Holland, had left in charge of Cornells Hendrick- 
sen, was dispatched from Manhattan southward, along the 
coast of New Jersey, to explore the " New River" fi'om 
its mouth to its upper waters. The voyage was entirely 
successful. Sailing into the hay which Hudson had first 
discovered seven years before, Hendricksen explored the 
adjoining coasts, and discovered " three rivers, situated be- 
tween the thui;y -eighth and fortieth degrees of latitude."! 
The fertile land was full of majestic forest trees, " which 
in some places were covered with grape-vines ;" and tur- 
keys, partridges, harts, and hinds abounded along the pleas- 
ant shores. The climate of the country, which was " the 
same as that of Holland," delighted the crew of the Rest- 
less, as they trafficked with the natives for seal-skins and 
sables. Proceeding up the channel of the main river, be- 
yond the confluence of the Schuylkill, Hendricksen opened 

• Hoi. Doc,, i., M ; Paper Map. See Appondis, note I. 

t ThBBB"ltreerivers" were ptotabljlliellelawnraKsdr, (lie Schuylkill, and perbapB 

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a friendly intercourse wit]! the Minquas who inliabited its chat. m. 
banks; and ransomed from tliese savagea his three cap- 
tive countrymen, giving in exchange for them " kettles, 
beads, and other merchandise,"* 

To Cornells Hendricksen unquestionably belongs the Henanui;- 
hoRor of having Ijeen the first to explore the bay and river oipioret of 
which now unjustly bear the name of Lord Delawarr. The ware, 
light draught of the Restlesa enabled her to penetrate very 
easily where Hudson did not venture to pilot the Half Moon, 
and where Argall made no explorations. t Hendricltaen 
seems to have coasted up along the western shore of the 
bay, and to have been the first European navigator who 
set his foot on the soil of Delaware and Pennsylvania, He 
probably ransomed the Dutch captives near- the very spot 
where Philadelphia was fomided, just sixty-six years aft- 1682. 
erward,t The river above now received the name of the 
" New," or " South River," to distinguish it fi'om the Man- sohbi hiv- 
ritius, which soon became better known as the NoiiOi E.iv- 
er. Before long, the southern cape of the hay was named 
"Cape Cornelius," after its "first discoverer;" and anoth- cape cor- 
er point, about twelve miles to the southward, was called 
Cape Hinlopen, probably after Thymen Jacobsen Hinio- cape Hin- 
pen, of Amsterdam, and also Cape Inloopen, because it °"^'^' 
seemed to vanish on being approached. § 

On the return of the Restless to Manhattan, Hendriok- nendrick- 
sen proceeded to Holland, to assist his employers in ob- lo Holland, 
taining a separate exclusive charter to trade to the newly- 
explored territory, which extended two degrees south of 
the limits assigned to New Netherland in tlie grant of Oc- 
tober, 1614, The associated merchants dispatched him 
immediately to the Hague, accompanied by an Amster- 
dam notary, to report liis discoveries to the States Genera!, 
and procure for them the desired special trading privilege. 
Taking with him a manuscript map, he explained, orally, isAngnsi. 

• Hal. Soc., I., 69. t See laite, pages 87 and 91, and Appendix, nole D. 

i'b Maps. Tbe t. 

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ch«p. Hi. to their High Mightinesses the situation and nature of the 
" . " newly-explored regions. The States General, however, 
■ requiring a formal report in writing, Hendrickseii submit- 
9 August, ted, the next day, a short statement of his prousedings on 
the South E.iver, and asked, on behalf of his employers, a 
special charter for trading there.* 
\GHr chor- But the Dutch government hesitated to comply with the 
south iiiv- application of the Amsterdam merchants for new special 
privileges. Their original trading charter of October, 1614, 
which specifically defined New Netherland as "situated 
between New France and Virginia," had yet a year and a 
half to run. The grantees of that charter now desired a 
similar monopoly for the territory between the thirty-eighth 
and fortieth degrees. But this region seemed to he with- 
in the acknowledged limite of Yirginia, 'according to the 
boundaries which, the States General had themselves n^- 
signed to New Netheriand. If, under these eircumstancBS, 
they were now to pass the new special chai'ter for which 
their subjects had applied, it might give rise to difHoulties 
with James, which, in the present condition of public af- 
fairs, would be extremely embarrassing. The States Gen- 
eral, accordingly, after two more deliberations ttpon the 
a Nov subject, softened their adverse decision by adopting the 
mild form of an indefinite postponement.t 

The Amsterdam " Directors of New Netherland," find- 
ing that the States General were unwilling to counten- 
ance their project of seeming encroachment upon Virginia, 
now confined their attention more particularly to the re- 
gions drained by the North River, Fort Nassau, which. 
Christlaensen had originally built on Castle Island in 1614, 
I'DitNas- having been several times overflowed by the waters from 
"«ioyad. the upper country, was almost swept away by a freshet 

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on the breajting «p of the ice, in the spring of 1617.* The ch.^v. m. 
company's traders were, therefore, obliged to abandon it, 
and seek a iRore secure position on the west bank of the 
river, at the mouth of the " Tawasentha," or Norman's 
Kill.t The new situation was well chosen. The portage 
path of tlie Mohawks, coming from the west, terminated 
about two miles above, at SkanektadS, " beyond the pine 
plains," or " beyond the openings," on the North Uiver — 
the site of the present city of Albany .$ It was important 
to keep the trading-house of the company as near as pos- 
sible to the eastern termination of this great Indian thor- 
oughfare ; and, on the commanding eminence which the 
Mohawks called Tawass-gunshee, overlooking the river ^t J^"^'™ i'^^^ 
the mouth of the Tawasentha, a new fortified post was "■■ii'i'mn"- 
erected by Belkens, Here, tradition alleges, was soon aft- 
erward ooncluiJed, with the chiefs of the Five Confederated 
Nations of North American Indians, the first formal treaty 
of alliance between the red man and the Hollander ; and 
which, after its renewal by Kieft in 1645, was observed 
with general respect, until the surrender of Fort Orange 
to the English. A new league of friendship was then en- 1664. 
tered into between Colonel Cartwright and the sachems of ^* ^^ 
the Iroquois, which continued without violation on either 
side until the commencement of the Revolutionary war, 4 
At the time of the treaty of the Tawasentha, the fairest 
regions of North America were inhabited by " the Uomans 
of the "Western World."!! Around the elevated table-landa 

th Apri), leeo, says that tram Ih 

sland near Foit Orsiige yet tearB ma name oi uaaue isiana, ma 

can fft! ie shawa ; which small bm was three years ifftenmrd seriouely injured hy 
water ADd ice, si> tbat at lengtli It decayed eoUrely." — Alb. Kee., xilv., 167. 
lonllon, 348. The original and beauilftUly-ejptBBBive Mohawk nameofihla aiream 
" Taiaaaitha," meaning rTU p!ace of the mrary deai, li was an ancient Moliank 
e, and ihe burial-place of many oS ihe iribo.— Sdiuolotaft and G. F. Yates. The 
n app^Mive oT the " Norman's Kill" is a^d lo haye been denied fiola Andiiea 
t, a native of Denmark, and thereibre sornamod " the Norman," who seiUed hlnjaelf 

in 1630.— O-Call., i., 76, 433, 434. 

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[. wlieiioe flow waters which discharge themselves through 
~ the Hudson, the Delaware, the Susquehanna, and the Saint 
iJawrenoe into the Atiantio, and through the Alleghany, 
the Ohio, and the Mississippi into the G-ulf of Mexico, 
were then oluatered five nations of wailike savages, whose 
forefathers, expelled from Canada hy the Adirondacs, in 
early days, had penetrated into the centre of New York. 
There they multiplied ; were subdivided into tribes or na- 
tions ; and then formed themselves into a Federal E.epub- 
The im- lie of independent cantons. Of the precise period of this 
Seranoii. confederation hisloiy has no record. But modern research 
into conflicting tradition places tlie event about the year 
1539 ; forty-seven years after Columbus's first voyage ; 
four years after Cartier ascended the Saint Lawrence to 
Hochelaga ; and seventy years before Hudson discovered 
the Worth River * 

The Iroquois, or Five Nations, preserving their several 
specific names of Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, 
and Senecas, when they formed their confederation, took 
the name of " KoNoSHiom,"t the "cabin makers," or "peo- 
ple of the long house." That long house reached from 
the banks of the Worth Eiver to the shores of Lake Erie. 
The eastern door of the sky-canopied abode of the Iroquois 
was guarded by the Kayingehagas, or Maquaas or Mo- 
Ttaditionai hawks ;$ the western door by the Senecas. Poetical tra- 
ffira"'^ dition, recorded by one of their own people,^ deduces their 
''"'"' origin, like that of the Athenian "Autochthones," from 
the " earth itself." In remote ages, they had been confined 

' Stnlth's Hisl. N. Y,, t., 64 ; Schoolsraft's Notes on the Iroquois, 118 ; Clark's Onon. 
daja,!., SOi L. H. Morgan's "League of the Iroqnois," S-8. G. P. Yalca Ihinks Ihal llie 
period of tha Iroquois cDnfadenicy was sUll more rcmolo, 

t Cllnlon'8 Mdreaa ; Schoolcraft's Notes. The comdion Frencll otOiography of Ibia 
(ermia " Aqulnoahionli" or J^onnoMiimHi, which, sccording to Cterleyolx, (.,87), sig- 
□IBed ^aiaeitrs de Ca^atmBS ; see tmtB, p. €7, note. In their o^vn language, the Fiye Na- 
Uons bIbo called Ihemselvea " Eotinnonolliendi"— lllat is, £a Caiaine Achejrie ; Relation, 
1653-4, p. 54. Morgan, p. Sl, howerer, aaya that the Iroqnoia, after their league, daUcd 

t " Wb CDrnmooly call thorn Maquaas, bul ihoy call theniBeWEa KajwjijlMijn." Letter 
or Pontine Meffapelensis to the Classta of Amsterdam, Wlb Septemher, Itis ; Monlton, 

fiint." According to M. de Joncaire, tim device of the Mohawhs,in 17^, was a ateeland 
iUnt. Paris Doc.,Tiii., 187 i Doc. Hist. N. Y., I., SS ; IMd., ili., 803, ivhste ihB name Is 

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under a mountain, near the falls of the " Oah-wah-kee," chap. ni. 
or Oswego E.ivev, whence they were released by Tharon-' ,„, ' 
HY3AGON, " the Holder of the Heavens." Bidding them go 
forth toward the east, he guided them to the valley of the 
Mohawk. Following its stream, they reached the Caho- 
hatatea, or North E,iver, which some of them descended to 
the sea. Thence, retracing their patli, toward the west, 
they originated, as they passed along, the trites of Mo- 
hawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugaa, Senecas, and Tus- 
caroras.* But the Tuscaroras, wandering to the south, 
crossed the AUeghanies, and fixed their home on the hanks 
of the Cautano, or Neuae Eiver, in North Carolina ; whore 
Tharonhyjagon, leaving them to hunt and prosper, re- 
turned northward, to direct the confederation of the re- 
maining Five Nations. t Such is one of the hold fables 
by which the traditions of the Konoshioni assert their 
aboriginal existence. 

The several tribes or cantons were independent. AsTiiBscver- 
they gi'ew in numbers and in valor, they began to quarrel indapend- 
among themselves ; and, living in perpetual fear, they 
built fortresses for defense, or else continually shifted their 
villages. Finding that they were gradually wasting away, 
the wise men of the Onondagas proposed that the kindred 
tribes should no longer war against each other, but should 
unite in a common league for oifense and defense against 
all other nations. The advice was adopted, and each Iro- 
quois tribe or canton deputed representatives to a general 
council. By tJiese plenipotentiaries the Confederation of 
the Five Nations was organized on the shores of the On- 
ondaga Lake, where the great central council-fire was 
originally kindled, and for centuiies permanently remain- 
ed. "When the league was formed, Atotarho, the dreaded 

IS Toacaroroa v/m 

16 great hill people ;" that of 

ileallhe mucky 1, 

Hid ;" Ihat of Ihe Onondagas, 


eidas, Oam/oteSca-ima, or ■' the 

1,52. ThenatM 

of the Mohnwka has already 

t Kegapolen«Si ia Hazard, i,, iii ; Schoolcraa'B Notes, eU-IOS ; Clai] 
i,, ai-M, ar-43 ; Koi^an, 1. 

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Chip. III. chief of the Onondagas, waa anxiously sought by the Mo- 
hawk emhassy,' which was specially deputed for the pur- 
pose. Atotaiho M'as foimd sitting in a swamp, calmly 
araoliing a pipe, and rendered invulnerable by living ser- 
pents which hissed around his body. Approaching the 
chief in awe, the embassy invested htm with a broad belt 
of wampum, and solemnly placed him at the head of their 
league. The dignity which popular veneration thus spon- 
taneously conferred on their great sachem always remain- 
Hoiarho. ed in the Onondaga tribe ; and the name of " Atotarho," 
after his death, became the distinctive hereditary title of 
the most illustrious chief of the Iroquois Confederation.* 
ciioractcr The Confederation of the Five Iroquois Nations was sim- 
oruio grand ply a leaguc for common defense, not a perfect political 
union.t The general council of sachems, elected accord- 
ing to the laws of each nation, exercised only a delegated 
power, and expressed only the popular will of their con- 
stituents. "What these senatorial sachems in the grand 
council deliberately pronounced to be proper, the venera- 
tion of the constituent cantons supported and maintained. 
Thus, besides the union of the Ketherland Provinces, the 
league of the Iroquois nations was early set before the 
American colonies as an example for theii consideration. 
Govern- Each nation or canton was a sovereign republic, divided 
ssvetai na- Into claus ; and each continued, notwithstanding the con- 
federation, to be governed hy its own political chiefs or 
sachems. The original clans, or families, into which each 
tribe was subdivided, were eight in number, and were dis- 
tinguished from each other by ditferent and peculiar de- 
vices or " Totems." The most important of these were 
the Tortoise, the Bear, and the Wolf. These totems, or 
family symbols, denoting original consanguinity, were 

ichoolcraK, 91 ; 

Morgan, 07, 66, calls him " To-io-da-bo." 


te Natlona,' used by CoWen, and In popular use duving l\ie eatlier po- 

ifthe colony, IX 

issod lobe apprapitate aftsr IheTusraiora revoll in Nonh Caiollna, and 

rtbe with Ihe patent >imH Mib»cquent tolTia. From that poriod they 

called tbe'Slj 


liB and Cayugas to Canada."— School crart, 46 ; M(irsan,a4,14i Ban- 

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universally respected. The wandering savage appealed 
to his totem, and was entitled to the hospitality of the" 
wigwam which hore the corresponding emhlem. The old- 
est, most seiisihle, best- speaking, and most warlike men 
of the tribe were generally chosen to he its chiefs or sa- sasnenu. 
chems. " These commonly resolve, and the young and 
warlike men carry into execution ; but if the common 
people do not approve of the resolution, it is left entirely 
to the judgment of the mob. The chiefs are generally 
the poorest among them ; for instead of their receiving 
from the common people, as among Christians, they are 
obliged to give to them." The war chiefs derived their 
authority from their approved courage. Military service Miiuary 
was demanded only by custom and opinion. But the 
penalty of a coward's name kept the ranks of the Iroquois 
war-parties always full. All able-bodied males above the 
age of fourteen were judged capable of taking the field ; 
and no title was more honorable than that of warrior. To 
join in the war-dance WM to enlist for an expedition. 
Each warrior furnished his own arms and provisions, and 
no cumbersome baggage impeded the rapid march of an 
Iroquois army.* 

Oratory distinguished the Five Nations as much asEioquoncf 
bravery and political wisdom. In alt democracies, elo- koquws. ' 
quence is one of the surest roads to popular favor and pub- 
lic honors. Among the Iroquois, oratory was as sedulous- 
ly cultivated as at Athens or Rome. Their children were 
taken to the council-fires, where they listened to the words 
of the wise men as they talked of peace and war. The 
sublime scenery in which they lived constantly suggested 
rich images ; and while the criticism of their sages re- 
strained the luxuriance of youthful rhetoric to the stand- 
ard of approved taste, their eloquence became a model 
which other Indian nations were proud to imitate. Thus 
peculiar and extraordinary by great attainments in gov- 
ernment, in negotiation, in oratory, and in war, " the su- 

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p. III. perior qualities of tJie Iroquois may 1>6 asorited as well to 
~ the superiority of fJieir origin, as to the advantages of po- 
' sition, the maxims of policy, and the principles of educa- 
tion which distinguished them from the other red inhah- 
itants of this Western World."* 
Mo- Of all the confederated nations, the Mohawks were the 
icni. bravest and the fiercest. No hunter warriors on the North 
American continent ever filled a higher measure of hero- 
ism and military renown. Their very name was a syno- 
nym for blood. f From their propinquity to the Dutch set- 
tlements, and their superior martial exploits, the name of 
this nation was frequently applied, by way of eminence, 
to the whole Iroquois confederation ; among all the nationa 
of which the Mohawks were held in the highest venera- 
tion. Standing at the eastern door of the "Long House," 
the Mohawk wamors were the chief agents in carrying 
to the sea the conquests of the Iroquois. Far across the 
hills of Massachusetts, and through the valley of the Con- 
neoticut, the dreaded name of Mohawk enforced an abso- 
lute submission ; and their annual envoys collected tribute 
and dictated laws with all the arbitrary authority of Ro- 
man proconsuls. From thejr ancient fortresses, war par- 
ties of the Iroquois continually went forth to victory ; and 
the tribes on both banks of the North Uiver quailed before 

* Da Wilt Cltnton'8 Mireaa, io N. Y, e. S. CoU., ii., 79, " Eegtel luis been espressed 
thai Bome one of lie sonotouB and appropriate Indian namsa of the West bad not bEen 
tiiosen to designate the elate. TUe CDloniGta were bul little tegardiXil of questions of tlila 
luod. Botli the Datoh in ieofl. luid the English in 1664, eamo with precisely the eame 
liitee of natiooai ptepoaaeasion— the first in &vot of Amaterdam, and the eecond in (hYor 
of Now York— tolh connected with the haUltliiig adjecltve " New." * ' - • K wauld be 
weU, indeed, if their deacendants in America had been a little more alive to the inllnenoe 
of this trail. Those who love llio land and cherish lis nalionaUties, would al least have 
boon spared " * the coMinned repMlHon of fareign, petty, or volgar names. * • * while 

never Ihoughl of."— Schoolcraft, in N. Y. H. S. Proe., iSM, p. 05. 

Ihem, as Ilia Mieved, by Uie Mohegan or Mahlcan race, which inhablled Ihe borders of 
Ilie sen. Among this race the Dutch and English landed { and the; would nalnrally 
adopt the lo™ moat in VDgno for bo celebrated a trite. The Bolch, Indeed, modified it to 
' ISBtuaas; a modification which helpa na lo decipher its probable orisin in Mmiqaa, a 
hear. • • * The Mohawk sachems, who presented their condolence at Albany in 1690, on 
the tsMng of ScJioneclady, said, ' We are all of the race of the bear— and a bear, yon 
know, never yields while one drop of blood is left. We musl all be bears.' "—Schoolcraft's 
Notes, 73. Clarli, 1., 31, says, thai the Mohawks HimlEhcrt the " Tc-kar-a-tii-gca," or wai 
captain of the league. But this has bean denied by Morgan, 

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their formidable foe. Long "before European discovery, cmp. iii. 
the question of savage supremacy had been settled on the 
waters of the Cahohatatea. 

Such were the famous Indian nations among which the Empire of 
Dutch first established themselves on the upper waters of quoia. 
the North River. Under the influence of that spirit of ag- 
gression, and thirst for aggrandizement which the con- 
sciousness of power excites, the Iroquois confederates soon 
reduced the neighboring tribes into vassalage ; and exact- 
ed a universal tribute, from the Abenaquis on the Bay of 
Fundy, to the Miamis on the Ohio. The weaker nations 
trembled when they heard the awful name of the Konosh- 
ioni. Their war-cry sounded over the great lakes, and was 
heard in the Chesapeake Bay. They quenched the iires 
of the Eries, and exterminated the Susquehannas. The 
Lenapees, the Metowacks, and the Manhattans were sub- 
jugated. The terror of the Iroquois went wherever their 
war-canoeS were paddled ; and the streams which flowed 
fi^m the sumnut lands around theu grand council-fire at 
Onondaga, were the channels which conducted their war- 
riors to triumphant expeditions among the neighboring 
tribes. Their invincible arms humbled every native foe, 
and their national pride grew with, every conquest.* 

But when the progress of the French along the Saint ^'"' >"""■ 
Lawrence had introduced the knowledge of European chempiain. 
weapons among the Huions and Algonquins of Canada, 
the war-parties of the far-conquering Iroquois suffered se- 
verely in their encounters with enemies who were aided 

Morgan, 9-17. 


Iba Iraquola, from Mr. Stretf e mcttiofa romance, " Froiitenac" 

" The Be™ Adiibndacs tad fled iVom their wrath, 

The Hnrons beea awept from Ihdr mertUeBS palh ; 

Around, the Otlawas, like leaves had Deen strown. 

Ana the Lake of the Erlea slmtk silent and lone. 

The Lonape, lords once of Yallej and hill. 

Made women, hent low at Ibeir ranquerora' wLll. 

By the far MiaslBSlppI the Mnl shrank, 

Wtien the trail of the TomoiSB was seen on the banh ; 

On Ihs hills of New England the Pequod turned pide. 

.K Blamped Ilia carpet of floweri 

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[. Ijj the niilitdiy skill of Champlain. The lesson which he 
"had hist taught to the Mohawks in 1609, had been re- 
peated to the Onondagas in 1615. His unevring arque- 
buae had struck down the chiefs who were thought invul- 
nerable m then arrow-proof native armor ; and the terri- 
fied confederates had twice fled before their unusual foe.* 
Anxious to wipe oiF the disgrace of unexpected defeat, 
the Iroquois sought the alliance of those whose friendship 
might, perhaps, enable them to recover their ancient su- 
■ periority ; and the treaty of the Tawasentha was soon 
concluded between the chiefs of the aborigines and the 
representatives of tlie Amsterdam merchants, in all the 
solemn forma of Indian diplomacy. Besides the Iroquois, 
the Mahicans, the Mincees, the Mimiisincks, and the Len- 
ni-Lenapees were represented at this grand council, which 
the Mohawks, who were the prime movers of the treaty, 
invited the other tribes to attend. Under the supervis- 
ion of the Dutch, a general peace and alliance was nego- 
tiated ; and the supremacy of the Five Confederated Na- 
tions was affirmed and acknowledged by the other tribes. 
The plenipotentiaries of the Iroquois were five chiefs, 
each representing his nation, and each bearing a hered- 
itary name, which, nearly a century before, had distin- 
guished the delegates who formed the grand confedera- 
tion. The belt of peace was held fast at one end by the 
Iroquois, and at the other by the Dutch ; while in the mid- 
dle it rested on the shoulders of the subjugated Mahicana, 
Mincees, and Lenni-Lenapees, as a nation of women. The 
calumet was smoked, and the tomahawk was buried in 
the earth, over which the Dutch declared they would erect 
a church, so that none should dig it up again without de- 
stroying the building and incurring their resentment.t 
Thus the factors of the Amsterdam Company gained 
iiy. for the Hollanders the lasting fi:iendship of the Iroquois. 
Their traders fearlessly visited the wigwams of the red 
men ; and in exchange for the peltries of New Netherland, 

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the Dutch, at first anxioas to limit their payments to cluf- citjp. in. 
fela and toys, 'before many years hegan to supply their In- 
dian allies with weapons which had conquered a peace 
with Spain* To both parties the treaty was advanta- 
geous. The tranquil monopoly of the for trade filled the 
coffers of the Amsterdam adventurers ; while the posses- 
sion of European fire-arms eventually enabled the confed- 
erated nations to reassert and maintain their former su- 
premacy over the neighboring savage tribes. But the in- 
troduction of these weapons was, in the end, fetal to the 
peace of the frontier. The Indian warrior soon became 
more expert with the firelock than the European who 
manufactured it. For more than a century, the confed- 
erated nations were alternately courted as allies and 
dreaded as enemies by the rival statesmen of England 
and France ; and no sooner did the news of the battle of 
Bunker Hill reach London, than Lord Dartmouth com- 
municated the king's orders to Colonel Guy Johnson, the 1775. 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs in New York, to " lose ^ '"'"*■ 
no time in taking such steps as may induce them to take 
up the hatchet against his majesty's rebellious, subjects in 
Amoi-ica, and to engage them in his majesty's service."t 

On the first of January, 1618, the exclusive charter of 1618. 
iihe Directors of Kew Netherland expired by its own lim- Neinor^nd 
itation. Year by year the value of the returns from thepircs. 
North Uiver had been increasing ; and the hope of larger 
gains incited the factors of the company to push their ex- 
plorations farther into the interior. Besides visiting, and, 
perhaps, establishing a post among the Esopus Indians, 
Dutch traders had partially explored the rich and extens- 
ive vale of Talpahockin, drained by the upper channels 
of the Delaware ; and it has been asserted that a settle- 
ment was now commenced on the shores of the river op- 
posite to Manhattan, at Bergen, in Scheyichbi, or New 

' Tliia, hoHover, was not tbe case nnUl altar 1630. In 1696, It would seem Ihal Iho Mo- 

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CH.r.iii. Jorsoy.* But though the Dutch unquestionably had a 
just title to New Netherland ty fii-st discovery and siab- 
' sequent possession, no systeniatio agricultural colonization 
of the country had yet been undertaken. The scattered 
agents of the Amsterdam Company still looked merely to 
peaceful tiuffic, and the cultivation of those friendly rela- 
tions which had heen covenanted with their savage allies 
on the hanks of the Tawasentha. 

Upon the expiration of their special charter, the mer- 
chants v^ho had formed the United New Netherland Com- 
pany applied to the government at the Hague for a renew- 
al of their privileges, the value of which they found was 
daily increasing. But the States General, who were now 
contemplating the grant of a comprehensive charter for a 
4 onobev. "West India Company, avoided a compliance with the pe- 
tefliseci by tition. This ciroumstajioe, however, did Tiot cause even a 
Gsnerai. temporary abandonment of New Netherland, nor weaken 
the title of the Dutch to their American discoveries ; 
though it may have delayed, for a short time, the devel- 
opment of the various resources of the territory. The 
government still continued to encourage trade and com- 
merce on the North River. A few days after a renewal 
of the first New Netherland charter had been refused, 
Hendrick Eelkens, and other participants in the late com- 
'jocmiier. pauy, petitioned to be allowed to send their ship, "the 
Scheldt," on a voyage to Manhattan, without any preju- 
dice to or from their former associates; and the States 
General promptly comphed with their prayer.t 
snum In Up to this period the Dutch were the only Exiropeans 
sianA who had any accurate knowledge of the regions about the 
North and South Rivers, and of the coasts of Connecticut, 
Rhode Island, and Long Island. English fishing vessels 
had, however, continued to resort to the coasts of Maine ; 
and notwithstanding the failure of Popham's enterprise at 
the Sagadahoc in 1608, the active perseverance of Gorges 
had kept alive the drooping spirits of the old Plymouth 
1614. Company. Early m the spring of 1614, John Smith, dis- 

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gusted with Mb undeserved treatment in Virginia, set sail, ck«p. m, 
with two ships, for the regions allotted in James'a charter ^"' 
of 1606 to the Plymouth or Nortliern Company, In an 
open hoat, with eight men, he explored the coasts firom 
Penohsoot to Cape Cod, while the rest of \m company re- 
mained employed in fishing. Uetuming to England in 
July, Smith left one of his ships behind, in charge of isjmy. 
Thomas Hunt, to complete a cargo. But Hunt, perfid- 
iously entrapping twenty-seven of the natives on board 
his vessel, carried them to Malaga, and sold them aa 
slaves to the Spaniards. Hunt's baseness naturally ex- 
cited against his countrymen the enmity of the savages. 
A ship which had been dispatched' by Grorges and Lord 
Southampton, under the command of Captain Hobson, to 
settle a plantation, arriving soon after Hunt's departure, 
was attacked by the natives, and was forced to return to 
England, with Hobson and several of his crew wounded. 

On his return home after a profitable voyage, Smith Now bh- 
presented a map of the coasts of Maine and Massachusetts nCcabj 
to Prince Charles, who, in the warmth of his admiration, chwies. 
bestowed upon the adjoining coimtry the name proposed 
by the enterprising explorer — " New England." By a re- 
markable coincidence, Smith was exhibiting Ms map, and 
explaining his adventures to the son of King James, in 
London, almost at the very moment that Block was ex- n octobai' 
Mbiting the "Figurative Map" of Wew Netherland, and sioek con- 
detailing the discoveries of the Dutch to the States Gen-i^5™v-'" 
eial at the Hague. Thus the names of "New Kether-"'' 
land" and "New England" took their places, contempo- 
raneously, in History. 

The Plymouth Company, moved by Smith's representa- 161-5. 
tions, now attempted to plant again a small colony on the ^""d'™- 
coast of recently-named New England. But the enter- ™iDuti™! 
prise resulted in another disappointment. Smith, while 
on his way to America, was captured at sea by a French 
squadron, and detained a prisoner on board the admiral's 
ship. Escaping in an. open boat, he reached Rochelle ; 
whence, returning to London, ho published, the next year, 

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ciiir.iii. Ills " Deaoription of New England." Not discouiaged "by 

repeated failures and difficulties, he then spent several 

■ months in vending copies of his hook and map, and in 

1617. constant efforts to excite the merchanta and noljleinen in 
the weat of England to new adventures in America. 
Plans of colonization on a large scale were soon formed ; 
Smith was appointed admiral for life ; and the Plymouth 

1618. Company applied to the king for a new charter, similar to 
the one which had proved so advantageous to Virginia. 
But, for two years, the proposition was strenuously and 
successfully opposed, not only by the Virginia Company, 
which desired to retain a monopoly of commerce, but also 
by private traders, who pressed the importance of pre- 
serving the freedom of the North American fisheries. 
Meanwhile New England remained uiieolonized.* 

1619. ^''^ English vessel was now to sail, for the first time, 
iieriner'a through Long Island Sound, and to visit the coasts which 

Block had thoroughly explored five years before. In the 
summer of 1619, Captain Thomas Dermer, " employed 
hy Sir Ferdinando Gorges and others, for discovery and 
other designs in these parts," after dispatching to Bn- 
acMay. gland, from the Island of Monhegan, near the ICennebeck, 
a vessel laden with fish and furs, set out on a voyage to 
Virginia, in a small, open pinnace, of about five tons bur 
June. den, "determining, with God's help, to search the coast 
along." In rounding Cape Cod, he " was unawares taken 
prisoner" by the Indians, from whom he ransomed him- 
self by giving several hatchets. After passing Martha's 
Vineyard, Dermer " discovered land about thirty leagues 
in length, heretofore taken for main,+" where he feared he 
would be embayed ; but, hy the help of an Indian pilot, 
he reached the sea again at Sandy Hook, " through many 
crooked and straight passages." Near Throg's Neck, " a 
multitude of Indians let fly" at Dermer from the bank ; 
hut he came offvictorious. In passing through Hell-gate, 

'■■ABrLerRelMion,"*c„mMasa. Hial. Co11.,iiY., 5-U; Gorges, "BtiefNotratiDO," 
insBme, jKvi.,56-flO; Smilh, il., 174-Sia ; Bancroft, i.. 360-371. 

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"a moat dangerous cataract among amall rocky islands," chap. lu, 
he lost his anchor by the strength of the current, which 
hurried him on tiirongh the East River with such swift- 
neaa, that, without stopping at Manhattan, he passed, " in 
a short space," into the lower hay, which gave him " light 
of the sea." From Sandy Hook, Dermer' coasted safely to ' sepi. 
Cape Charles, and the James River ; whence he sent an ac- 
count of his adventures to his Mend Purchas at London.* « Dec, 

Having finished his husiness in Virginia, " where he was 
kindly welcomed and well refreshed," Dermer put to sea 
again, early the next spring, " resolving to accomplish, in 1690 
his journey hack to New England, what in his last dis- 
covery he had omitted. In his passage, he met with cer- 
tain Hollanders, who had a trade in Hudson's River some 
years hefore that time, with whom he had a conference 
ahout the state of that coast, and their proceedings with 
these people, whose answer gave him good content." This 
" conference" was held, no douht, with the Dutch traders 
who were then settled at Manhattan Island. Availing 
himself of the information which he thus obtained, Der- 
mer " betook himself to the following of his business, dis- 
covering roariy goodly rivers, and exceeding pleasant and 
fruitful coasts and islands, for the space of eighty leagues 
from east to west; for so that coast doth range along," 
from the North E,iver to Cape Cod. But, before he left 
Manhattan, Dermer took care to warn the Dutch, whom 
he found there in quiet possession, not to continue their 
occupation of what he claimed as E relish territory. Meet- 
ing, says Gorges, with " some Hollanders that were settled 
in a place we call Hudson's River, in trade with the na- 
tives," Dermer " forbade them the place, as being by his 
majesty appointed to us." The Dutch traders, however, 
replied that "they understood no such thing, nor found 
any of our nation there ; so that they hoped they had not 
offended ."t 

S. Coll., i., p. 393; Moilon'H Memnilal, 96 ; Prince, 151; Holmes,!.. 158. 

* Smith, li,, aiB; "A Brief Belailon," ftt, in Maaa. HIsi. Coll.. lii,, 1 
" Brief Nurraiion," in Maw, Hint. Coll., xxtL.TS ; Do Lael, book Ui., cap, l\ 

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Chap, III. Oil reaching New England, Denner transmitted to 
„ G-orges " a journal of hia proceeding, with the description 
au June ' °f t^® coast all along as he passed."* "Upon the receipt 
of this journal, and the previous letter to Purohas, the 
Dennetun- Plymouth Company seem, most unjustly, to have oon- 
xidered by sidercd Dermer as the original discoverer of Long Island 
astiwBrat Sound and of the adjacent coasts. But though Dernier 
i^nsiai- appears to have been the first Englishman that ever sailed 
through the Sound, he had heen preceded, several years, hy 
Block and his Dutch associates ; with the details and re- 
sults of whose earlier enterprise he was made fully ac- 
quainted, in the " conference about the stat© of that coast" 
which he had with those Hollanders, whom, on his retui" 
from Yiiginia, he found " settled" at Manhattan. 

The first account of his adventurous voyage to Virginia, 
which Denner had sent to Purchas, from his winter quar- 
ters on the James River, seems to have quickened the ef- 
FoiBDi tor forts of Gorges and his sijsociates to obtain fi:om the king 
i(imrt. "' the new privileges for which they had so long pined. 
Constant appeals were addressed to the court for a new 
patent — " such as had been given to Virginia." The old 
:i Morcii, Plymouth adventurers petitioned the king that the terri- 
tory might be called New England, " as by the Prince his 
Highness it hath been named," and asked that its proposed 
boundaries should be settled " from forty to forty-five de- 
grees of northerly latitude, and so from sea to sea through 
the main, as the coast lyeth."! 

At length, after two years entreaty, the king yielded, and 

^3 .July, the sohcitor general was directed by the Privy Council to 

prepare a patent for the limits " between the degrees of 

dear Uiat ihe Dutch, wlom Detoicr conferrad vrtOt and " forbude the plBcB," were Uioee 
"aeiUed"at ManMiiaD, thongh they do not appear, aa yei, lo have Imllt any ftirt Ibere, 
Darmer Hflyanolhing about BacendlngtJie rivet, while he epeaka distinclly oT his ESplora- 
tions eiglity leagues eaatward frota aie Nonli Hlvet to Cape Cod. It bitewlBe appears to 
roe very probable that Dannei'B acorant was llie only iflnndatlon ftir" Beancbmnp Plantag* 
enet's" ftbnlons story of ArBsU's visit; see Appendix, Note B. 

* Monon'BMemortal, 6«-m ; Gorees, " flriof Narration." in Mass. Hisl. Soc Coll., isvi., 
63| Prince, 157. H61meB,i.,16S,n!isledby Prlnce,erroneoU3ljra9Bert3 Ibal Denner wbb 

373, cDTTOtla Belhnap'H sUniter error. 
tLondonroo., i.,6; N. Y. Col. MSS.. iii., a ; Mass. lliei. Coll., si i., IJ, 12. 

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forty and forty-eight."* . The original charter of 1606 had chaf. hi. 
fixed the northern houndaiy of British territory in America 
at the parallel of forty-fivo degrees ; and to that lino the 
prayer of the petitioners had been limited. Now, the En- 
glish government Ixildly instructed their law officer to in- 
elude in the new patent all that part of Canada compre- 
hended between the forty-fifth and the forty-eighth de- 
grees. "While the details of the proposed instrument were 
yet under advisement, Gorges and his associates probably 
received Dermer's second journal. By this they were in-MJimc, 
formed that the Hollanders were fairly " settled in a place" 
which the English called " Hudson's B,iver, in trade with 
the natives ;" and that, upon those Hollanders being for- 
bidden the place as British territory, they had answered 
that "they understood no such thing," nor had they found 
any English subjects there. In truth, since the return of 
the Sagadahoc colonists, no English subjects had perma- 
nently occupied any part of what was called New England. 
On the other hand, it was certain that the Dutch were 
actually in quiet possession of the region " between New 
France and "Virginia," and that they had been so for at 
least six years after the building of their fort at Castle 
Island in 1614, and the grant of the New Netherland 
charter by the States General. The applicants for the 
New England patent deprecated any farther delay. The 
tedious forms of English official law were at length com- 
pleted ; and a royal charter, which incKided three degrees 
of latitude more than had been originally comprehended 
in the patent of 1606, or been petitioned for by the Plym- 
outh adventurers, was finally engrossed. Late in the au- Jj. n^t 
tumn, the important instrument duly passed the great 
seal, by which the Duke of Lenox, the Marquises of Buck- 
ingham and Hamilton, the Earls of Arundel, Southamp- 
ton, and "Warwick, Sir Ferdinandfi Gorges, Sir Francis 
Popham, and their associates and successors, forty iu all, 
were incoi-porated by the king, as " the council established 

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.vp. III. at Plymouth, in the county of Devon, for the planting, 
. ruling, and governing of Kew England in America." 

The political powers granted to the new corporation 
were immense. Emigrants who might become inhabit- 
ants of New England were to be subject to the plenary 
authority of the Plymouth council. By the terms of the 
patent, the coi^poration was invested with the absolute 
propriety and exclusive jurisdiction of the territories 
thenceforth to he known as " New England in America," 
extending from forty to forty-eight degrees of northerly 
latitude, "and in lengldi, by all the breadth aforesaid, 
throughout the main land, from sea to sea." It was dis- 
tinctly alleged, in the preliminary recitals of the instru- 
ment, that the king had " been certainly given to under- 
stand" that there were " no other the subjects of any 
Christian king or state, by any authority ftom their sover- 
eigns, lords, or princes, actually in possession" of any of 
the lands or precincts " between the degrees of forty and 
forty-eight," whereby any right or title might accrue to 
them ; and this bold allegation was made a leading induce- 
m;ent to the patent. Yet the French occupation of Cana- 
da, as far south as the forty-fifth degree of latitude, was 
notorious to the world ; and Gforges and his associates, 
before their patent was sealed, must have received from 
Dermer the clearest evidence that the Dutch were " set- 
tled" in actual and quiet possession of New Netherland. 
The convoying clause, however — as if future embarrass- 
ment was anticipated — expressly provided tliat the premi- 
ses intended to be granted "be not actually possessed 
or inhabited by any other Christian prince or estate," nor 
bo within the bounds of Virginia.* 

Thus the, weak-minded King of England attempted to 

affirm a dishonest dominion over nearly all the American 

IE Dutch territory north of Virginia. Meanwhile, tlie Dutch re- 

plo""" '" raained in possession of their original discoveries, and con- 

i^d. °"'' tinned to explore New Netherland. Cornells Jacobsen 

May, who had been among the first to visit the neighbor- 

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hood of Montauk Point, in the " Fortune," came out again c 
in a new vessel, the " BIyde Boodsohap," or G-lad Tidings. ~ 

chiefly to the coasts and rivers southward of Manhattan, e™"'^'''' 
Besides examining the regior^ which Hendriclcsen had ex- 
plored four yeata before. May also visited the Chesapeake, 
and ascended the Jamea River as high as Jamestown.* 
The bay at the mouth of the South Uiver was soon called 
by the Dutch " New Port May ;" and the point at the 
southern extremity of New Jersey still retains the name of 
" Cape May." Returning to Holland in the Bummer of CaireMay. 
1620, May reported that he had discovered "certain new, 
populous, and fruitful lands" on the South River. The 
owners of the Glad Tidings accordingly applied to theasAugusi- 
States General for a special charter in their favor. At the 
same time, Hendrick Eelkens and his partners presented 
an opposing petition, alleging their prior discovery of the 
regions which May had only recently visited, and praying 
that the exclusive right tb trade there might be granted to 
them. Upon this, the States General called both parties 
into their presence, and directed them to meet together and spedai 
arrange their differences. These differences, however, ap- niaea. 
peared to he irreconcilable. After nearly three months' 8 Nov. 
investigation, a committee of the States General reported 
that they had vainly attempted to adjust the conflioting 
claims ; and their High Mightinesses peremptorily refused 
the prayers of both memorials.t But the importance of the 
regions around Manhattan was now becoming more fully 
appreciated at the Hague. In less than seven months from 
the rejection of May's ship-owners' petition, the long-pend- company"' 
ing question of a grand commercial organization was final- by ib= 
ly settled ; and an ample charter gave the "West India erai. 
Company almost unlimited powers to colonize, govern, and 1631. 
defend New Netherland. 

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GHAr. IV. The United ^Netherlands now ranked among the fore- 
~ '~ most nations of the world. They had signalized the com- 
rfthe mencement of their newly-recognized sovereignty hy es- 
pubiio. tabliahing diplomatic relations with most of the neighbor- 
ing courts of Europe ; and distant powers had begun to 
1610. seek their alliance. The King of Morocco early sent am- 
bassadors to the states, and negotiated a liberal treaty ; 
1612. while the sultan opened to the Dutch the commerce of the 
Levant, which before had been monopolized by England 
and France. "With "Wurtemhurg and Brandenhurg a mu- 
tual freedom of trade was soon adjusted ; and, in a me- 
morial to King James, Raleigh bore eloquent testimony to 
the large policy of the early tariffs of the Netherlands, de- 
claring that " the low duties of these wise states draw all 
trai&c to them, and the great liberty allowed to strangers 
makes a continual mart." As sagacious as he was patri- 
otic, Olden Barneveldt had consolidated the independence 
1616. of his country by procuring from the weakness of James 
the restitution of the Bridle, Vlissingen, and Rammekens, 
which had been pledged to Elizabeth as a security for the 
repayment of her advances to the United Provinces. The 
surrender of these " cautionary towns" — a measure which 
excited murmurs and discontent in England, and aston- 
ishment in other nations — gave intense satisfaction to the 
people of the Netherlands, and added a new impulse to the 
commercial prosperity which seven years of peace had es- 
tablished and confirmed. The flag of the republic floated 
on every sea — from Japan to Manhattan, from Nova Zem- 

Hosted by 



bta to Cape Hoom — her ports were crowded with riclily- cvat. iv. 
laden shipping ; her warehonses were filled with the costly ' 

products of the East; and the markets, which formerly " ' 
knew only the furs of Muscovy, had already become famil- 
iar with the peltry of New Netherland.* 

But while Europe was watching with jealous interest 
the triumphant progress of the "United Provinces, a cause 
was secretly at work within, which threatened more evil 
to the nation than all the might of foreign foes. During 
the greater part of the war with Spain, religions differences Eeiigioi^s 
had, more or less, prevailed in the Netherlanda. When the aions, 
truce was finally signed, men's minds, relieved from the 
absorhing consideration of martial affairs, were soon eager- 
ly engaged in fierce debates on articles of faith ; and the 
Geological controversy waxed as hitter in spirit as the po- 
litical contest which had just been settled. 

Early in the fifth century. Saint Augustine opened the Pdagiaiv 
famous controversy upon the " heresies" which the En- 
glish monk Pelagius had just broached. Augustine main- 
tained the doctrines of original sin, and the predestination 
of the elect to salvation, Pelagius denied them. The 
Churches of the East generally supported Pelagius ; those 
of the West, Augustine. Luther, a disciple of Augustine, 
affirmed the doctrines of the patron of his order ; and Cal- 
vin, following the great Father of the Reformation, with caivinisni. 
severe logic carried them out to their extieme conse- 
quences. Besides their distinctions in doctiine, the two 
Reformers differed also in their views respecting church 
government and the ceremonies of worship; the some- 
what conservative opinions of the leader of the German 
Protestants, upon these points, contrasting strongly with 
the more thorough system of the Genevese theologian. 

"Wessel Gansevoort and Rudolf Agricola, of Groningen, The Eefor- 
had already begun to teach evangelical faith. When Houina. 
the writings of Luther were printed in Friesland, and -'■"1°- 
circulated in Holland, Erasmus, though at heart not op- 
posed to many of the views of the German Reformer, 

• VanMBleren, ixxl„fill3! mil., 664, IDT ; Dnvles, ll,.44(5,4SSi McCallagh, ii„SSl 

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Cbsp. IV. thought that the eauae of truth would be better promoted 
by less violent proceedings. Interposing between the fol- 
■ lowers of Luther and the adherents of the Pope, Erasmus 
drew upon himself, for a time, the ill will of both parties. 
The mild impartiality of Adrian II., however, saw and ad- 
mitted the necessity of correcting the abuses in the Church ; 
1523. and the Rotterdam scholar was invited to Rome to assist 
the Pontiff with hia advice. But Erasmus, remainii^ in 
Holland, devoted his admirable talents to the cause of Re- 
form in hia own land. The seeds of truth, which had 
germinated there, could not be rooted out by all the efforts 
of the inquisitors of Charles V. and Philip II. The suo- 
cesaive edicts of the kings of Spain but planted more deep- 
ly in the hearts of the people the emancipating principles 
of the Reibrmation. Persecution but confirmed their be- 
lief, and invigorated their zeali The old nobihty and the 
beneficed prelates, dreading a change which might dam- 
age their secular interests, generally adhered to the Pope ; 
The Re- but the popular movement carried along with it the infe- 
Dnicn rior clergy. Mind acted on mind, and prescription yielded 
"" ' to the irresistible impulse. A Confession of Faith, modeled 
afterthatoftheCalvinistioChurchof France, was adopted, 
1561. in 1561, by the Protestants of the Netherlands, who thence- 
forward went by the name of " the Reformed."* 
I'irai The first public meeting and preaching of the Reformed 

oitreEe- in Holland took place in a field near the city of Hoorn, on 
1566. *^^ fourteenth of July, 1566. The rumor of this bold step 
soon spread over the province, and Protestants at Haerlem, 
Leyden, and other towns, followed the example of their 
brethren at Hoorn. Ministers were presently settled in 
the chief citiea; and the Reformed doctrine waa openly 
preached in the grand cathedrals which the Vandal fervor 
Tiie of Iconoclasts had despoiled. The Psalms were translated 
iranXtBd, into Low Dutch, and sung by great congregations. Thus, 
by degrees, the minds of the people were fully prepared for 
1573, the important step which the states took, in the year 1573, 

' Brandl'B History of llie EetormaUon, ii., 64, 84 1 v„S54; DavloB, L, 354-856, 448; 

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of expelling the Eoman Catholics from the churches. Yet chip. 7v. 
this measure was carried with great difficulty, and after ~ 

much opposition ; and it was justified only liy the consid- 
erations of pressing political necessity, and of the danger 
of trusting too much, during the war with Spain, to ec- 
clesiastics who hod sworn allegiance to the Pope, and who 
remained firm in that allegiance. The Reformed religion, BsiabiiBh- 
as taught in G-eneva and elsewhere, was puhlioly estal> Reibnnoa 
liahed in Holland a)>out the close of the year. At the' 
same time, and notwithstanding the acts of severity which 
they felt themselves compelled to uae against the Papiste, 
the people were of opinion "not only that all religions 
ought io be tolerated, but that all restraint in matters of 
religion was as detestable as the Inquisition itself."* 

Two years after the famous Union of Utrecht, in 1579, 
the Prince of Orange, on accepting the office of stadthold- 1581. 
er, which was formally confirmed to him hy the States of ^^'^'' 
Holland, proclaimed that he would " maintain and promote 
the Reformed religion, and no other ;" but " that he should 
not suffer any man to he called to account, molested, or 
injured, for his faith and conscience." In a few days, the 
nohle manifesto of the States General announced to theaeJuiy. 
world that the Dutch had openly rejected Philip as their 
king, and that the people of the Motherlands were absolved 
from all allegianoe to their former sovereign. This obliged 
the stadtholder to issue a proclamation prohibiting the pub- sa j>m.. 
he exercise of the Romish religion ; nevertheless, the same 
instrument declared that it was not intended " to impose FteoSom of 
any burden, or make inquisition into any man's eon- proline*, 
science." "While Calvinism was thus established as the 
national religion of Holland, the followers of all other modes 
of faith were freely allowed to conduct their worship in 
private houses, which were frequently as spacious as the 
churches themselves. ' Under this system, there was, in 
fact, an entire liberty in the use of diverse services. Hooft, 
the burgomaster of Amsterdam, in a public address to his 1598. 
coUeagnes, declared that magistrates should not " p 

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!■. IV. to build up living temples to the Lord ty force, and by 

~~ externa! arms ;" for, in their conflict with Spain, the Dutch 

■ had openly maintained that " no princes nor magistrates 

had any authority over the consciences of their subjects 

in matters of religion."* 

Thus religious ireedom was, ftom the fii^at, recognized 
as a universal right, and accompanied the spread of the 
raiiDii Reformation in Holland. If G-ermany nursed the infancy 
TM9. of the Protestant faith, the Netherlands developed its true 
proportions, and defended, its maturer growth. While the 
Dutch, with dauntless courage, were breasting the power 
of Spain, they habitually extended to eveiy sect the same 
liberty in matters of belief which they had claimed of 
Philip as tiieir own right. Though Calvinism was their 
established religion, Calvinism was not their exclusive re- 
ligion. Battling against a foreign bigot, it was only nat- 
ural that the people of the Netherlands should generally 
have repudiated bigotry at home. And this policy pro- 
duced the happiest effects. Occasional instances of sect^ 
arian excess were not, indeed, wanting. Yet, by degrees, 
Papists learned to think that Lutherans and Calvinists 
might be in the way of salvation ; Protestants forbore to 
call the Pope anti-Christ, and Romanists idolaters; the 
Calvinist and the Lutheran emulated each other in large 
Christian charity ; and the Jew, stopping his wandering 
steps and forgetting his exclusiveness, rested in Holland, 
Hand ail a faithful and patriotic citizen. The Low Countries soon 
f'™sa-' became an asylum for fugitives from pei'secution in other 
" ' lands ; and the Dutch won the honorable distinction of 
European reproach for their system of universal rehgious 
toleration. Amsterdam was called " a common harbor of 
all opinions, of all heresies." Holland was stigmatized as 
" a cage for unclean bbds," The Netherlands became 
notorious among the bigots of Christendom for such com- 
prehensive liberality in conscience and opinion, that it was 
observed that "all strange religions flock thither." Li- 

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deed, to such an unlimited extent was charity i 
toward all methods of religious telief , that a liheral-mind- 
ed English statesman, contrasting the narrow sectarianism 
of his own land with the enlajged Catholic spirit, of Hoi- 
land, could not help declaring that " the universal Church 
is only there,"* 

This magnanimous system of toleration remained a con- 
stant and remarkahle characteristic of the people of the 
Netherlands, except upon one memorable occasion, when 
the Dutch forgot, for a space, their cherished maxim. Yet, 
while religious differences grew warm among the Protest- 
ants of Holland, neither Gromarists nor Arminians, in their 
bitterest strife, thought of shutting the gates of the Low 
Countries against the persecuted of other lands ; and the 
consequences of that famous theological controversy gave 
all parties among the Dutch so terrible a warning, that 
the suggestions of bigotry ever afterward remained un- 
heeded. "It is certain," says DeWitt, "that freedom of 
religion having always been greater in Holland than any 
where else, it hath brought in many uihabitants, and 
driven out but few."+ 

From the first, the majority of the ministers of the Re- caiviniam 
formed Dutch Chnroh were Calvinistio. At the earliest duich ciw- 
synod which the clergy of Holland and Zealand held in 
1574, at Dordrecht, upon their own call, and without the 
approbation of the States of Holland, it was agreed that 
the Heidelberg Catechism should be taught in aU the 
churches, and that all the ministers should subscribe the 
Netherland Confession of Faith, and promise obedience to 
the Classes. The preaching of free will was soon consid- 
ered to be heresy ; it nearly produced a schism at Utrecht, 1593 

Hosted by 



Chip. IV. which Was healed only by the zealous exeitions of XJyten- 

bogait and Junius.* 
Ths GoDia. When Jacohus Aiminius waa recommended for the Pro- 
AmilSfns. feasorship of Theology at Leyden, made vacant by the 
death of Junius, in 1602, his appointment was opposed by 
Franoisoua G-omaius, who filled another theological chair, 
and who hesitated to teoeiTe as a colleague a person whose 
orthodoxy was doubted. The scruples of Gomarus were, 
however, overcome ; and the next year Arminius, upon 
promising to teach nothing but the "received doctrine" 
of the Church, became professor. At ikst his public 
preaching was unexceptionable ; but in private, he at- 
tacked some of the prominent points of the established 
1604. creed. At length, in the spring of 1604, he openly and 
boldly set forth doctrines at variance with those of Calvin 
respecting election and predestination. This aroused the 
warm opposition of his colleague G-omaius,,who published 
a thesis in which the distinctive tenets of Calvinism were 
vehemently urged. The strife between the professors soon 
led to exasperating disputes between their pupils, who, as 
it often happens, surpassed their teachers in zeal and an- 
imosity, as much as they fell short of them in knowledge. 
The feud extended as the Arminian sentiments spread. 
The ministers of the churches took the one side or the 
other ; and the controversy, which at first was carried on, 
in Latin, within the walls of the university, by degrees 
reached the ear.s of the people in furious vernacular from 
the pulpits.t 

• Btaodi, :(i., 654 ; xlY., 713is?.,1?«i Ada Synodi Dord, The Ibrm of ecdesiaslical 

.he. Thespiri 

congreeotion were managsd by »s pern 

ed (Be Uralted Mms ofBetTtce, by the n 

lembers of the r 

deacons formed the " Consisloty" or go 

fomlng counci! 


wilMo a cenaln district. It had large 

1 original and a 

ind, gonetally, i 

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Another dispute arose, "before long, respecting the Hei- ch:i 
delberg Catechism and the Confession of Faith, which" 

The Gomarista regarded these as unalterable formularies 
of belief ; the Arminians demanded their revision. Things 
soon came to such a pass that the States of Holland in- 
terfered, and appointed a conference between the rival 
professors, to he held at the Hague, before their Supreme 1608. 
Council, assisted by four ministers. The meekness of 
Arminiua gained him an advantage in debate over the 
sterner Gromarus, who injured his cause by violent de- 
nunciation. Upon the report of the council, Barneveldt 
recommended mutual forbearance to the disputants, prom- 
ising that their differences should be reconciled hy a na- 
tional Synod. Little good, however, followed the confer- 
ence. The classis of Alckmaer soon afterward resolved, 
that all the ministers within its jurisdiction should sign a 
declaration that the Catechism and Confession of Faith 
agreed, in every particular, with the word of G-od ; and 
five ministers, who refused to subscribe, were forthwith 
The censured ministers appealed to the 
i of Holland, who required the classis to report ita 
proceedings to them, and meanwhile to vacate its sen- 
tence of suspension. But the Synod of North Holland 
confirmed the action of its subordinate classis, and disre- 
garded the reiterated injunctions of the states,* 

Thus the dispute finally assumed a political aspect, ThBdiapmi 
The Arminians, acknowledging the right of the civil pow- political. 
er to decide points of religious doctrine, invoked its pro- 
of uilchAIltab1en«Ba han been mode so con&taBtly ogiun^ GontaroG and bla tirlends, that It 
ie only Justice to them to inseit an exaaci fiom a posthumous tnclate or Atminios him- 
self, dii the conimuDication or whirli I am indebted to the Rev. St. Foteyth, of Frlnceton. 
It shows that the synod's Mendly ovattnres were peremptorLlj rejected by Anninius. 
"On the aoih otluue, 1605, there cams to me, al Lejden, three deputies of the Synod of 
Souib Holland, and declared, in presence of two deputies ftom the Synod of North 
Holland, that the Leyden students, in Iheir eiamlnattona IBc licensure belbre several 

derstand what there ^ 

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Chip. IV. teotion and support. The G-omarists insisted that ecole- 
~7~~" siastical authority belonged, solely and exclusiyely, to the 
' consistories, the olaaaes, and the synods of the Church. 
The municipal governments generally, and very naturally, 
sided with the Amiiniana, who had thus adroitly flattered 
them ; hut the G-omarists, who formed a large majority 
among the clergy and the people, retained the almost en- 
tire control of the judicatories of the Church. Other 
classes followed the example of that of Alckmaer, and re- 
quired all their ministers to subscribe to the Catechism 
and Confession. And now, the truce with Spain having 
exempted the nation from the dangers of war, those minds 
which had been chiefly occupied by the great contest for 
civil and religious liberty were soon engaged in a vehe- 
ment conflict on abstruse points of metaphysical theolc^y. 
Every where the pulpits echoed denunciations against the 

1609. Arminians, which even the death of their amiable leader 
iBOdoi™, ^jm jjQ^ abate. To relieve themselves from misrepresenta- 

1610. tions of their Mth, the Arminians, the next year, present- 
ed a formal remonstrance to the States of Holland and 
"West Friesland, setting forth the five prominent points of 
doctrine in which they differed from the Reformed Church, 

ThnBe- and which soon obtained for them the name tliat, down 
sireniB. to the prcscnt day, has distinguished them in Holland, 
" the Remonstrants."* 

The chair of Divinity at Leyden, made vacant by the 

death of Arminins, was soon proposed to he filled by the 

appointment of the learned Conrad Vorstius, who, having 

been suspected of Sooinianism, was even more obnoxious 

inierfcr- than his predecessor. The pedantic King of England, to 

King whom the candidate for the professorship had given great 

offense by the publication of a theological treatise, could 

not resist the temptation to meddle as a polemic. He in- 

1611. structed his ambassador, Winwood, to press the States 

Greneral for the banishment of Vorstius ; and even hinted, 

in a letter to their High Mightinesses, that the " arch her- 

' Brandt, xtLL., SS ; jis., 130: Hisl. Syn. Doid., 139-154; Darieg, li., «1-M5 ; Mo- 

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etio" deserved a crown of mariyrdom. TKe king's perti- i 
nacious demands were warmly opposed by Bameveldt, ' 
"but strongly supported by Prince Maurice, the stadtholder, 
who thus conciliated the good-will of James. 'Ihe States, 
unwilling to offend their powerful English ally, consented 
that "Vorstius should retire ; and Simon Episcopius was 
appointed in his place.* 

The leading statesmen of the Netherlands could not 
avoid taking part in the reUgious dispute which, hy this 
time, had begun to distraet all ranks of their countrymen. 
Barneveldt and Grotius, desiring to curb the ambition of BBmevoui 
the stadtholder by the influence of the towns, naturally lius Hide 
sided with the Bemonstrants, whose views were generally Eemon- 
favorod by the municipal governments. But the clergy, 
excluded from political office, had generally been in, active 
opposition to the civil authorities ; and had always been 
zealous partisans of the stadtholders. Maurioe, remem- 
bering this, and knowing that a large majority of the 
ministers of the Reformed Church were hostile to the 
tenets of Ai-minius, naturally sided with the G-omarists. 

From the period of the truce with Spain, the prince had prinoe 
borne ill will against Bameveldt, whose influence in the and Btirne 
governments of most of the towns was enough of itself to 
ai'ouse the jealousy of a less ambitious politician. Soon 
after the stadtholder's splendid victory over the Spanish 
forces at Nieuport, some of the wisest patriots of Holland, 
among whom were Barneveldt and Grotius, began to en- 
tertain suspicions that Maurioe woidd endeavor to use his 
popularity with the army as a means of enabling him to 
gi^asp mote political power than would he consistent with 
the liberties of Ms country. "When propf^als were soon 
afterward made for an accommodation with Spain, the ad- 
vocate, with many other enlightened Dutch statesmen, be- 
came as active promoters of a peace as, not long before, 
they had been ardent supporters of the war. The martial 
of the Dutch had begun to modify their sober 

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'. national habits, and honeat patriotism feared a continu- 
ance of the tempting strife. The burdens of a wai-tax 
had become almost insupportable, and industry was crip- 
pled, while gallantry alone was rewarded. But, above all, 
it was apprehended that a well-organized army, flushed 
with continual victories, and led by so ambitious a general 
as Maurice, might soon read to the Dutch Republic the 
lessons which prtetorian cohorts hod read to Rome. Bar- 
neveldfc and his friends, therefore, eagerly desired a peace, 
and the truce of 1609 was signed. As stadtholder, Mau- 
rice was the commander .of the military force of the re- 
public ; an end of hcetilities would, he foresaw, deprive 
him of a large share of his authority and influence ; he, 
therefore, opposed the trace. Finding himself thwarted 
on every side by Barneveldt, he did not disguise his hatred- 
of tlie patriotic advocate ; who, in turn, could not conceal 
his suspicions that the prince desired to prolong the war 
from motives of private interest and personal ambition. 
Hence av<«6 a mutual antipathy, which soon deepened, on 
the side of the stadtholder, into a sentiment of intense an- 
imosity against Barneveldt, and which the sacrifice of its 
hated object at length coiild scarcely appease.* 

Swayed by such feelings of jealousy and hatred, it was 
only natural that the prince should take a side, in the great 
religions controversy which was distracting the country, 
opposite to that upheld by th<K(e statesmen who had thwart- 
ed his pohticai views. Other reasons besides his sympathy 
with the ostahUshed clergy, and his inveterate personal 
1616. detestation of the advocate, induced Maurice to espouse 
idea'vTuh with zeal the cause of the Gomarists, or Contra-Rcmon- 
wiSia. strants ; which, from the time of the stadtholder's open 
accession, daily gained ground. Sir Dudley Carleton, who 
had succeeded "Winwood as English ambassador at the 
Hague, also used the influence of his high position very 
unscrupulously against the Remonstrants, and took, every 
occasion to strengthen the prejudices which had already 
seriously affected the political standing of Barneveldt. 

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One of Garleton's motives for this conduct was, no doubt, CHif . r,: 
the chagrin of liis sovereign for hia wealiness in yielding 
to the advocEite's diplomatic skill in the negotiation for the 
surrender of the cautionary towns. The nobles, the states, 
and the municipal governments, which sided with the ad- 
vocate, were liheled without stint; Barneveldt himself was 
vindictively attacked ; and the King of England again in- connnuei 
flamed the mischief hy his officious personal intermed- ence of 
dJing. Aware that the question of a national synod hadiameB. 
now well-nigh replaced the other points in dispute, James, 
in March 1617, wrote a long letter to the States General, 1617, 
in which he &tionglj urged the measure as the most ef- 
fectual meani jf estahlishing the Reformed faith — the 
" only sohd cement of a good understanding between the 
two conntiie-5 The arguments of the king were warmly 
supported by his ambassador ; a national synod was ap- 
pointed to bo held at Dordrecht ; and Maurice, now be- 
come Prince of Orange by the death of his elder brother 
Philip, made a tour through the towns of the Netherlands 
to gain their unanimous consent to the measure.* 

The Synod of Dordrecht assembled on the thirteenth of 
November, 1618. It sat for more than seven months, at a 1618. 
cost to the republic of a million of guilders. Foreign ^"^^jr*^ 
Churches were invited to commission delegates to the syn- ^°'"' 
od, and they all complied with the request. The Churches 
of the Palatinate, Hesse, Switzerland, Bremen, and Emb- 
den, and the King of Great Britain, as the head of the En- 
glish and Scotch establishments, were all represented. The 
Refoi-med Church of France appointed delegates ; but they 
were forbidden by Louis XIII. to go to Dordrecht, and the 
places appropriated for them were left vacant during the 
sessions of the synod. The head of the Church of En- 
gland was represented by George Garleton, bishop of Llan- 
daff; Joseph Hall, dean ofWorcester ; Samuel "Ward, arch- 
deacon of Taunton ; and John Davenant, professor of The- 
olc^ at Cambridge ; while "Walter Balcancall was dele- 
gated by the king in the name of the Church of Scotland. 

* CailetDU's Letlna, 87, 88, 13S ( Hiel. Syn. Dord., ISS-SSS i Davics, U., 46;-4S«. 

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Chip. IV. After One hundred and fifty- four sessions — in the course of 
' which the Heidelberg Catechism and the Confession of 

' Faith were fully approved and ratified, and the Remon- 
strants pronounced innovators, disturbers of the Church 
and nation, obstinate and rebellious, leaders of faction, 
teachers of false doctrine, and schismatics — the business 
of this famous Assembly was closed on the ninth of May, 
1619. 1619 ; and Bogerman, its president, dismissed the foreign 
''■ members with the startling declaration that " its marvel- 
ous labors had made Hell tremble."* 
TUB syn- That tire proceedings of the Synod of Dort against the 
ceed^^' Arminians were inexorably severe, ought not to be, and 
*°'^'^' can not be denied. They formed a singular and memo- 
rable exception to the characteristic system of toleration 
which so nobly distinguished Holland among the nations 
of the earth. It would be difficult to repeat similar pro- 
ceedings at the present day. At the same time, it must be 
candidly admitted ^at the synod exercised upon the Re- 
monstrants only that ecclesiastical discipline which any 
Church may lawfully exercise upon those under its juris- 
diction, who reject or depart from its standards of doctrine. 
The Synod of Dorfc, in its supreme function, constitution- 
ally declared that the Remonstrants, who formed a very 
small minority among the clergy, and whose followers 
were scarcely one in thirty among the body of the people, 
sbould not teach feilse doctrine and heresy within the pale 
of the National Church, and under its apparent sanction. 
It was in their claimed character of members of the es- 
tablished Reformed Dutch Church, that the Remonstrants 
received the censures of that Church. If they could not 
approve of its standards of religion, and could not teach 
in conformity to them, they should have resigned their liv- 
ings and professorships, and have preached and taught else- 
where. Though the Dutch had a national religion, they 
liad no Statute of Uniformity. Had the Remonstrants hon- 
estly and openly separated themselves from the Established 
Church, whose doctrine they could not maintain, they 

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would undoubtedly have found, readily and at once, the chaf. iv. 
same toleration which other sects enjoyed in Holland, and 
which, after they had been judicially pronounced scliisma,t- 
ics, they did enjoy, and do notoriously enjoy, to this day. 

The fate of Bameveldt was soon sealed. He had been 
arhitrarily arrested, by order of the Prince of Orange, in 
August, 1618, as he was entering the Assembly of the Pro- 
vincial States of Holland, The arrest of their own advo- 
cate drew from the states an earnest remonstrance against 
auoh an open invasion of their privileges. But remon- 
strance was unavailing. The stadtholder was determined 
to gratify to the utmost his personal jealousy and revenge ; 
fuid Bameveldt was illegally defamed three months in 
prison, to maure the appointment of an adverse tribunal. 
After forty eight mterrogatoiiea, the advscate was con- 
demned to death, upon a serici of charges, the 
only capital one of whioh, and the one which before his 
trial lus enemies had most vehemently urged — ^that he had 
treasonably corresponded with Spain — was entirely aban- 
doned. On the morning of the thirteenth of May, 1619, isMay. 
in the seventy-second year of his age, Barneveldt was be- Bamovcidt. 
headed on a scaffold erected in the hollow square in front 
of the great hall of the States Q-eneral. As he walked 
calmly to his place of execution, and looked around upon 
the buildings which had vritneased his triumphs as a 
statesman, the contrast of his unworthy doom with the 
glorious recollections of his career, wrung from him the 
memorable exclamation, " Oh Grod ! what, then, is man !"* 
Popular tradition, thoi:^h its truth is doubted, to this day 
asserts that the insatiate vengeance of Maurice demanded 
a sight of the blood of his venerable victim ; and the vis- 
itor at the Hague is still shown a Httle window in one of 
the turrets, overlooking the quadrangle of the Biiinenhof, 
from which the prince is said to have witnessed the exe- 
cution of one of the truest patriots and most upright states- 
men that ever feU a sacrifice to the violence of party rage, 
or the unsorupulousness of political ambition, 

» DarteB, li., iMSM ; Van der Kemp'a "MmiilKi," Iv., 119-130, 317 ; Gratlan, SlI-S. 

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Chap. IV, In the midst of the religious and political differences 
which were thus distracting all classes in the Netherlands, 
■ a number of Ei^lish Puritans, weary of Merarohal op- 
pression, and smarting under the vulgar insults of their 
higoted king, r^olved to emigrate to Holland. 

At the command of Henry VIII., who, for opposing Lu- 
1521. ther, had received from Leo X. the title of " Defender of 
the Faith," the English clergy had been obliged to abjure 
1534. the supremacy of the Pope. Yet the Anglican Church, 
under Henry, though forced to substitute the supremacy 
of the King for that of the Pontiff, retained, to a great ex- 
tent, the peculiar doctrines and the gorgeous ceremonial 
of Rome. As the E.efornaation advanced, fui-ther changes 
1548. became necessary ; and, under Edward VI., Cramner ar- 
1552. ranged the terms of a compromise, which produced the 
The present Church of England. Like all compromises, the 
EngUiit new establishment rejected extremes. A hierarchal con- 
stitution was retained, and those beautiful collects, which 
had " soothed the griefs of forty generations of Christians," 
were translated into the English tongue ; while Articles 
1562. of Religion were adopted, and afterward twice dehber- 
1571, ately revised and ratified, in which the most zealous Cal- 
vinist might find his own doctrines affirmed. Thus the 
Established Church of England took a middle position be- 
tween the immutable Church of Rome and the Reformed 
Churches of the Continent. 

But when the English version of the Bible was printed, 
1539. and began to be generally read by the people, there were 
numbers of persons who thought that the founders of the 
Anglican Church had not gone far enough in their re- 
forms. Those persons, regarding the Holy Scriptures with 
the veneration due to a divinely-inspired book, looked 
upon them as alone famishing a complete manual in the- 
ology, in morals, and in poHtical science. Relying, per- 
haps too confidently, upon their own interpretations, they 
judged that, by the standard of those Scriptures, the En- 
glish Church was not a pure Church ; and that, in retain- 
ing prelacy, ceremonies, and other "remains of anti-Christ " 

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she was attempting to serve both God and Baal. They chap. iv. 
found no warrant in the Bible for wearing tiie surplice ; 
they thought that the Book of Common Prayer savored 
too much of the Missal and the Breviary ; and they in- 
sisted that the interests of a pure religion demanded the 
extremest simplicity in all its external services. Hence 
they obtained the name of " Puritans." The term event- 1564. 
ually designated all those " who endeavored, in their do- i^s. ""' 
votions, to accompany the minister with a pure heart, and 
who were remarkably holy in their conversations."* 

Returning to England, after the aooession of Elizabeth, views or 
irom their exile on the Continent, where they had em-iane. 
braced the most rigid views of Calvin, the Puritan leaders 
seemed to believe that the Reformation would not be com- 
plete unless every thing that might suggest a single rec- 
ollection of Romanism should be discarded. They reject- 
ed, as unscripturat, the claims of the bishops to ecclesi- 
astical superiority. They abhorred priestly garments as 
badges of popery. They denounced the Prayer Book and 
" other popish and anti- Christian stuff" of the English 
establishment. They felt themselves called upon to re- 
form the Reformation in England, and destroy all "relics 
of the Man of Sin." . Forms and ceremonies, by degrees, 
became as important, in their eyes, as creeds and doc- 
trines. Things indifferent became thmgs essential. They 
seemed to think that a sour austerity on earth would win 
for them, more certainly, an eternal inheritance in heaven. 
They appeared to fancy themselves God's special and pe- 
ouliar people, and more holy than their neighbors. They 
seemed to prefer the Old Testament and the argumenta- 
tive Epistles of Paul, to the Gospels and the milder Epis- 
ties of John. In the end, many of them conceived that 
the same polity which God had ordained for Israel before 
the coming of the Messiah, should govern both Church and 
State under the Christian dispensation. More than most 
sectarians, they were sincere and vehement in their belief, 

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caiit. IV. and severe and inilexiMe in their practice. More than 
_ most enthusiast, they were intrepid and pei^evering in 
' their fervid zeal. With intense earnestness, they labored 
to subject political power to the supreme control of an as- 
cetic religion. Confident that they alone were right, they 
acted out their part with consistent energy. In a country 
which was not distinguished for toleration, they claimed 
for themselves immunities which, afterward, they seemed 
unwilling to yield to others. Eventually they grasped the 
authority for which they longed, and retorted upon their 
adversaries the wrongs of their old oppressors, Yet the 
controversy which the Pxiritans eommenoed was only ' ' the 
wind hy which truth k winnowed," Their spirit of in- 
quiry and dissent added a significant impulse to the grand 
cause of civil liberty. Their earnestness may have carried 
them beyond just limits ; but their very fanaticism was 
decreed to be one of the instruments of Providence in work- 
ing out great good to man. And though we may not all 
applaud their singularities or justify their intolerance, we 
should not withhold our respect for the sincere fervor with 
which they advocated their system, the unfaltering con- 
stancy with which they endured persecution, and the firm 
will and stem resolution with which they maintained 
their principles.* 
1582. Before long, the Puritans, who seem to have embodied 
wnaeepa- rather the Saxon than the Norman type of the English 
ih"chnicii character, began to separate themselves openly fiom the 
ofEngiBad. (i^^q]i^ whosc government and ritual they condemned, 
but whose doctrines they could not wholly disavow. They 
refused to conform to the statutes of the realm ; and the 
law was severely enforced, Penalties which the Puritans 
had advocated against the Roman Catholics were exacted 
from themselves. Brown, the leader of the Separatists, 

'Those who 

flesite aet! 

lUed InflB 

ma«on roi 

fpecUng IJie Porilani 

9, may c 

lonanll Ned's 

Macanlay'a Eaao 

J on Mill 

on, in Ite 

Edlnturgh Review 

1, Ibr Angns^ 

, 87-92 ;Lli 


ay'B England, 

L.4sUs, 71-83, 

lfiO-166; 1 

, 460-489 ; HUdrclH, 

156 ; Young^ 


elee of 


> Winlhrop^Monm; 


leal Colled 






IB and tbei 

[■ Princlylos," 

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recanted his opiniona ; arid the haoksliding apostate was chap. iv, 
again received into the "bosom of the Estahlishod Church, ' ' 
Nevertheless, most of the Won-oonfomiists earnestly main- 
tained their ground. Opposition heoame one of their car- 
dinal maxims. Persecution soon followed non- conformity. 
But persecution in England only conihmed the faith andperseciv. 
brightened the zeal of the Puritans, as persecution in the 
Netherlands had confirmed the faith and hrightened the 
zeal of the Reformed. 

The aocession of James increased the severities of the 1603. 
hierarchy ; and the Puritans, ohstinate in their opposition 
to the rigorous law, hegan to look for an asylum in other 
lands. They had long heard that in Holland there was 
"freedom of religion for alJ men;" and thither some of 
them determined to fly. Early in 1608, a number of these 1608. 
self-exiled Non-oonformists, under John Rohinson, their ^'^gJ|J"„™ 
minister, and "William Brewster, their mlmg elder, left the 
fens of Lincolnshire, and arrived at Amsterdam. In Hol.^ 
land they found "many goodly and fortified cities, strongly 
walled, and guarded with troops of armed men, Also, they 
heard a strange and uncouth language, and beheld the 
different manners and customs of the people, with their 
strange fashions and attires ; all so far differing from that 
of their plain country villages, wherein they were bred and 
born, and had so long lived, as it seemed they were come 
into a new world." The next year, they removed to the 1609. 
" fair and beautiful city" of Leyden, and organized their 
congregation under the ministry of Robinson. Here they 
throve apace, and at length "came to raise a competent 
and comfortable living." The Dutch allowed them full 
toleration, and .showed them good-will and hospitality on 
every hand ; and the emigrants repaid this kindness by the 
most decorous observance of the municipal law.* 

* BradRird. In Young's " Cbtontclee of tJie Pilgrims," SO-39. The trontmcnl of the 
.PnrLlnna in Holland lias bem mlsrepraaBnled bj willere with EngliBb ptejufliccs. Their 
condition was, unqueaUonably, nocesslloUB— tot Itiey -weta fiigltites ; ana Ihelr lives were 
loUaome— for their Dnlcli hosts were Biemseivsg emlnenUy induBlrlons. But, by Ihelr 
own showing, the Puritans had "good end cootieoua entreat;" in Holland, and "lived 
Ihero many yeus with IVeedoni and good eontenl."— Mass. Hist. Coli., Hi., 53 ; U., N. Y 
H. S. Coll. I., 361, 

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chip.iv. The Puritan refugees in Holland found that theii doc- 
~~~! trinal opinions agreed, essentially, with those held by a 
sdnpathi '^"^g^ ^^^ controlling majority of the Dutch clergy and 
Eefemei people. Uohjnson himself could not refrain from tailing a 
c£b. P^"* i^ *^® controversy which was then raging between 
the G-oraarists and the Remonstrant, He published sev- 
eral polemical dissertations ; and even disputed in pubUc, 
at Leyden, with such ability, zeal, and " good respect," 
that he soon " began to be terrible to the Arminians" aa 
a champion of Calvinistic orthodoxy.* The intolerance of 
the English hierarchy, and not the heterodoxy of the En- 
ghsh Articles of Religion, had induced the Puritans to de- 
sert their native land. Their opposition was not so much 
to the doctrines of the Anglican establishment, as to the 
ceremonials of her worship, and the aristocratic exclusive- 
ness of her domineering prelacy. In Holland they found 
an Established Church, whose canons of belief agreed, es- 
sentially, with those of the Church of England ; whose 
chief difference regarded the details of ecclesiastical gov- 
ernment.t As earnest and as venerable in her renuncia- 
tion of Rome, the Reformed Dutch Church, in her Litur- 
gy and her Articles of Religion, also rivaled her English 
contemporary in the orthodoxy of her faith and the stabil- 
ity of her forms. The most eminent piUars of the Enghsh 
establishment with Christian candor afiu'med, that, in for- 
eign Reformed countries, those Churches which did not 
recognize a Prelacy " lost nothing of the true essence of 
a Church."! When English prelates and English churoh- 

* Bradibrd, in Yonng'a Chronlclea, 41. 

tan surely lie no room (la any oa lo file clilefi of the Anglican Church oniJer Elliabelh." 
"The works of Calvin and Bulllnger beoBms teit-booIiH in Ibe English universilies." 
Towora Ihe end of Uis reign of Janiea I., Calvinism gradually hecnine unpopular at conrl. 
In «iB reign of CLatlea I., Iiaud'a influence hecame so great that " lo preach In fevor of 
Calvinism, Ihongh commonly rented to ho [lie floolrine of the Church, Incurred punish- 
ment in any rank. Sg-Tensnt, bieho; of Sultsbury, one of the divines sent lo Dort, and 
rsokoned among the ptinclpaltheologlnnB of that ^e, was reprimanded, on his fcneea,be- 
fbte ths Privy Council Ibr IhiB offense, Bui in James's reign, the University of QilOrd 

i BlBhop Hall, I., 340 ; Sishop Oavensnt's " Adhortatlo ad fVatemam Conununlonem 
inter KvaogelicaB Bed 

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men went to Holland, they conformed, withont scrapie, to chap.iv, 
lier established religion. At the command of J 
bishop, a dean, an archdeacon, and a professor of Theolo- .^ 
gy in the Chnrch of England, attended, as we have seen, ^J,^" 
a Synod at Dort, " of doctors not episcopally ordained, sat cnurciL 
with those doctors, preached to them, and voted with them 
on the gravest questions of theology."* And bo highly 
was that "honorable, grave, and reverend" Assembly es- 
teemed, that the Dean of "Worcester, after his elevation to 
the bishopric of Norwich, constantly wore the golden med- 
al which the States G-eneral presented to the foreign dele- 
gates attending the Synod. Kot only did the head of the 
English Church, and the most enlightened English theo- 
logians under James, thus distinctly recognize the validity 
of the ordination of the Reformed clergy abroad, but they 
readily admitted them to livings in the Chtuoh of En- 
gland,, without re-ordination by a bishop. t 

In truth, the priesthood of the Netherlands was ordain- its ibrm of 
ed by the imposition of as holy hands as was the priest- mem. 
hood of England,, and it traced as unbroken a line of de- 
scent from the Apostles. But the Reformation in the 
Netherlands was essentially a spontaneous movement of 
the people. The political oircumstances of the country 
encouraged the spread of the new doctrines. Yet there 
was not an entire unanimity. Among the laity, the no- 
bles remained, generally, attached to the Papal Church; 
the advocates of the Reformed religion w^ere, chiefly, the 
inferior gentry, the merchants, the artisans. In the body 
of the priesthood the same difference ooeurred. The rich- 
ly-heneliced prelates adhered to the Pontiff; the more 
popular clergy revolted. Not so in England. There the 
movement began at the throne ; and prelate and priest, with 
significant accord, obsequiously repudiated the supremacy 
of the Pope, and submissively acknowledged the suprema- 

* Macaulay, l,,7e; Hallam, CoDsl. Hist, VJL, note. " I shall lake leave of thia venei> 

t Bishop HbH,!,, 33; : 

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Chap. IV. oy of the King. The religion of the sovereign was estah- 
lished as the religion of the kingdom ; but the hierarchy, 
' under royal protection, continued, none the lesa thsm of 
old, to grow aristocratic, courtly, supercilious, and des- 
potic. In the Dutch provinces, however, the plebeian 
priesthood, deserted by the patrician prelacy, was re- 
strain^ to the Galilean platform of apostolic equality.* 
RepnwLcan The Bpiscopacy of the Reformed Dutch Church, follow- 
er, ing tlie popular impulse, naturally resumed a republican 
form ; ftnd each minister of that Churoh claims to be, 
and, by its canons, he is, the "bishop" or "overseer" of 
his own congregation, in subordination, alone, to the 
classes and synods of his peers. t Before the Reforma- 
tion, the faithful of Amsterdam had daily gathered around 
the four-and-thiity splendid altars which decorated the 
old catliedral churoh of Saint Nicholas. There the faith- 
ful worship now ; but those altars have all disappeared. 
The bishop's throne no longer stands within the venerable 
choir. The only thrones which remain to the republican 
bishops of the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church are 
thrones " not made with hands." But the monuments 
of the Admirals of Holland remain ; and the magnificent 
brazen gates ; and the wonderful windows of painted 
glass ; and the organ continues to roll its notes through the 
ancient aisles of Saint Nicholas at Amsterdam, as deep- 
toned as through the arohes of Saint Pet«r at "Westminster, 
The Democratic element, which the controlling influ- 
ence of national circumstances, in spite of the individual 
leanings of many of the clergy, had thus, fcom the first, 
infiised into the government of the Reformed Church of 
tiiC Netherlands, was its chief characteristic distinction 
from the Church of England. t But in almost every oth- 


Lave etiually 


:, a9 mer 

ate aU mlnlBt 

era of Chrii 


-iiHtle xx; 



,1 SortpTOt. 


have thai 


B House DtG 

^'Tl«ro I 


ribia in the lue Synod ( 



, Muchrf upon eplKopal i 

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er respeot, there waa a reniarkatle and sympathetic simi- chap. iv. 
larity. Both adhered to Liturgies ; "both uaed the clerical "7777" 
gown ; both preserved the Creeds of the Apostles, of Nice, sj^paibj 
and of Saint Athaiiaaius. Christmas, Easter, Ascension, j^^™(i 
and "Whitattnday were high holidays, alike in the Dutch Xisif"' 
and the English Churches. Their Articles of Religion ™''"i'=>'- 
were nearly identioaL Their almost only difference was 
prelacy ; for prelacy won no popular favor in tolerant but 
republican Holland. And to the present day, the same 
essential harmony in doctrine and in Liturgy continues to 
assimilate these two equally venerable Churches. Trai^- 
planted to the New "World, the "Reformed Protestant 
Dutch Church" and the "Protestant Episcopal Church" 
have both preserved their time-honored forms of worship, 
and their ahnost coincident Articles of E-eligion. Social 
circumstances always bound them closely together ; and 
they now differ in scarcely any important point, save the 
original disagreement respecting prelatic superiority.* 

The refugee Puritans at Leyden, finding the Estah- cordiamj 
lished Church of HoUand orthodox in its Mtb, and theione. 
goveinraeui of the Netherlands tolerant in its policy, 
seemed to have, secured, without effort, a happy home. 
It ia not surprising tha-t they should have entered into a 
cordial communion ; and that Robinson himself should 
have declared " before God and men, that we agree so 
entirely mth the Keformed Dutch Churches in the matter 

ihe warn ihoreof gave opportnniiies ID Ibose divislone ■which were Chen on Com in Ihs 
tfettierlMida, Bogennannua, Iha president of thai AaaamWy, stood, np, and, !n a eooi a!- 

{.ord, we are not so happy.' "— Bishop HalJ, i., 151. 

* Thf Belbiined Dutch Churob was the Mother Charch of tills state ; and a spirit of 
Iteral courtesy eartypretojled between its uihiislera and those of the Episcopal Chnrcb. 
[He KeYetend Mr. Vesey, the Brst Hector of Trinity chnrch. In the city of New York, was 
ndoeied Into office in Iiecemher, Iflffi, in the Dutch ctanroh In Garden Street. On that 
■cession, two Catch clergymen, the Reverend Mr. Selyns, the pastor of the church, and 
he KeierendMrrKncella, of Kingston, assisted in the services. Mr. Vesey afterward of- 
Idaled fiir some time In the Garden Street church, alternately with the Dutch clergymen, 
inlil (he hullding of Trinity church was completed. When the Middle Dutch chnrch 
ivas desecrated liy the British, during the RevdnlionBry war, the vestry of Ti^nity church 
lasaed the Mloning Reartution, in 1179 ; " It lieing ropresenled that the old Bull* church 
s now used as a ho&pilal Cbr his maJesty^s troops, this corporation, Impressed with a 
eratethl remcmlnrance of the former bindnesa cf the members of that aaoieni church, do 
)fk[ them the use of Saint George's church to that congregation, Ibr celebrating Divine 
worship." The courteoUH oBtr waa Haolily accepted. 

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p. IV. of religion, that we are ready to sub e b to 11 and ev- 
7T" ery one of the Articles of Faith of th h 1 e , as they 
■ are contained in the Harmony of C nf f Faith."* 

Piui- But there were elementa in Pn tan n 1 1 were not 
in favorable to contentment. Its nfie ble If vill sur- 
passed ordinary pertinacity ; its notions of religion and of 
government were, perhaps, beyond example dogmatical. 
Its own was the only standard of propriety. Rather than 
obey the law of their own land, the Puritans had endured 
its penalties. Beginning with opposition, they ended with 
authority. Persecution made them important in En- 
gland ; and persecution, in the end, elevated its subjects 
to the seats of their judges. In their asylum in Holland, 
the refugees enjoyed full toleration ; yet they were, com- 
paratively, unimportant and obscure. There they were 
treated with perhaps rather more consideration than were 
some other sects ; for their Calvinism accorded with that 
of the established Dutch Church. Still, even that Church, 
though they themselves had pronounced her faith to be 
thoroughly orthodox, oam.e to be regarded by them as 
scarcely a pure Church ; for she used a Liturgy, and clung 
to the memory of holy days, the observance of which the 
Puritans denounced as idolatrous. Sunday, too, was less 
austerely observed in Holland than they thought it should 
have been. And, indeed, the Dutch delegates to the Syn- 
od of Dort had themselves lamented tliis evil. The Pu- 
ritans, therefore, attempted to bring the Hollanders " to 
reform the neglect of observation of the Lord's day as a 
Sabbath," and other things " amiss among them." But it 
could hardly have been expected that censorious, though 
well-meaning foreigners; themselves enjoying full tolera- 
tion, should have had much enoouragement in their self- 
imposed undertaking to modify the cheerful national hab- 
its of the warm-hearted people by whom they had been 
courteously sheltered. Few proselytes were made. The 
self-exiled Puritans began to grow " restless" and uneasy 
in their unmolested home. Time was thinning their num- 

* Kobinaon'a Apoloey, 6 ; Young, 40, .189, nolo ; NbbI, i., Mi. 

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Ijers, and few came liom England to «tiengthen thera. cbip.iv. 
The language of the Dutch was not their mother tongue, 
Fugitives from their native kmglom they ''till rheii^hed 
allegiance to the crown cf (rreat Biitam Fum m their 
English nationality, ihey feaied that a long aojonm in 
Holland would wear aw aj then homogeneou'^neas Many 
of them had married Dutch wues and m a few genera- 
tions, their posterity would hecume Dutch Their youth 
were aheady enlisting aa soldier'* and sailuia in the Dutch 
service. Besides, they were moved hy " a great hope and 
inward zeal" to advance the kingdom of Christ in the " re- 
mote parts of the world." They considered, said "Winslow, 
" how hard the country was where we lived ; how many 
spent their estate in it, and were forced to return for En- 
gland ; how grievous to live from under the protection of 
the State of England ; how like we were to lose our lan- 
guage and our name of English ; how little good we did, 
or were likely to do, to the Dutch in reforming the Sab- 
hath ; how unable there to give such education to our 
children as we ourselves had received."* 

Notwithstanding they were enjoying "much peace andrhnruri- 
liberty"t in Holland, these considerations had great we^ht mi™ w 
with the Puritans, and made them dissatisfied with their Amenci. 
abode. The results of European discovery in America 
having now become generally known, they determined to 
seek another home in the New World. At first, they 
thought of going to Gruiana, the fabulous wealth of which 
had been eloquently described by Raleigh. But upon ma- 
tnrer consideration, their desire was "to live in a distinct 
body by theiriselves, under the general government of Vir- 
ginia," as near neighbors of " the English which were 
there planted," but entbely independent of the colony at 
Jamestown, which, under Argah's rapacious administra- 
tion, was fast falling into disrepute. They were led to 
hope that the king would grant them, there, " free liber- 
ty, and freedom of religion." John Carver and Robert 

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ch»p. IV. Cushman were accoidingly sent to London " to solicit 
this matter." They found the "Virginia Company " very 
Negoua- ' desirous to have them go thither," and willing to grant 
uSd^n. them an ample patent. But as to their suit with the 
king, " it proved a haider piece of work than they took it 
for." James, anxioua enough to enlarge the dominions 
of England, consented to "connive at them, and not mo- 
lest them, provided they carried themselves peaeeahly." 
But he refused to tolerate liberty of religion " by his pub- 
lic authority under his seal ;" and Carver and Cuahman 
returned to Leyden, to report that all efforts to overcome 
the scruples of the king had been vain. 

The report of their messengers damped for a time the 
ardor of the Puritans, and " caused some distraction." 
But further reflection led them to set a higher valne on the 
king's informal promise of connivance. A royal charter 
of religious freedom need not be considered so essentml, 
for ' ' though they had a seal as broad as the house-floor, it 
would not serve the turn, for there would be means enough 
1619. found to recall or reverse it." So Robert Cushmaji and 
" """ "William Biew tei were sent on another mission to Lon- 
don, to make arrangements with the Virginia Company, 
and pioeure as good conditions as they conld, But dis- 
sensions m th*" company hindered the agents' proceedings. 
PateniivomAt length, "a large patent" was granted them, under the 
ia cwif company's seal, to settle themselves in the ' ' northern parts 
of Virginia," southward of the fortieth parallel of latitude. 
By the advice of some friends, this patent was not taken 
in the name of any of their own company, but in that of 
Mr. John Wincoh, " a religious gentleman, then belonging 
to the Countess of Lincoln, who intended to go with them." 
Wincoh, however, never went. But the patent having 
been sent over to the Puritans at Leyden, " for them to 
view and consider," in connection with the propositions for 
their emigration made by Thomas Weston and others of 
London, they were "req^uested to fit and prepare them- 
selves with all speed."* 

* Bradibrii, in Ynung, 53-79 ; Wii\alow, 3B5. 393 ; Prtacf, 15S, 

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Meanwhile, thePuritajis, dkeoiMaged at the various dif- rmap. iv, 
ficultiea which had emharrassed thoif negotiations in En-" 

ti'ng to America under the aiispicea of the United P 
Their Holland hosts had treated them, from the first, with '^"""'^ 
constant kindness. " Although it was low with many of 
them, yet their word would he taken among the Dutch 
when they wanted money, because they had found hy ex- 
perience how careful they were to keep their word, and 
saw them so paiuful and diligent in their callings, that 
they strove to get their custom and to employ thera ahove 
others in their work, for their honesty and diligence." Nor 
did the state hecome " weary of them," or think of driving 
them out. It was "their own free choice and motion" 
which led them to seek a new home ; and when the magis- 
trates of Leyden heard of their purpose, they bore spontane- 
ous testimony to the good conduct of their guests. ' ' These 
English,"said they, "have lived among us now this twelve 
years, and yet we never had any suit or accusation come 
against any of them."* 

It is not surprising that the Puritans, thus treated with Thsir pm- 
good-will, toleration, and hospitality in the Fatherland, lo New 
should have purposed to emigrate to New Netherland, if land, 
they could obtain sufficient encouragement from the Dutch 
government, Bameveldt was now dead, and one great 
obstacle in the way of the formation of a general Dutch 
West India Company was removed. But various ques- 
tions of detail embarrassed the States General, and pro- 
tracted the settlement of the question. The Amsterdam 
Trading Company, whose special charter had expired two 
years before, in the mean time continued to send their 
ships thither, and other merchants had begun to participate 
m, the trade. Colonization, however, had been postponed, 
until the proposed powerful monopoly should be able to 

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CHiP, IV. undertake it with success. In this conjuncture, Robinson 
began to sound the Ainaterdam merchants respecting the 
The Puri- immediate formation of a colony on the Noyth River. Be- 
^aioV-i^g "well Tcrsed in the Dutch language," he represented 
5^^J,°,^.to tliem that he was himself favorably inclined to go and 
firinnd. settle in New Wetherlaud, and that over four hundred fam- 
ilies would go with him, not only &ora Leyden, but also 
firom England, provided they could be assured that the 
government of the United Provinces would protect and de- 
fend them there from the assaults of other powers. They 
desired to go tb Wow Netherland, said Robinson, "to plant 
there the true and pure Christian religion, to convert the 
savages of those countries to the true knowledge and un- 
derstanding of the Christian faith, and, through the grace 
f th L 1 and to the glory of the Netherlands govem- 
n nt t 1 n z an 1 establish a new empire there, under 
th dad rii nd" of the Prince of Orange, and the 
H h M ghty L d States General.* 

Th Ant da Company gladly listened to these over- 
t Th y t once that so many families going in 

a body t N N therland could hardly fail to form a 
ra ti 1 1 n\ and, accordingly, they made " large 

"^ ft t tl P u t IS, promising to transport them free 
f t t tl \ tl River, and to furnish every family 
tl ttl t Th 1 olitica-l part of the question, however, 
the Dutch merchants could not decide. They were ready 
to expend their capital in conveying the emigrants to New 
Netherland, and in supplying them with necessaries ; but 
they had no authority to promise that the Dutch govern- 
ment would afford to the colonists that special protection, 
after their arrival there, which Robinson required for his 
followers as an indispensable condition. They, therefore, 
determined to apply directly to the general government 
at the Hague. 

The Prince of Orange was now at the zenith of his 

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power. To him, as stadtholder, the Amsterdam mer- chip. iv. 
chants accordingly presented a memorial, setting forth" 
their first discovery of, and continuous trade to, New,g 
Netherland, " situated hetween Hew France and Yirginia, ^^^j,'""' 
in the latitude of from forty to forty -five degrees," and do- ^"^'51,1 
tailing the overtures which the " English preacher at Ley- 
den" had made to them io colonize that country with his 
Puritan followers, " provided that, by the authority and 
under the protection of your Princely ExceUenoy and the 
High Mighty Lords States General, they may be defend- 
ed and preserved there from the attacks of other powers." 
The memorialists expressed theii apprehension that the 
King of Great Britain would colonize New Netherland 
with English subjects, and "with violence render fruit- 
less the discoveries and possession" of the Dutch in that 
country, and probably surprise their ships then trading 
there. They, therefore, prayed that " the aforementioned 
preacher and four htmdred families may be taken under 
the protection of the United Provinces, and that two ships 
of war may bo sent to secure, provisionally, the said lands 
to this government, since such lands may be of great im- 
portance whenever the West India Company shall be or- 

The stadtholder expressed no opinion upon this memo- vibwb 
rial ; he merely referred it to the States Greneral. But ceiiBn 
the Twelve Years' truce with Spain had now nearly ex- 
pired ; and the statesmen of the Netherlands were med- 
itating too large and ambitious des^ns to allow them to 
listen with iavor to the petition of the Amsterdam Com- 
pany. They had now in view the establishment of a 
grand commercial monopoly, whose concentrated capital 
and energy should not only direct the colonization of the 
Dutch discoveries in America, but should also assist the 
states in crushing the power of their hereditary enemy. 
To that company, when it should be organized, would 
properly belong the consideration of all the details con- 

* Holland Docamonls. I., 08-99. The early New England chtonlclors do run meiiUon 
tlita application to Ihe Uuteli povernment, and Its Ihle^ IhongL they speab of Gie ** large 

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chap.iv, neotod with emigration. Besides, the memorial wliicli 
placed Robinson's views T>6fore the States General, 
viewBof' brought officially to their knowledge — what, indeed, by 
General!* tliis time, had perhaps become notorious — ^that James was 
disposetl to colonize the northern regions of America with 
English subjects ; it also positively alleged, that he in- 
tended to dispossess the Dutch of theh foothold in Nev? 
Netherland. If such were really the king's intention, it 
would he folly for the States General to assist his design 
by aiding in the ti^ansportation thither of emigrants, whose 
liege services might soon be demanded by royal proclama- 
tion. The limits of New Netherland, as at first defined 
by the States General, extended from the fortieth to the 
forty-fifth parallel of latitude, from Virginia to Cajiada. 
There were unoccupied lands enough in Virginia, soiith 
of the fortieth degree, where the Puritans might settle 
themselves in peace and good neighborhood, between 
Jamestown and Manhattan, and thus preserve without 
inconvenience their national identity. But for them to 
oooupy, under the express authority and with the formal 
protection of the Dutch government, any portion of New 
Netherland, might give rise to embarrassing international 
questions. And when that region should be colonized, it 
would be better that Dutch subjects, of undoubted loyal- 
ty, should themselves first plant there the laws and the 
venerated customs of the Fatherland. 
The appii- Such Were probably some of the arguments which 
tiiaPnri- Weighed with the States General in their consideration 
ftissd. of the mernorial of the 12th of February, 1620. The sub- 
loMaKh. ject was several times before them during the two follow- 
ing months ; and, fiaially, after repeated deliberations and 
consultations with the Board of Admiralty and the stadt- 
11 April, holder, they resolved peremptorily to reject the prayer of 
the memorialists.* 

Thus the hopes of the Puritans were again disappointed. 
Ncwncgo- Refused the solicited assistance of their government, the 
England. Amsterdam merchants, who had made the "large oiTers," 

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were not, in ,a position to carry out by thoinselves the chip.iv. 
conditions demanded by K.obinson, the zeal of whose fol- ' ' 
lowers to leave their home at Leyden was by this time 
quickened by a growing feeling of apprehension. Through- 
out Holland there was now "nothingbut beating of drums 
and preparing for war." Fearful that " the Spaniard might 
prove as cruel as the savages of America,"* the Puritans 
once more turned their thoughts to England. About 
this time, they were informed, " by Mr. "Weston and otJi- 
ers," that James had determined to grant a large patent 
"for the more nortbeily parts of America, distinct from 
the Yirginia patent, and wholly excluded from their gov- 
ernment, and to be called by another name, to wit, New 
England."! Tlio proposed patent, however, was still in 
its preliminary. stages; but "Weston and his associatea in 
London urged the Puritans to go to New England, in hope 
of " present profit to be made by fishing on that coast." 
Embarrassments still hindered. Some of the London cap- 
italists were vexed that they " went not to Gruiana ;" oth- 
ers would do nothing "rmleas they went to Virginia ;" 
while many, "who were most relied on, refused to ad- 
venture if they went thither." In the midst of these dif- 
iiculties, "they of Leyden were driven to great straits;" 
and the New England patent "not being fully settled," 
they determined " to adventure with that patent they had" 
from the Virginia Company.^ 

But the means provided by their London friends were tiic Puri- 
not sufficient to convey them all at once. The congrega- Le™ enT* 
tion was, therefore, divided into two parts. The. greater 
number and the least robust were to remain at Leyden 
with Robinson ; the younger and abler-bodied were to 
emigrate, as pioneers, under Brewster. After a solemn 
fast and a stirring discourse from Robinson, the selected 
emigrants were accompanied to Delft-Haven, two miles aijiuy. 

A. MSS., iii., 4 ; Msea. Hist. CisU., lUvl., «4 i Hksu 

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lAF. n'. below Uottordam, by " the bretlueii that staid at Ley- 
den." Embarking in the " Speedwell," a small vessel of 
' sixty tons, they passed over to Southampton. There they 
found, " lying ready with all the rest of their company," 
a. larger ship, the " Mayflower," of one hundred and eighty 
tone, which had come round directly from London. The 
lugusi. two vessels, filled with passengers, soon set sail in ooiri- 
,eRi- pany. But the leaky Speedwell belied her name; and 
Iinsomii- the expedition put back into Plymouth, Dismissing here 
ipion. j^^^ battered consort, which returned to London with Cush- 
sept. man and a part of the company, the Mayflower recom- 
om menced her lonely voyage across the Atlantic, crowded 
*™"' with one hundred emigrants, who, in tears and sadness, 
had left "that goodly and pleasant city which had been 
their resting-place near twelve years. But they knew 
they were Pilgrims, and looked not much on those things, 
but lifted up their eyes to heaven, their dearest country, 
and quieted their spirits."* 
ateaiftom The patent with which the Pilgrims sailed for America 
lonvpMiy,' was, as we have seen, the one which they had obtained 
iiiiciiibay irom the Virginia Company. It authorized them to settle 
themselves in the northerly parts of Vn-guiia, which ex- 
tended to the fortieth degree of latitude. ■ North of that 
parallel, their grant would have availed tliem nothing. 
This they knew when they set sail ; and they were also 
aware that the projected New England patent was yet un- 
der the advisement of the law officers of the British crown. 
"With the proposed grantees of that patent they had not 
negotiated. After the government of the United Provinces 
had refused the prayer of the memorial, which had been 
presented in their behalf, they did not seem to have felt 
sufficiently encouraged to settle themselves, under Dutch 
authority, in New Netherland. Havmg by that memorial 
recognized and admitted the Dutch title to the territory, 
" situated between New France and Virginia," they would 
very justly have been considered as intruders, if they had 

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deliberately undertaken to establish an independent foreign CHiP. n- 
oolony there, without the patronage of the States General, 
which they had solicited. But the geography of the Amer- 
ican coast, between Cape Cod and the Chesapeake, was, 
at that time, accurately known only by the Dutch, and by 
Dermer, whose _aooounts had not yet been made public. 
The intention of the Pilgrims, accordingly, seems to have Their dei^- 
been to sail, by the northern passage, directly to Manhat- 
tan, where they could gain the exact information which 
they needed respecting the precise position of their future 
home. And so they left Europe, " on a voyage," as they 
themselves described it in their famous compact on board 
the Mayflower, " to plant the first colony in the northern 
parts of Virginia," beyond the limits of New' England, on 
the shores' of Delaware or Maryland, and outside the then 
claimed southern frontier of New Netherland,* 

Historians have reiterated a tale that the Mayflower 
was taken to Cape God through the treachery of Jones, her 
master. The story was first broached by Nathaniel Moi- Morton < 
ton, secretary of the New Plymouth colony, who, in hi-i -landcr 
" Memorial," alleging " late and certain intelligence," 
charges " some of the Dutch" with having " fraudulently 
hired the said Jones * * * to disappoint" the Pilgrims in 
their intention to go "to Hudson's River," Morton was 
not a passenger by the Mayflower in 1690. He came to 
Now Plymouth in 1623, when he was a boy only eleven 
years old. He did not publish his " Memorial" until 1669, 
nearly half a century after the alleged " plot," when mc«t 
of the passengers in the Mayflower were dead, and when 
the cov6te.d territory of New Netherland had been for five 
years subjected to British rule. If the secretary's " intel- 
ligence" had been early, instead of "late," it might, per- 
haps, have been called "certain," The Mayflower does 
not appear ever to have been in Holland ; nor do Jones, 
her master, nor Coppin, her mate and pilot, seem to have 
had any communication with the Dutch. But Coppm had 
certainly been on the coast of New England at least onoe 

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p. IV. 'before ;* and in navigating the Mayflower by the northern 
~~' passage, toward Cape Cod, he only followed his former track, 
■ and adhered to the usual English practice since Grosnold's 
time. Neither Bradford nor Winslow, in their contem- 
porary histories, question the fidelity of the master or the 
pilot of the ship, hoth of whom seem to have been English- 
men , in the interest of their London employers ; and the si- 
lence of Bradford and "Winslow ought to he conclusive on a 
point which, if true, must unquestionably have had a con- 
spicuous place in every faithful account of the "old colony." 
No allusion is made to the story in the early correspondence 
between Wew Wetherland and New Plymouth in 1627. 
Dudley, in bis letter to Lady Lincoln in 1631, is silent. 
If the tale bad been true, the Dutch v^ould assuredly have 
been taunted'with it in 1633, and affcervr ard, when the New 
Plymouth colonists quarreled with them about the title to 
> Biorj the valley of the Connecticut. In short, Morton's Parthian 
" calumny" seems to he a sheer falsehood, too eagerly re- 
peated by more recent writers. After a boisterous voyage 
of more than two months, and " long beating at sea," says 
lov. Bradford, "they fell in with the land called Cape Cod; 
the which being made, and certainly known to be it, they 
were not a little joyful," A consultation was held, and 
the ship wa^ tacked to the southward, "to find some place 
about Hudson's Uiver, according to their first intentions." 
Nov. But they soon fell among the "perilous shoals and break- 
ers" of Cape Malebarre, which embarrass the navigator 
to this day ; and they bore up again for Cape Cod. Neither 
Dutch intrigue nor a bribed pilot had brought the May- 
flower there — it was the Providence of God.t 

Finding that they were now far beyond " the northern 

Bradford and WiDsloWs Journal, 1b Young, I4B, 

ISO. " Robert Coppln, oar pilot, 

le relallon of b gieal navigable river and good hatbo 

ir on tha other hsiullMid of thsbaj, 

,™i tight over against Cm Cod, being tn a right I 

Ine not much above eight leaguoa 

snt,lB which ho had been once." Yonns snppoae 

a the " other headland" to he Ma- 

Mt Polnl, end ito '■ greM nav^atjls rlvee' lo be the 

North Rivet, In Sdinaia. 

Motion's MamorlBl, 84 1 B™dfcH,in Yonog, 100- 

103, in;DeLael,lll.,eRp.iv..p, 

; Dudles, in Y-mnrs Masa., 308 ; Holmes'a AnnaU 

i, 1,, 161 ; Monlton. 35S-357. Grn 

no, in Us History of tlio United Staes (Am. ad,), 1- 

, IB4 ; U., 161, 169. records and em- 

llahea Uie aWry, See, however, Dr. Young's admi 

rabte remarlis at the " Old Colony 

llTSl at Boston. December. JSM, in K. Y, H, S. Pro. 


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parts of Virginia," and that, consequently, their patent cu, 
from the Virginia Company, under which they had left" 
Holland, oxpeoting" to "become a hody politic," was " made 
void and useless,"* the emigrants, the day before they 
came to harbor, " observing some not well affected to unity 
and concord," and "some appearance of faction" among 
their company, signed an agreement, combining them-con 
selves together into " a civil body politic," for their " bet- 
ter ordering and preservation." This instrument, which ii p 
the pressure of disaffecting circumstances made suddenly 
expedient, has, by degrees, become magnified into "the 
birth of popular constitutional liberty," and the exclusive 
claim ia nov^ distinctly set up that " in the cabin of the 
Mayflower humanity recovered its rights. "t 

No class of persona in the world has, perhaps, on the 
one hand, .been loaded with more extravagant eulogy, and, 
on the other, been covered with more undeserved ridicule 
than the English Puritans, and their descendants in Amer- 
ica. An incessant repetition of stereotyped panegyric may, 
indeed, be excused on those periodical occasions when a 
large posterity is accustomed to commemorate, with filial 
pride, the many worthy attributes of a devout, active, 
acute, independent, and resolute ancestry. The honest 
reputation of that renowned ancestry no candid mind can 
depreciate ; and the real services which the Puritans ren- 
dered to the cause of civil liberty it is grateful to ap- 
plaud. But there ia danger lest zeal should outrun knowl- 

• II may cause luIsapprBlisnsloQ lo say that tlie posacngers In tbe Mayflower left Bnropo 
"wilhaatany uaoful ohKrler from a corporslo body," The only reason wliy llietr " large 
patent" ftom Ihe Virginia Com^ny, wilt whloli tbej adventnred, " was never made use 
of,'* OB BTaled by Qradlbrd, was, because they settled Uleiuselves — contrary ta IhMr Jnlcn. 
tlon when they Bailod—oui ot ibe bounds of Virginia.- Several years afterwarfl, iliey gb- 
lalned a cbarter ftom llie New Bngloiid Council, within tlie limits of whose palenl tbey 
had accidentally eslaMielied tlieir plantation. 

t Bradfbrd and Winalow, in Yoang, 95, lao, 121 ; Morton's Memorial, 58, 3T ; Bancroft, 

Hir the first time in the world's hiaWiry, the phllosophleal Action of a socW compact was 
realized In practice. And yet It seems to me that a Ereat deal more has been discerned in 
this flocumeoi than the ^gners coniemplaied. li is evident thai when they left Holland, 
Ihey eipectefl 'to become a body polWe, using among Ihemaelves civil jovemment, and 
to choBBe their own rulers ftom among Iherasdves,' Their purpose in drawing Bp and 

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onAi-, IV. edge, and lest ideal pictures, drawn by self-adulatory rliet- 
orio, should gradually come to be received as faithful por- 
■ traits of reality. And while naught should be set down 
in malice, no temptation to flatter self-conceit, nor anxiety 
to demonstrate hypotheses ; no reluctance to oppose the 
most eloquent ability, nor fear of pi-ovoking cherished prej- 
udice which unwelcome candor may oflend, should ever 
warp those, who assume the responsible task of recording 
the annals of their race, from tlie duty of clearly exposing 
historical truth. 
EoDipie of However ample may have been the true scope of their 
repuMic. compact on board of the Mayflower at Cape Cod, it can 
not be denied, and it ought not to be concealed, that the 
PUgrims, before they left their asylum in Holland, had 
seen, in her tolerant government, an early and illustrious 
assertion of the righis and the power of the people, and a 
noble protest against oppression and tyranny. While the 
fugitive Puritans, unmolested at Leyden, observed the 
popular principle of majorities triumphant, even in severe 
ecclesiastical decisions, they found that sublimest element 
of all in civil hberty — freedom of conscience — more fully 
realized in the United Netherlands than in any other 
country in the world. The same immunities which the 
Dutch had won from Spain were freely granted to the 
non-coiLforming refugees from England, In the Batavian 
Republic, too, they saw the happy working of that Federal 
system which afterward bound together the American col- 
onies. And, in the Constitution of self-governing Holland, 
those refugees had before them the practical example of a 
representative administration, imperfect, indeed, but nev- 
ertheless a marvel of the age ; founded on large principles 
of popular liberty ; maintainii^ those principles with splen- 
did success ; and deserving the lasting gratitude of man- 
kind for its earnest, consistent, and magnanimous vindi- 
cation of the rights of humanity. All this was observed 
in the United Provinces, at a period when James I. was 
king of Great Britain, Louis XIII. king of France, and 
Philip III. king of Spain. Such lessons could not possi- 

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"bSy have "been lost upon the Pilgrhna ; to their value they chaf. iv. 
had themselves borne testimony, in soliciting encourage- 
ment to emigrate to New Netherland " under the order 
and command" of the Prince of Orange and the States 
General ; and when they are found affirming, in New En- 
gland, some of snhstantially the same principles as thcee 
which they had seen operative in the Dutch repuhhc, and 
which at that time were developed no where else, it can 
not he just to monopolize for them the glory of having 
originated " poptdar constitutional liberty."* 

Several weeks were spent by the emigrants in examin- 
ing the concave shores behind Cape Cod. At last, a more Landing ai 
advantageous harbor , than any they had seen was found outh. 
on tihe west side of the bay ; and an exploring party land- " 
ed at New Plymouth, on the spot which Block and Smith 
had visited several years before, and marked on their maps, 
and which Dermer, just five months previously, though 
without their knowledge, had indicated as a fitting place 
for "the fii^t plantation."+ In a few days the Mayflower-^; Dec- 
was brought up from the Cape, and the 

"baad of exiles moored their bark 

On the wild New England shore." 
Thus the Puritan pilgrims left their home at Leyden, 
and sought the New "World under the banner of Saint 
George ; and thus they came to plant on the bleak bor- 
ders of eastern New England the institutions which it had 
once been their purpose to cultivate, under the protecting 
flag of Holland, in the genial regions of New Netherland. 
in subsEquenl cbaplers. 

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Chip. y. The project for a general Dutoh West India Company, 

■which Usselincx had so early and zealously, yet unsuc- 

Duich ceaafullyj urged upon the attention vof the statesmen of 
^^1^*1^ Holland, at length obtained its accomplishment. It was 
i^corpora. j^Q ^gQ Qf great monopolies and grasping ehaitera. The 
East India Company had, since 1602, pursued a prosper- 
ous career ; and its success had provoked emulation. The 
Twelve Years' truce witti Spain had expired in the spring 
of 1691 ; and the United Provinces were warned to pre- 
pare for a renewed struggle with their mighty enemy. 
The ohatacles which had hindered the consummation of 
Usselincx's views were not only now cleared away, hut 
opposition was succeeded "by encouragement ; and the 
long-pending charter was hurried to completion, within 
three months after the termination of the Spanish truce. 
3 June. On the third of June, 1621, the States G-eneral passed 

larief, ^ fomial patent under their great seal, declaring that the 
welfare and happiness of the United Netherlands depend- 
ed mainly upon their foreign trade and navigation, and that 
those great interests could he pi-operly encouraged in dis- 
tant regions only by the combined and united action of a 
general incorporated company. For these and other rea- 
sens, they accordingly ordained that, for the term of twen- 
ty-four years from the first of July, 1621, none of the in- 
habitants of the United Provinces should he permitted to 
sail thence to the coasts of Africa, between the tropic of 
Cancer and the Cape of G-ood Hope, nor to the coasts of 
fwn^tf America or the "West Indies, between Newfoundland and 

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tke Straits of Magellan, except in the name or "by the con- t 
sent- of the "Weat India Company, upon pain of forfeiture " 

that such parties as had, before the granting of the char- 
ter, been engaged in coniinerce with those countries, 
"might continue their trade for the sale of their goods," 
and make their homeward voyages. 

The West India Company was invested with enormous Poiiucui 
powers. In the name of the States General, it might make the comiJii- 
contracts and alliances with the princes and natives of the 
countries comprehended within the limits of its charter ; 
build forts ; appoint and discharge governors, soldiers, and 
public ofHoera ; administer justice ; and promote trade. 
It was bound to " advance the peopling of those fruitful 
and unsettled parts, and do all that the service of those 
c nntries, and the profit and increase of trade shall re- 
quire." It was obliged to communicate to the States G-en- 
eral, from time to time, all the treaties and alliances it 
might make, and also detailed statements of ife forts and 
settlements. All governors in chief, and the instructions 
proposed to be given to them, were to be first approved of 
by the States General, who would then issue formal com- 
missions ; and aU superior officers were held to take oaths 
of allegiance to their High Mightinesses, and also to the 

The government of the company was vested in five sep- cbambera 
arate chambers of managers ; one at Amsterdam, managr 
ing four ninth parts ; one at Middlehurg, in Zealand, two 
ninth parte ; one at Dordrecht, on the Maeze, one ninth 
part; one in North Holland, one ninth part; and one in 
Friesland and Groningen, one ninth part. General exec- 
utive powers for ail purposes-^xcept that, in case of a dec- 
laration of war, the approbation of the States General was 

to be asked — were mtrusted to a board of Nineteen dele- 
gates. Of these, eight were to come from the Chamber at 
Amsterdam, four from Zealand, two from the Maeze, two 
from North Holland, and two from Friesland and Gron- 
ingen ; while one delegate was to represent the States Gen- 


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. eral, for tho purpose of "helping to direct the affairs of the 
■"company to the best advantage in the aforesaid meeting." 
If The States Generallikewise promised to "defend this oom- 
' pany against every person, in free navigation and traffic, 
and assist them with a million of guilders ;" and also, in 
ease of war, to " give them for their assistance" sixteen 
ships of war of three hundred tons burden, and four yachts 
of eighty tons, all fully equipped. These vessels, however, 
were to be manned and supported by the company, which 
was also obliged to provide and maintain an equal num- 
ber. The whole fleet was to be under the command of an 
admiral appointed by the States Greneral. All the inhafc- 
itants of the Netherlands, " and also of other countries," 
might become stockholders of the company during the 
year 1621 ; after which time no. new members were to be 

Thus the Dutch government, leaving to the East India 
Company the consolidation of a magnificent empire in Asia, 
gave to a new mercantile corporation almost boundless 
powers to subdue, colonize, and govern the unoccupied re- 
siihgjons of Africa and America, New Netherland, though 
not specifically named in the charter, was clearly compre- 
hended within its purview ; and though the Dutch gov- 
ernment did not formally guarantee any absolute title to 
the territory, it nevertheless expressly hoimd the compa- 
ny to promote the colonization of those " fruitful and un- 
settled parta." The charters of Hemy for the colonization 
of Canada, and the patents of James for the settlement of 
Virginia and New England, were no more favorable to co- 
lonial freedom than was the grant of the States G-eneral to 
9and the West India Company. While that corporation might 
npa- conquer provinces, and form alliances with native princes 
at its own risk, it was bound to submit the instruotions of 
its governors to the approval of the states ; and tJie para- 
mount authority and appeUate jurisdiction of the central 
government at home was affirmed and maintained by the 

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oath of allegiance to the States Greneral, which was re- chai-, v, 
quired from all superior officers of the company. 

The leading objects of the incorporation of thia armed L^g^,, „^. 
commercial monopoly were, nevertheless, " the profit and'^'S,",' "'^ 
increase of trade," and the humhling of the power of 
Spain and Portugal in Africa and America. How suc- 
cessfully these purposes were accomphshed, the annals of 
the Netherlands proudly tell. Yet triumph eventually 
led to disaster ; and the intoxication of hrilliant success 
was followed, before long, by the mortification of over- 
whelming bankruptcy. And it was an evil day for New 
Netherland, when the States General committed to the 
guardianship of a close and grasping mercantile ooi'pora- 
tion, the ultimate fortunes of their embiyo province in 

Various impediments, however, delayed for two years orgnniia- 
the final organization of the "West India Company. The d. w. i. 
original charter was twice amplified in some points of de- 
tail ; and the managers having adopted articles of internal 
regulation, which were formally approved by the States 
General on the twenty-fii-st of June, 1623, closed their 1623. 
books of subscription, and prepared with energy to prose- ^' '""" 
cute their designs.* 

In the mean tune, the merchants, who had lately formed privaw 
the United New Netherland Association, continued to send lo Sew 
separate trading ventures to the North and South Rivers, mnd. 
Hendrick Eelkens, Adriaen Jansen Engei, and Hans Joris 
Houten of Amsterdam, who, the year before, had so stren- 
uously opposed the grant of any exclusive privileges to 
May's ship-owners, obtained from the States General a 
special license to send their vessel, the ""White Dove," to 1621. 
" New Virginia," under the command of Captain Joris " ^^'" 
Houten. The next week, Dirck Volckertsen, Doctor Ve- 
rus. Doctor Oarbaeius, and others, of Hoorn, in North Hol- 
land, some of whom were the owners of May's first ship, 
the Fortune, obtained a similar peiTOission to send a ves- si sepi. 
sel to trade "in the Virginias." A few days afterward, 

■ Be Lael, Jaerlycl! Vortaol ; llaiard, i,. 149, 174, 181 : O'ColL, i., 408, 411. 

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chjt', v. upon th.6 petition of " Claes Jaeotsen Haringcarspel, coun- 
_ selor and former schepen of Amateidam, Peter Plancius,* 
■ minister of the word of God, Lambrecht van Tweenhuy- 
sen, Hans Claesaen and Company, trading to certain lands, 
coasts, and rivers discovered by tbem, lying between Vir- 
ginia and New France, in the latitude of from forty to 
forty-five degrees, named New Netherland, and also to 
the adjacent lands and a great river, lying in the latitude 
of from thirty-eight to forty degrees," the States General 
28sei)i, authorized them to dispatch two ships, to ti'ade on the 
North and South Rivers. t These special licenses were 
granted under the proviso in the charter of the "West In- 
dia Company. But in order to prevent any interference 
with its privileges, the 'grantees of these special licenses 
were required to complete their voyages, and have all 
their vessels back m Holland, by the first day of July, 1622. 
Britiehpot- Meanwhile, the King of England, notwithstanding the 
Engiarfl, actual posscs'iion ot Canada by the French, and New Neth- 
erland by the Dutch, had, as we have seen, asserted a 
claim of sovereignty over the regions lying between Vir- 
1620. ginia and Newfoundland. The New England patent, by 
3 Nov. -which James granted to the council at Plymouth an ab- 
solute property in all the American temtory extending 
&oni the fortieth to the forty-eighth degree of latitude, and 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, passed the great seal about 
a week before the Mayflower, with the first Puritan emi- 
grants, arrived at Cape Cod. The monopoly conferred by 
the charter was immense. " Witliout the leave of the 
Council of Plymouth, uot a ship might sail into a harbor 

lam, and e 

™ Synod 


choBen one of the re-iaers 




■h!cb the firsl Holland ships 


rtad the exprfiUollB ti 

,61a. In 1608 and 1609, Jeanntn. 

1116 Hagn 

, hto king 

St India icade, Dequenlly [ 


(Wagennar, Hlsl. Amst., ' 

liL, aifl.) 

orlgmd El 




ow in the old chmcli 

or Saint MohDlas « AmE 

mate turn 

id DC his llbetal-ininded paelor, -wHom we now 

Bnd asao 

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from Wewfoundland to the latitude of Philadelphia; not a chap. v. 
skin might be purchased in the interior ; not a fish might 
be caught on the coast ; not an emigrant might tread the 
soil." The only qualification which, even nominally, lim- 
ited the enormous grant, was the proviso which excepted 
any territories " actually possessed or inhabited by any 
other Christian prince or state." But the grant was so 
sweeping and exclusive, that its very extent impaired its 
value, by awakening the jealousy of Parliament. The 
next spring, after the patent was sealed, the House of Com- as Apni. 
mons turned its attention to the " grievance ;" and Sir Ed- 
ward Coke, from the chair of the House, informed G-orges 
of the complaints " in rospoot of many particulars therein 
Contained, contrary to the laws and privileges of the sub- 
jects, as also that it was a monopoly, and the color of 
planting a colony put upon it for particular ends and pri- 
vate gain." Before its dissolution, the House presented 
the patent as " the first" of " the public grievances of the 
kingdom ;" and the French ambassador protested against 
it, as unwarrantably including Canada within its assigned 

The king, however, determined to maintain the monop- as sepi. 
oly which he had granted ; and, at the solicitation of the "»^™ ™ 
Plymouth Company, the Privy Council directed the mayors strained, 
of Bristol, and other sea-port towns in the south and west 
of the kingdom, to prohibit all persona from attempting to 
trade to New England " contrary to his majesty's said 
grant."t Domestic interference beir^ thus prevented, the 
watchful jealousy ofthe grantees of the charter was awak- 
ened to the movements of the Dutch in New Netherland. 
The intelligence communicated by Dermer of what he had 
observed while at Manhattan, was now confirmed by the 
news which came from Amsterdam, of the equipment and October, 
dispatch of several private ships to New Netherland, in an- 
ticipation of the more definite arrangements of the "West 

* Perl. Itet., I6ilO-l,a60, 318,Sl9i Commona' Journal, 1., 591, 59S, 640-669 ; Cbajmers, 
83, 100, 101 ; Gocs^ Brief NarrBtion. In Mass. Hist, Coll., uvl., K, 11, 73 { Baocron, i., 
Sea.m'T; Grabama'sHi8t.U.S,,l.,19*iS-, 161, lea, Am, eO.; Chalinets's HbtoU of Ihe 
Colonies, i,, 25, W. t London Doe,, 1,, 19 ; N. Y. Col. MSS., lii., G. 

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Chip, V. India Company. Notwithstanding the proviso in their pat^ 
"" ent, the Plymouth Company resolved to lose no time in 
■ vindicating their claim of English title against the Hol- 
landers, who, they alleged, " as interlopers, fell into the 
middle between"* Yirginia and New England, 
impioints Avarice and Belf-interesfrarelyrighfadjusttlie "wa- 
vering Tialanoe ;" and the ethics of corporations are pro- 
Nsw Neth- verbially convenient and pliable. The policy of the Plym- 
outh Company was, from the first, grasping and arrogant. 
Finding the king on their side, they determined to main- 
tein the exclusive privileges which they had won from the 
crown. A formal complaint was, therefore, presented by 
the Eail of Amndel, Sir Ferdinando Gorges, Sir Samuel 
Argall, the superseded governor of Virginia, and Captain 
John Mason, against the " Dutch intruders" into New 
Nctherland, Three days before the dissolution of Parlia- 
ment, James accordingly directed the lords of his council 
to instruct Sir Dudley Carleton, the British ambassador 
at the Hague, to bring the subject to the special notice o£ 
Liittetof the States General. The council at once addressed a dis- 
nmoeii la patch to Carlcton, in which the English government, for 
iimijaBSB- the first time, distinctly asserted the unlawfulness of the 
iffigue. Dutch ocoupation of New Netherland. "Whereas," said 
ijj Dili;, their lordships, " his majesty's subjects have many years 
since taken pcssession of the whole precinct, and inhabited 
some parts of the north of Virginia {by us called New En- 
gland) , of aU which countries his majesty hath, in like man- 
ner, some years since, by patent, granted the quiet and full 
possession unto particular persons ; nevertheless, we under- 
stand that, the year past,t the Hollanders have entered upon 
some part thereof, and have left a colony, and given new 
names to the several ports appertaining to that part of the 
country, and are now in readiness to send for their supply 

• Lelier of Caplaln John Mason, in Lond. Doc,, i,, «, and In N, Y, Col, MSS,, iii,, 
la, 17 ; Gorges, in iii, MasB, Hist. Coll., vl,, 7S, 

t This ollegaUan cert^nly does not Buppoit Flanlogenet's Blor)' Df ArgBll's lisit lo Man- 
haltanln 1818. If Argall hafl actually been lliere UiM year, anfl fimnd " a prelBndea DmcU 
governor," A^., Ac, he would hatdl; hsio joinsd in a rspresenlallon lo the king, Inlha 
autnmn of Iflil, which alleeed that the Hollandms had settled ihemaelTes theto only " iJie 
year past," Itiat \t, la 1^30 ; see Appendix, Note E. 

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six or eight sHpa ; whereof his majesty "being advertised, cnn-. v. 
we have received his royal commandment to signify his 
pleasure that you should represent these things to the 
States G-eneral in his majesty's name (wiio, Jure prim(s 
occupationis, hath good and sufficient title to those parts), 
and require of them that as well those ships as their further 
prosecution of that plantation may he presently stayed."* 

But the Plymouth Company, in their overreaching zeal, Fauacioui.- 
hetrayed the Privy Council into serious errors in this im- Ensiis* 
portant state paper. After the failure of the Sagadahoc 
colony, we have seen that no English subjects inhabited 
any part of the deserted territory north of Virginia, until 
the arrival of the Mayflower at Cape Cod. The interme- 
diate region, between that Cape and the Chesapeake, was 
unexplored by the English, and was almost unl^nown to 
them, until Dermer sailed through Long Island Sound in 
1619. Yet, in contradiction to Beimer's statement, that 
the Dutch were quietly " settled" at Manhattan in the 
spring of 1620, and that they had " had a trade in Hud- 
son's River some years before that time," the Plymouth 
Company induced the Privy Council of England to affirm, 
at the close of 1621, that the Hollanders had "entered" 
into occupation there only " the year past." 

Carleton, on the receipt of the Privy Oonncil's dispatch, 1622. 
proceeded to make inquiries on the subject, hefore he J"™"!" 
brought it to the notice of the States General. All he resuh ot 
learned was, that about four or five years previously, twoinquineiim 
"particular companies of Amsterdam merchants" had he- 
gun a trade to America, between the fortieth and forty- 
fifth degrees of north latitude, to which regions they had, 
" after their manner," given the names of New Wether- 
land, North and South Sea, Texel, Ylieland, and the like, 
and had ever since continued to send there vessels of six- 
ty or eighty tons burden, at most, to fetch furs, which 
was " all their trade." For this purpose, they had kept 
" factors there, continually resident," to trade with the 
savages. But Carleton could not learn that any colony 

* LoiKlon Doc, L, 17, « ; N, Y. Col. MSS., iii., 6. 16, 17 ; lluWarfl, aae. 

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. had as yet been planted there by the Dutch, or was " so 
"" muck as intended."* 

^ Fortified with this partial information, the ambassadoi 
asked an audience of the States Greneral, and presented a 
'""written memorial, in, which he claimed that the "tran- 
quil and plenary possession" of the whole country north 
of Virginia was vested, by patent, "in several private per- 
sons," subjects of the King of England, whose title, " by 
right of first occupation," he boldly affirmed was "not to 
be contradicted." And, in the name of the king, he per- 
emptorily demanded that the States General should not 
only arrest the ships already eijuipped for voyages to the 
Dutch plantation, but should also expressly prohibit any 
further prosecution of the enterprise.t 

"When Carleton's memorial was read in the meeting of 
the States General, the deputies from the Province of Hol- 
land, professing to be ignorant of the circumstances, re- 
quested that it might he referred to them. But no report 
*. came fi'om the Holland delegation, A month afterward, 
the ambassador having asked definite action, the States 
G-eneral directed Burgomaster Pauw, one of their mem- 
bers, to write to the " participants in the trade to New 
Nethertand" for information. Carleton continuing to press 
L. the States for a decisive answer, they resolved that in- 
quiries should he made " for what had been printed at 
Amsterdam on this subject." Here the whole question 
seems to have ended. The States General, engrossed 
with warlike preparations against Spain, knew little about 
New Netherland ; which, besides, was now placed under 
of the exclusive jurisdiction of the "West India Company. It 
r- does not appear that any answer was ever returned to the 
British government, either through Carleton, or through 
Oaron, the Dutch ambassador at London. Captain John 
i2. Mason, it is true, in writing to Secretary Coke, ten years 
'■ afterward, asserted that Caron had disclaimed, on the 
part of the States General, " any such act that was done 

tLondonDoc,,!.,!!!; N. Y. C 

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by theii people with their authority." But nothing to Cn«p. v. 
that eifeot has "been found after recent diligent searches, 
both in the Archives at the Hague and in the Slate Paper 
Office at London* 

With respect to the claim of sovereignty over New Foiiiiu or 
Netherland, which James directed his ambassador to aa-daim. 
sert so holdly, it is remarkable that the Parliament of En- 1621. 
gland, somewhat earlier in the same year, insisted that 
" occupancy confers a good title by the law of nations and 
Nature ;"T and upon this principle the right of Spain, un- 
der the gift of Pope Alexander VI. was again denied, be- 
cause, if admitted, it would have defeated the Enghsh 
title to Virginia and Bermuda, In this the Parliament 
only reaffirmed the position taken by Q,ueen Elizabeth m 
1580, when she refused to recognize the Spanish claim, 
and insisted that " prescription without possession is ot no 
avail."? Under this rule, thus formally confirmed, it is 
clear that the " prescription" of England, by reason ot Ca- 
bot's voyage, was entirely annulled, so far as regards those 
parts of North America which were not actually possessed 
or occupied by English subjects. 

The British right to Virginia and Bermuda was, nev-Lawofm. 
ertheless, readily admitted by other European nations ; epeoiag 
among which it had become the estabUshed law, that oc-Midpiie«i»- 
cupation is the " primary mode of acquiring a title to 
unowned territory."^ This law was recognized and acted 
upon by France with respect to Canada, and by Holland 
with respect to New Netherland, The title of England 
to Virginia was never questioned by the Dutch; their 
government had distinctly admitted it in 1608 and 1610.11 
In the original trading charter granted by the States Gen- 
eral in 1614, the regions which the Dutch had first ex- 
plored, and named New Netherland, were unambiguously 

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i^iiip. V. declared to be between Virginia on the south and Canada 
T"**^ ^^^ north. The actual occupation of the coasts of 
^^^^- Maine by the English as early as 1607— though it was 
soon discontinued for several years — gave England a suf- 
ficient title to that quarter ; and the Hollanders never at- 
tempted to interfere with the British claim to the territo- 
ry north of Cape Cod. But with respect to the regions 
between that Cape and Virginia, which they had them- 
selves so thoroughly explored before any other Europeans, 
Tiie Dutch the Dutch insisted upon the vahdity of their own rights. 
Neiheriond When the Amsterdam Company buUt their Fort Nassau 
'" ' on the Worth Eiver in 1614, it is quite certain that there had 
been no English "occupancy"of any portion of New Neth- 
erland south of Cape Cod, so as to confer a title according 
to the opinions of Queen Elizabeth and of Parliament. The 
English, in fact, until Dermer's voyage, were entirely ig- 
norant even of the gec^'aphy of that part of the coast. 
Holland vessels alone had explored it ; Hollanders alone 
had occupied it. By British law, and by the law of na- 
tions, the Dutch title to New Netherland was complete. 
The New England patent of King James, so far as it in- 
terfered with the rights of the Dutch, might, therefore, 
according to the judgment of Q,ue«n Elizabeth, and of the 
Parliament of Great Britain itself, be at least as fa rly le 
rided, as was the Pontiff's earlier grant to tl e '^pa iiards 
1622. The Plymouth Company, however, if they d 1 not sue 
uanaptnst*'®^<i in obtaining from the States General a rei i nc atio 
inK^^o of the right of the Dutch to New Netherland, hid nil ence 
«LBTid^" enough to procure from King James a furthe i easu e of 
protection against the acts of British subjects. Con pla t 
were made to the crown that "sundrie interlojer t 
New England had committed "intolerable abusea, mtei- 
fered with " some of the planters there," " ruined whole 
woods," traded promiscuously with the savages, supplieil 
them with fire-arms, and overthrown the trade and com- 
merce, which were " the principal hopes for the advance- 
ment of that plantation, next unto the commodities that 
ra otwher. coast atfords for fishing." An order in council was prompt- 

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ly made for the issuing of a royal proclamation against ir- cmp. v. 
regular traders to Kew England. A few days afterward, ~77T~ 
the king accordingly proclaimed and commanded that a ^^^ ' 
nohe of his subjects whatsoever, "not adventurers, inhab- 
iters, or planters in New England, presume from hence- 
forth to Irequent those coasts, to trade or traffic- with those 
people, or to intermeddle in the woods or freehold of any 
of tiie planters or inhabitants," except by the license of 
the Plymouth Company, or according to the orders of the 
Privy Council.* 

Meanwhile, the Amsterdam ships had been quietly pur- speeiai 
suing their voyages to New Netherland, under the special Now Neth- 
licenses of the Dutch government ; and some of them de- 
layed their return to Holland so long, that their owners 
were obliged to ask of the States Greneral an extension of '8 June, 
tiie time limited for their arrival home.t The trade inPenryt™if 
peltry was industriously prosecuted, not only on the North nutcinn 
and South Rivers, but on the " Fresh" or Connecticut E,iv- ^eti uaj. 
er ; and Dutch shallops constantly visited the shores of 
Long Island Sound, and trafficjced with the native Indian 
tribes as far east as Narragansett and Buzzard's Bays. 
Their favorite resort was Manomet, at the head of Buz- 
zard's Bay, and within about twenty miles of the recent 
Puritan settlement at New Plymouth.^ But the pioneers 
of New England, occupied with the pressing cares of their 
infant colony, were not yet prepared to interfere with the 
lucrative trade which their more ancient neighbors in New 
Netherland were now carrying on, almost at their very 
doors. "With the native tribes the Dutch generally eulti- liciDUons 
vated the most amicable relations. The treaty made ondiaiiB- 
the banks of the Tawaaentha continued to be faithfully 
observed with the Mohawks, the Mahicans, and the North 
River Indians, who were the immediate neighbors and al- 
hea of the Dutch. At Esopus, a large traffic was main- 
tained with boats and shallops. But the more distant 
tribes were treated with less consideration. Jacob Eel- 

• Lond. Bk... I., 3B ; N. Y. Col. MSS., iii„ 11 1 Kymer Feiim, mU., 416 ; Morion's 

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Chip. V. kens, who had remained in superintendence of the trade 
" ' near Castle Island, made frequent visits to ihc eastern 
Eeikens'B "'o^sts and riveia of New Netherland ; and in the aummer 
bi^ooQ- of 1622, having ascended the Connecticut to traffic with 
the Sequins, near the present town of Wethersfleld, he 
treacherously imprisoned their chief on board his yacht, 
and would not release him until a ransom of one hilndred 
and forty fathoms of wampum had heen exacted. This 
outrage naturally alienated the eaistern Indians ; and the 
Sequin chief, refused to have any more dealings with the 
treacherous Eellcena, who was soon afterward discharged 
by his offended superiors from the post he had dishonored.* 
Walloons The Fatherland was now preparing to send permanent 
' emigrants to subdue the wilderness of New Netherland. 
Early in this year, while Carleton was engaged in obtain- 
ing the preliminary information which he desired before 
presenting his memorial to the States G-enerEil, he had 
jsnnary. hecu applied to by some families ofWalloons, settled at 
Amsterdam, for permission to emigrate to Virginia and 
establish a colony, to be governed by magistrates of their 
own ekction + The'^e "Walloons, whose name was de- 
rived Irom thtir original "Waalsche," or French extrac- 
tion i had piised thi aufih the iire of persecution. They 
inhabited the Southern Belgio Provinces of Hainault, Na- 
mur Luxembuig Limburg, and part of the ancient Bish- 
opric of Liege , and spjLe the old French language. "When 
the northern provinces of the Netherlands formed their po- 
litical union at Utrecht in 1579, the southern provinces, 
which were generally attached to the Roman Church, de- 
clined joining the Confederation. Many of their inhabit- 
ants, nevertheless, professed the principles of tJie Reforma- 
tion. Against those Protestant "Walloons the Spanish gov- 
ernment exercised the most rigid measures of inquisitorial 
vengeance; and the subjects of an unrelenting persecution 

f Lond. Dot, i., 34 ; N. ¥. Col. HSS., Hi., fl, 10. 
i " lordeiing on Franco, and apaalfiogthe Ftei|clilanBiiags,il)cy wi 
Wch was changed, in low Dnlcli. Into Woalscfe, and In EngliBh inli 
Tj Oe Witt, m N, y. H. S.-Ptod., IWfi, p. V5. 

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emigrated "by thousands into Holland, where they knew chip. v. 
that strangers of every race and creed were sure of an 
asylum and a welcome. Carrying with them a knowl- 
edge of the arts, in which they were great proficients, 
they were distinguished in their new home for their taste- 
ful and persevering industry. To the Walloons the Dutch 
were prohably indebted for much of the repute which they 
gained as a nation in many branches of manufactures.* 
Finding in Holland a free scope for the enjoyment of their 
religious opinions, the "Walloons soon introduced the pub- 
lic use of their church service, which, to this day, bears 
witness to the characteristic toleration and liberality of 
the Fatherland. By degrees, the fame of the New World waiioons 
reached the ears of the artisans of Amsterdam; and some^iBeio^o 
of the Belgian refugees applied to Carleton for formal en- 
couragement to emigrate to "Virginia. The ambassador, 
having no powers to make arrangements with them, com- 
municated their application to the king, by whom it was 
ordered to be referred to the "Virginia Company. But the 
conditions which the company offered did not appear toAronoif?). 
have been satisfactory to the Walloons ; and the abortive 
negotiation ended.t Thus Virginia lost the advantage of 
having an ingenious, brave, and industrious race added to 
her, perhaps, too homogeneous population. 

What Yirginia lost New Netherland gained. Cosmo- 
politan Amsterdam was to impress its character upon cos- 
mopolitan Manhattan. In the New World, a metropolis 
soon arobc, giving a home to emigrants from all climes 
and cf all races ; and where the lavish gifts of beneficent 
nature are enjoyed in common by the multifarious, enter- 
pn&mg anl prosperous inhabitants who crowd its busy 
streets The city which Amsterdam originated can never 
foiget the magnanimous policy and liberal example of its 
sagacious founder. 

The Provincial States of Holland, ascertaining that sev- The states 
eral families of Walloons had applied to Carleton for per-imorihe 
mj'iaion to emigrate to Virginia, thought that " they should so Apru. ' 

Hosted by 



ckap. v. rather "be secured for the West India Company ;" and tlie 
'""■" subject was referred to the directors of that corporation, 
' to consider " what could "be therein done for their service." 
SI April. The directors promptly reported that the emigration of 
these Walloons wonld be "very advantageous" to the 
company ; and that imnxediate measures should be taken 
to secure them, and to give them employment, until the 
company should te formally organized, and be able to 
send them out as colonists. The views of the direotora 
were approved by the Provincial States, and the attention 
of the magistracy of Amsterdam was officially directed to 
the subject.* 
1623. At length, after two years of preliminary preparation, 
RnS"or- the West India Company obtained the assent of the States 
M thev/ist Greneral to its articles of internal government, in June,, 
ia«E Com- -|^g23j and began to prosecute with energy the objects of 
its incorporation. The same month, three pioneer ships, 
the Orange Tree, the Eagle, and the Love, were dispatched 
to the West Indies, " to maintain the course of traffic, and 
in the hope of realizing their fii'st returns."! 
NowNein- The colonization of New Netherland, however, became 
made a the first care of the company. That somewhat indefinite 
territory was formally erected into a Province, and "hon- 
ored" by the States G-eneral with a grant of the armorial 
distinction of a count. i As soon as the stock of the com- 
pany was eecured, and the several boards of directors were 
ABdgned . chosen, the College of the XIX. assigned the particular 
of^eAm- management of the affairs of the province to the Chamber 
Ctoninor. at Amsterdam. Among the prominent members of that 
chamber were Jonas Witsen,4 one of the grantees of the 
original trading charter of 1614, HendrickHamel, Samuel 
Grodyn, Samuel Bloramaert, John de Laet, the historian, 
Kiliaen van Rensselaer, Michael Pauw, and Peter Evert- 

r, leaa : Garret Jacobsea Wilsen flled ia 

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sea Hulft, whoae names are identified with the first Eu- chap. v. 
ropeau possession of the five states of New York, New 
Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Coimectiout.* 

Aware of the jealonsy of the English government, the The wot* 
"West India Company did not delay arrangements to se-panyiskos 
cure their title to Wew Netherland by more extended act- otNcw 
ual ocenpation. " By virtue of their charter," and before lanri, 
their final organization, they "took possession of the coun- 
try" in the year 1633 ;t and trading vessels were prompt- 
ly sent out, bearing instructions to the officers at Meinhat- 
tan, and on the North River. The voyages of the Dutch 
ships, at this time, generally occupied about seven or eight 
weeks. On clearing the channel, they laid their course ciremiaui, 
for the Canary Islands ; whence they stretched across the tue Dutch 
Atlantic toward Guiana and the Carribees, and then ran 
obliquely toward the northwest, between the Bahamas and 
the Bermndas, \mtil they made the coasts of Virginia.J 
By steering this oircuitous southern course, they avoided 
the severe gales of the North Atlantic, and had the oppor- 
tunity of refitting, when it was necessary. But their voy- 
ages were sometimes protracted by the temptation to lin- 
ger at anchor ; and the yacht Maokarel, which sailed from 
the Texel in June, consumed so much time among the is i™e. 
Cairibee Islands in unsuccessful fishing, that she did not 
arrive at Manhattan until the middle of December, which lu Dec. 
was " somewhat late," remarks the quaint chronicler.^ 

The situation of the redoubt on the Tawasentha proving a new ton 
inconvenient, arrangements were now made to buUd, onomha 
the west bank of the river, a few miles further north, aer. 
larger and more permanent fortification, "with four an- 
gles," and to be named "Fort Orange," in honor of the 
etadtholder. At the same time, preparations were made 
for the permanent occupation of the genial valley of the 
South River ; and by order of the Amsterdam Chamber, 

' MoBllon, 3B9 ; De laei, Jaeriyok Vcibacl. t Hoi. Doc, 11., 370. 

t WaHBonaat,Ti.,144. OoLana was frejuentiy called by the Dutch ■' do Wilde Cuale," 
and Oio CsnOieea " ie Wilde Eyltmflen."— De Viieo, Voyages, p. IM, 137 ; Olio Keyo'8 
Knttier Enlwurff, &c. 

( Waesenaar, vil., II ; Do Laet, App., 3 ; Doc. Hist. N. Y., iii., 36. 

Hosted by 



Cms. V. some of the traders from Manhattan selected a position on 
its east bank, at a spot which the natives called " Te- 
Afbrton kaacho." It was near the present town of G-loncester, in 
^vHB^ New Jersey, at the mouth of the Tirrmier Kill, or Timber 
ptojecied. Qjeejj^ then called " Sassackon." Here, among the rem- 
nants of the once formidatle Lenni-Lenape tribes, a few 
Dutch traders projected the iirst European fort on the 
shores of the Delaware.* 
1023 The spring of the year 1623 was the era of the iirst per- 
maMMag manont agricultural colonization of New Netherland, un- 
ertoliTza' der the authority of the West India Company. Anxious 
'n'Ji"! ™to commence their colony with wdling and active emi- 
grants, the Amsterdam Chamher equipped the " Wew Neth- 
erland," a ship of two hundred and sixty tor^ burden, and 
embarlvcd on board of it a company of thirty families. The 
gieater part of these colonists were Walloons, who, dig- 
appointed in their first application to Carleton, now emi- 
grated to America under the auspices of the West India 
Company. The superintendence of the expedition was 
Cornelia iutrustcd to the experienced Oomelis Jacobsen May, of 
xiy and Hoom, who was to remain in New Netherland as the First 
r!3 BopBrin^ Director of the colony ; while Adriaen Joria, of Thienpoint, 
pjditioo. 'went out as second in command.t 

The New Netherland sailed from the Texel in the be- 
Mavth. ginning of March; and, shaping her course by the Canary 
Islands and the coast of G-uiana, arrived safely, in the he- 
May, ginning of May, at the North River. At the mouth of the 
ani™"^ river, a French vessel was found lying at anchor, whose 
iGce^™'' captain wished to set up the arms of the King of France, 
and take possession in the name of his sovereign. But 
" the Hollanders," faithful to the States G-eneral and to the 
Directors of the West India Company, whose designs they 
were unwilling to see frustrated, "would not let him do 
it." The yacht Mackarel having just then returned from 
up the North River, where she had been trading with the 

98 ; Mlckle's 

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Indians, was armed at once with a couple of pieces of can- chap. v. 
non, and under lier convoy the Frenchman was forced to" 
sea. "Unwilling to be balked in his pertinacious loyalty, j^ 
the French captain immediately sailed to the South Uiv- ^'i^^^'"" 
er, and attempted the same experiment; "but he was 
foiled in a similar manner by the settlers there."* 

This affair having been satisfactorily accomplished. The weai 
eight men were left at Manhattan "to take possession" pany tskos 
for the West India Company. Several families, together of Mannai- 
with a number of sailors and men, were also detailed for 
service and colonization on the South River, and to the 
eastward of Manhattan. The New Netherland then went coioniais 
up the North River to Castle Island. "When she had pro- Norm hiv- 
ceeded " as far as Sopus, which is half way," her draft of *"' 
water was found to be a serious impediment. The ship 
was, therefore, lightened " with some boats that were left 
there by the Dutoh, that had been there the year before, a 
trading vrith the Indians upon their own accounts, and 
gone back again to Holland." By this means, they at 
length " brought the vessel up."t 

On the west shore of the river, just above Castle Island, 
" a fort with four angles, named Orange," which had been rori or. 
projected the previous year, was immediately "thrown 
up and completed," The colonists forthwith "put the 
spade ill the earth," and began fanning operations so vig- 
orously, that, before the yacht Mackarel returned to Hol- 
land, their com "was nearly as high as a man, so that 
they were getting along bravely." About eighteen fami- 
lies settled themselves at Port Orange, under Adriaen Jo- 
ris, who "staid with them alt winter," after sending his 

t Deposliloos of Caielina Trlco, in Deed Br**, vil. 

yaar the deponent was eighty-lhree years oW. Ttii 

and that she came «U to New NelherlEinil la tbe yei 

ir 1633, in the " ship called the IJ] 

{Eendraal J), whereof was commaniler Arieo Jorla, 1 

lelonging W the West India Compa 

being me Brst ship thai came here tat Ibe sM com] 

,any." There is a slight dlacrepa 

between Trico'B tesUmonj and Waasenaar's soconi 

It, which stal«ti the name of the I 

ssthe"N8wNetlierland." Wasaenaar's eemum 

flrmed by Hal. Doc. ii., 370i on ttie otHet Hand, tl 

when Blie woa eigMj-Uiree years old, and lliey deso 

years before, when aho was only eighteen years of ; 


Hosted by 



Chip. V, ship home to Holland in charge o£ his son. As soon as 
"■"""■■' the colonists had huilt themselves " some huts of bark" 
fjg,, ^i[.' around the fort, the Mahikanders, or River Indians, the 
iwEeniiia Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and 
Sk^-™^ the Seneoas, with the Mahawawa or Ottawawa Indians, 
«an8. '<came and made covenants of friendship" with Jovis, 
" hringing hira great presents of heaver or other peltry, 
and desired that they might come and have a constant 
free trade with them, which was concluded upon." For 
several years afterward, the Indians " were all as quiet as 
lamhs and came and traded with all the freedom imig 
mahlp * 
ju ob E Eell ens who=e ha e conduct the vear hefure m im 
ai-ded \ riionmg the "be j^uin chief on hoaid h a > icht hid pro- 
duced geieril disgu t wa'* no long r emploi,cd by the 
Dane teh Company ind Dan el van Kiieckebeuck w\'' m tailed as 
™ck*™m- Deputy Commissary at Fort Orange. The new coimnand- 
Fmor-" er, whose name, "for brevity's sake," the colonisfe soon 
^'^'' contracted into "Beeck," became very popular among 
them, and executed his functions so satisfactorily, " that 
he was thanked." The management of the fur trade 
along the river, and in the neighborhood of Manhattan, 
peierBa- was intrusted, after Eelkens's supersedure, to Peter Ba- 
perinitind- rentsBU, who, for several years, performed his duties to the 
Indian mutual satisfection of the Indians and of the company. t 
After the construction of Fort Orange, the colonists 
" also placed upon the Prince's Island, formerly called the 
Murderer's Island, a fort, which was named by them 
Forfwii-'Wilhelmus;' open (plat) in front, with a curtain in the 
"™' rear, and garrisoned by sixteen men for the defense of the 
river below, "t 

iEtr,vii., n;Tr 





WaasEiiaar aay 

s that Fott Orange was bu 

iBlard. In this h 

itli was Bwept away and 


built OB Iha alluvion gro 


ty.rf Albany. 

The site wss Ihat on whic] 

:i slnnde t 

.be buUding lately 

Otauge Holel, 

' Ibtmeily the mansion of 


.be Albany Insilrata, 1839. 


rl Orange Ilmel i 



DM. His. 



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The pertinacious attempt ■which the French captain, chap. v. 
■who had "been convoyed out of the waters of Manhattan, iano 
made to set up the arms of France on the South E.iver, 
though it had heen promptly thwarted hy the Dutch trad- 
ers whom he found there, showed the necessity of a per- 
manent post to protect the rights of the Dutch. May, 
whose previous voyages to that region had made him well 
acquainted with the country, now hastened to construct a 
log- fort, on the point at the mouth of the " Timmer Kill," 
vrhich had been previously selected. This post, like theFoitNas- 
first Dutch eatahlishment on Castle Island, was nanied ftp south 
" Fort Nassau," in compliment to the family of the Prince 
of Orange. Ahout three weeks after the arrival of the 
Mew Motherland at Manhattan, four couples, who had been Jnoe. 
married at sea, on their voyage from Holland, together with 
eight .seamen, ■were sent in a yacht to the South River, First Bum- 
"by order of the Dutch governor," to settle themselves niBtaBoi- 
there. The new home of tho pioneers was on the east, or 
Jersey shore, near Grlouoester, ahout four miles below the 
present city of Philadelphia.* 

A few of the New Netherland's passengers, consisting of 
" two families and six men," it is said, were sent, directly 
the ship arrived at Manhattan, to the Fresh or Connecticut May. 
River, to conimenoe the actual occupation of that part of « comec 
tha Dutoh province. A small fort, or trading post, the occnpiedbT 
" Grood Hope," is said to have been also now projected and 
begun ; but it was not finished until 1633, ten years aft- 
er vv'ard.t 

Another portion of the colonists, who came out in thewauoona 
Kew Netherland, consisting chiefly of "Walloons, soon set- Long lai- 
tled themselves at a "bogt," or small bay, on the westwa'ai-togt. 

N. Y., Ui.p p. 35), -wHlioul adding any sugsealions of my own as lo tie posllion nf Port 
"WimelniUB." The subject, howcvct, la conalSeredin note K,in tho Appenflli. 

* Waaaenaw, "vll,, 11 i Vettoogli Van N. N.. in Hoi, Doc,, Iv., 71-Wl, and In II,, N. Y. 
H. S. Coll., it;, MS, aao i Hoi. IXjc, 11., 370 i vUi., 53 ; Do VrieB, 10a ; i., K, T. H. S. Coll., 
ill., 3T5 ; DopoalUona, In 111., Doo, Hist. N. ¥., 40, 50, 61 ; Mouiton, 3M ; Ferrla, 19 ; 
' CCall., 1., 100 1 MuHBrd'a N. J., 49 ; S. Haiard'a Ann, Ponn.,18,13; Appeoto, nolo K, 

tDepoailionofCaUllnaTrico.inN.V. Col. MSS,,Kixv.,andin Hi,, Doc. Hist. N. Y., 
p. 50 i Venooih van N, N,, In Hoi Doc, iv., 71-30:, and In II,, N, Y, H. S, Coll., il„ S76, 
277, Trico saya, lHal " as aoon aa they came lo Mannalana, now colled New York, Ihey 
sent two (bnulies and six men Is HarDnd RlTec," 

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■. shore of Long Island, nearly opposite to " Neohtonk," or 
"Corlaer's Hook, on Manhattan, This settlement, which 

■ W£L3 just north of " Marechkawieck," or Brooklyn,* before 
long became familiarly known as the "Waal-bogt," or 
Walloon's Cove. The colonists throve apace. Other em- 
igrants followed the first adventurers from Holland ; and 
here, in the month of June, 1625, Sarah Rapelje was bom 
— the first ascertained offspring of European parentage in 
the province of New Netherland. These early colonists 
are not to be confounded with the "Waldensea, who suhae- 
qnently emigrated from Amsterdam. The descendants of 
the Walloons soon spread themselves over the country in 
the vicinity of the Waal-bogt ; and the names of many of 
the most respectable families on Long Island to tliis day 
attest their French and Belgian origin.t 

■y, Cornelia Jacobaen May was now formally installed in 

■ his office as the First Director of New Ketherland, under 
the Dutch West India Company. Hia adminiatration, 

1. however, laated only one year. In Holland, it was hoped 
that the colony, so prosperously begun, would, with proper 
management, go on thriftily. Whoever was placed as 
commander over the colonists, should exercise his author- 
ity " as their father, and not as their executioner ; leading 

a- them with a gentle hand. For he, who governs them as a 
friend and associate, will be beloved by them ; but he who 
shall rale them as a superior, will overthrow and bring to 
naught every thing, yea, will stir up against him the 
neighboring provinces, to which the impatient will fly. 
'Tis better to govern by love and friendship than by force." 
During May's brief directorship. Fort Orange was com- 
pleted on the North River, and Fort Nassau on the South 
River. The fur trade was more syatematicalSy prosecuted ; 



le ofUli 



ind prospero 

as dt: 

t la a CO 

irruption oi 


™, ' 

' Bre ue) 


,he toad lo X 

Walloons, 1 




ess of : 



■Wnel-bogl-'llas to 



led inH. th. 

t B=ni 




i™, 3-d; m 

^ Alb. 

Rec, X 



5S, » 

nd laii 

i, f. 73 ; Hrt 



an Genealu 

Hosted by 



and the "Weat India Company were soon gladdened with chsp. v. 
the favorable intelligence which reached them from their „''"' ' 
infant colony. On his rettun to Amsterdam, Joris report- BeccmbBi', 
ed that " aU was in good condition" in New Netherland, 
where the colonists were " getting hravely along," and cul- 
tivating friendly relations with the savages. All trade now 
inuring to the exclusive benefit of the West India Com- 
pany, the cargo of valuable furs which Joria brought back 
to Holland, as a first year's remittance from Kew Nether- 
land, on its public sale at Amsterdam, added over twenty- 
eight thousand guilders to their treasury,* 

Meanwhile, the attention of the directors of that corpo- wesi imUn 
ration had been drawn to a supposed infringement, under "tesis it 
their own eyes, of their close monopoly. David Pietersenaisoom. 
de Vries, an enterprising mariner of Hoorn, having made 
severoil voyages to the Mediterranean and the banks of 
Newfoundland, procured a commission from the King 
of France, and, in partnership with some E-ochelle mer- 
chants, bought a amall vessel, for the pm-pose of going 
to the fisheries, " and to the coaat of Canada, to trade in 
peltries." The directors of the "West India Company, learn- 
ing the circumstance, sent a committee to Hoorn, and 
seized the ship, which waa lying there ready to sail. DeaiMan*. 
Vries protested that the end of his proposed voyage waa 
beyond tho limita of the company's charter ; hut he pro- 
teated in vain. The jealousy of the directors was arouaed ; 
they were determined'to prevent any vessels hut their own 
from sailing out of Holland to the coasta of North Amer- 
ica. De Vriea, however, was not diaheartened. He ap- 
pealed to the Statea G-eneral, and laid before thera his 
commission from the King of France, countersigned by 
Admiral Montmorency. The government at the Hague eApni. 
promptly interfered. A letter was addressed to the Col- General m- 
lege of XIX., warning them not to engage, in the begin- 
ning of their career, in needless disputes with neighboring 
European powers, especially with the French; and advis- 

Lact, ipp., 39; 'Budanlus, In Doc. Hlat. N. Y., iv., 131, 132. 

Hosted by 



OiiAr, V. ingtliemto arrange the affair amicably withDoViies, whose 
'■■■ proposed voyage waa to Canada, and beyond the hounds of 
DeVriBs'B ^^^ company's charter. T!he direcstors, after great delay, 
icSet reluctantly freed the vessel from arrest, enjoining De Vries 
" not to go within their limits." But the voyage was en- 
tirely frustrated hy their vexatious proceedings ; and De 
Vries, in the end, sold his ship to the Dordrecht Chamher, 
The jealous directors refused to make any compensation 
for the losses De Vries had suffered, who declared to them 
that he had undertaken his enterprise only with the patri- 
otic design "to make our Netherlands nation acquainted 
with those regions ; since our trade suhsists hy the sea."* 
1625. Enghsh. jealousy, which had slumhered for three years 
ai!^T?/8," since Carleton's first application to the States General to 
™N8w"°* restrain ilie Hollanders from trading to New Netherland, 
ian^- was now again aroused. Information was communicated 
H^ntti. to the Privy Council that a Dutch ship, the " Orange Tree" 
^1^^ of Amsterdam, had arrived at Plymouth, on a voyage ' to 
a place in America which is comprehended m a giant 
made hy His Majesty, upon ]Ust con'iideiation, to dners 
of his subjects." The Lords nf the Council, theietore, 
immediately directed Goiges and the authorities at Plym- 
outh to arrest the ship, and send the captain, "with his 
commission and the plat which he hath ' up to London 
No other result, howevei , than the detention of the Oi ange 
Tree, appears to have followed the action of the Privy 
Council. James L waa drawing near the end of his days; 
and though, personally, he was never cordially disposed 
toward the Dutch, the foreign relations of England had 
lately become so critically situated, that he had found it 
1694. expedient to form an aUiance with the States G-eneral.+ 
isjune. Under these circumstances, he wisely judged it impolitic 

*Hol. Doc, t., 136,139, 133; Voyages of D. P. de Vtiea, 41, 45. I quote from the orig- 
IdbI work of Do Viies, poblialicd M Alckmaar in 1655. This very tare book, in Us eom- 
plelB ftrm, tsB never tcfore been conaolled by any of our writers, who, relying upon Iha 
■wtetched Torsion from the Da SimlliSre MSS. at Philadelphia (puMlahed in ii. N. T, H, 
S. CoU., t., a5(l-3!S>, have been hoitajed into grave etrote, wWcli 11 will he my duty to 
noHce and correct. A ftithfol ttanBtetion of De Vries, lij Mr. H. C. Murphy, will Boon he 
published by Iho New York Biatorlcal Society. 

t Lond. Doc, i.. Si ; N. Y. Col. MSS„ iii., 13 ; Wassenaar, v., fli ! Corps, Dip., t., S, 

Hosted by 





to offend, in any way, the powerful commercial company chjp. 
which it was his evident interest to conciliate. 

Early in the year 1625, the attention of the inhabit- j 
ants of the United Provinces was attracted to the publioa- "'^^e^^'" 
tion, at Leyden, of a black-letter folio History of the " New JJ^j'^g^ "' 
World, or Description of the West Indies," by John de Laet, 
one of the most influential directors of the West India 
Company. This work, which was dedicated to the States 
General, was composed from " various manuscript journals 
of different captains and pilots," v> hose nimeo occur m tho 
course of the descriptions , and from this circumatanoe its 
historical authority is nearly equal to that of an original 
record. Among othera, Hadson'a omii private lournal is 
largely quoted from. Thi& journal was piobably handed 
to De Laet hy the Amsterdim director's of the Efit India 
Company, to whom it had been transmitted from En 
gland. It is a very remarkabb eoincidenoo, that au- 
thentic extracts of Hudbon'b own leport of his adventuies 
should thus have appeared in Holland, in the same year 
that Purchas was publishing at London, in his " Pil- Paf^i^e's,^ 
grims," the formal. log-book in which Juet, the mate of "ii^i^"- 
the Half Moon, recorded the discovery of New Nether- 
land. Besides Hudson's private journal, De Laet appears 
to have had in his possession the original reports of Block, 
Christiaensen, and May. Until the recent reference to the 
earlier " Historical Relation" of Wassenaar — ^whioh eon-WBeao- 
tains a general statement of interesting events in Europe "Hisio- 
and America from 1621 to 1632 — the vrork of De Laet Hoei" pub- 
was thought to contain the first puhlished account of the AmsiM- 
Dntch province. Its authority is deservedly very high ; 
and had English and American writers consulted its ac- 
curate pages, less injustice would, perhaps, have been done 
to the Hollanders who explored the coasts of New Nether- 
land, and piloted their adventurous yachts along the 
shores of its bays and streams, years before a British ves- 
sel ascended the Worth or South Rivers, or passed through 
Long Island Sound.* 

Hosted by 



cai.v.v. The oapaoity of New Wetherland for cultivation and 
production being now favorably linown to the pwblio, the 
' "West India Company determined to prosecute vigorously 
the work of colonization. The yacht Mackarel was again 
dispatched to Manhattan, witli a cargo of " necessaries" 
85 Apd!. for the use of the colonists already there. But when only 
HI April, two days out from the Texel, the vessel was captured in 
a fog by some of the enemy's privateers, and caiTied a prize 
into Dunkirk.* This mischance, however, was soon re- 
Huift sends paired. Peter Evertsen Hulft, one of the directors of the 
10 Now *^ Amsterdam Chamber, promptly undertook to convey to the 
aiiii9own coloDy, at Ws own risk, saoh necessary artiolea as might 
be provided. Two ahips, each of two hundred and eighty 
tons burden, were accordingly fitted out in the same 
Apia. spring, and loaded with one hundred and three head of 
cattle, among which were stallions and mares, bulls and 
cows, for breeding, as well as swine and sheep. The an- 
imals were carefully provided for on shipboard, almost as 
well as on shore. " Each beast," says the exact "Wasse- 
naar, " had its own separate stall," arranged upon a floor- 
ing of sEind, three feet deep, which was laid upon a deck 
specially constructed in the vessel. Under this deck each 
ship carried three hundred tune of fresh water, for the use 
of the 'cattle. Hay and straw were provided in abundance 
for the voyage ; and all kinds of seeds, and plows and 
other farming implements, were sent on board for the use 
of the colony; Hulft also added a third ship to the ex- 
pedition, "that there should be no failure" in carrying out 
the enterprise he had undertaken. Along with these three 
A jachi vessels went a fast-sailing yacht or " fJuyt," fitted out by 
ihs compa- the directors of the company on their own account. These 
vessels carried out six entire families, besides several free 



, in 1633 ; 

and the 




i been pu' 

73. De Lael als 


I In Holla 

1 published 

by the I 


8 ihe mil 

[inal docnrr 

rants ftt 

Hosted by 



emigrante {" viye persoonen") ; so that forty-five new set- chaf. v. 
tiers were thus added to the population of New Nether- 
land. " This colony has a great scope, lying close hj the 
track of the Spaniards from the "West Indies," said the sa- 
gacious merchants of Amaterdara, as tJie little squadron 
sailed gayly into the Zuyder Zee.* 

The voyage was entirely successful; only two of the July- 
beasts died at sea. On their arrival, they were first land- me voyage, 
ed at " Nutten," or Governor's Island ; but that spot fur- lanfled on 
nishing no sufficient pasture, they were taken, a day or and. 
two afterward, by shallops and barges, to Manhattan. Transfer- 
There they eventually throve very well on the rich grass, hutan. 
" as beautiful and long as one eouSd wish," which abound- 
ed in the valleys. But, being at fii-st allowed to run 
wild, about twenty in all died, from eating some poison- 
ous herbage, which covered the fallow soil with its rank 
luxuriance. In the same summer and autumn, the Am- juiy. 
sterdam directors were gladdened by the arrival of two ves- ^'"™'''™' 
sels from New Netherland, "loaded mostly With peltries," 
and bringing nevra of the " great contentment" of the ad- 

Strengthened by this last arrival, the growing colony wiiuam 
now numbered over two hundred souls ; and Cornelis Ja- BucceedB 
cobsen May, who had administered its simple gbvemment onYmrect 
during the year 1624, was succeeded by "William Verhulst, Neiher- 
as the second Direotor of New Netherland. Verhulst's ad- 
ministration, like that of his predecessor, lasted, however, 
only one year ; at the end of which, he returned to Hoi- 1626. 
land. He seems to have visited the South River in per- ^"°''*""''''- 
son, to examine into the state of affairs there ; and his 
name was for a long time commemorated by "Terhulsten vernuisien 
Island," near the bend of the Delaware at Trenton. "Upon iiieTrentun 
this island, which is described as being " near the falls of 
that river, and neaj the west side thereof," the West India 

' Wisaonaar, is., 40 ; Ut., HI ; Doo. Hisl. N, Y„ Ui., 38, 3», K. 

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chip.v. Company established a trading house, "wheio there were 
"~~rr~ three or four families of "Walloons." These families, how- 
wbilqohb ^'^^^"' '^'^ ^^^ remain very long in their lonely frontier 
^"^1^ home.* 

DEath of The year 1625 wt^ marked hy two important public 
^^"^ events in Europe, ■which incidentally influenced the affairs 
aaTpra, of W^ew NetherJand. After thhty years of active military 
service, Maurice, Prince of Orange, the " Fahius of the 
Netherlands," died at the Hague. Equal to the most cel- 
ebrated captains of any age or nation, Maurice appeared to 
fer less advantage in his political capacity, as the stadt- 
holder of the United Provinces. Many a deed of glory il- 
lustrates his splendid military career ; but the eye of pos- 
terity will never cease to look with reproach upon that 
darkest spot which blots his checkered escutcheon — the 
Succeeded blood of Olden Barneveldt, Upon the death of MaurioOj 
pother, the States General eonferred the vacant offices of captain 
Henry, and admiral general on hia brother, Frederick Henry, who 
succeeded him as Prince of Orange, and who was also, 
soon afterward, created Stadtholder by a majority of the 
provinces. The new prince, who far excelled his brother 
in prudence, moderation, and capacity for government, 
entered upon the administration of affairs under circum- 
stances which, though discouraging, gave promise of 
brighter days. Beligions hostilities were soon restrained 
to the precincts of the consistories ; and the voice of pa- 
triotism, which for awhile had been stifled by the clamor 
of polemical discussion and the vehemence of party strife. 

Waasenaar, ill.,37, 3B;](i 

ri., 13; JLVI 


Hi roc. Hist. 

N. Y., iii., 42, 43, 47. 


i^ rpnck's Mdp of N. N. i 

Peier Lautene 

len, in Deed Book, vll., 

iae.mel.H.V.,lLL.,50. Lai 

irensen'a flepos 

hs 34th of March, 16E9. He 

saye that 

it India Company, in the year IflSS ; i 


in Ibe year It 

130 (laai!), by order o 

K India Company, he, wUh 

ere aenl in a B 

loop with hoy salle in 1 

■e, wbere Ite company had 

e, with ten or 

1, which the deponent himself did eee 


re BcMert. A 

nd he flinher solih, lb 



!l flopped aim 

leHorckill, where the ( 

t did also sea a setUement > 

le, telongbig li 

, the West India Comr 

1 the deponeol Ihrlbei si^lh, 


tland near Ibe 




ise, where Ibere neie three < 



of Walloons. ' 

The place oribcirseille 

re retotncd liom theoco."— 

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once more aroused men of all sects and alV opinions to chap. \'. 
unite in defense of their Fatheiland.* 

The death of James I,, which happened ahout a month g^ ^j^j,,,' 
before that of Maurice, led the government at the Hague Kf^*j"4^^ 
and the directors of the "West India Company to hope that '■ 
the hostilities, which had just broken out between En- 
gland and Spain, would be vigorously prosecuted hy 
Charles I., and would assist the military operations of the Anccssmn 
repubho against the common enemy. They were not dia- i. 
appointed. In revenge for the failure of the Prince of 
Wales's intended marriage with the Infanta, James had 
been hurried into a war with his former ally. Still fur- 
ther to humble her, he had, in 1624, entered into a de- 
fensive alliance, for two years, with the Dutch ; and had 
agreed to allow the States General to levy six thousand 
tnen within his Idngdom, and at his cost, upon condition 
that their expenses should be repaid at the conclusion of 
a peace between the United Provinces and Spain. "With- 
in six months after his accession, Charles I. took a still 
more decided step. He concluded, at Southampton, a X Sept. 
treaty with the States General, by which he entered into sounilm]i- 
an offensive and defensive alliance with the Dutch, to con- iwe™ the 
tinue Bs long as the King of Spain should prosecute his bm much, 
designs "against the liberty and rights of the United Prov- 
inces," and occupy the Palatinate with his troops. The 
allies bound themselves to equip fleets for the purpose of 
destroying the Spanish commerce in the East and West 
Indies ; and the treaty expressly stipulated that the ports 
of the two countries should be reciprocally open to the war 
and merchant vessels of both parties.! The king, how- 
ever, accompanied his ratification of the Treaty of South- 
ampton with a protest that it should not prevent his de- 
manding proper satisfaction for the injuries which the 
Dutch wore alleged to have done the English at Amboy- 
na, the year before. A few weeks afterward, Charles dis- n ocwier. 
patched iJie Duke of Buckingham and the Earl of Hol- 

• DavicB, 11., 557,566. 

t Corps. D:p„T.,3, «S, 4T8 ; Clorendon State Fopere, 1., 41, 53 ; Ailiema, i„ 691, 1S26, 
Lond. Doc., t., 35 ; Hoi, Doc, Ix., aB3 ; N. Y. Col. MSS., iil., IS. 

Hosted by 



CHAP, V. land aa ambassadors extraordinary to the States General, 
"charged with inatruc+ions to negotiate a still closer alli- 
■ ance ; to " remember" the Statea Creneial " that the only 
foundation and principal cement of their estate being their 
unity, they must by all means conserve that;" and to as- 
sure them of the king's sincere desire to interpose, "by 
way of mediation, in all differences within their state," 
and continue in "every office and duty of a good, neighbor, 
friend, and ally."* 

These circumstances favorably affected the rising for- 
tunes of New Netherland, Great Britain and the United 
Provinces were now allies. The "West India Company, 
presuming that the same causes that had induced Charlua 
to open his ports to their vessels, and postpone retaliation 
for the alleged baibaiit es at Amlw^na, would prevent bis 
interfering with thun de ign to fo md a stable colony in 
PeiM Min- America, imme liately commissioned Peter Minuit, of We- 
cwds ver- scl, to succced "William "N erhul t in the chief command in 
DiteMM New Netherland as it'< Director Geneial. Minuit left Am- 
hbw Meih. sterdam, accordingly, toward the end of December, in the 
19 Dec. ship " Sea-Mew," Captain Adriaen Jons. The ship sailed 
1626. fram the Texel on the ninth of January, 1626, and arrived 
Am'vcs at at Manhattan on the fourth of the following May.t 

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The College of Nineteen of the West India Company, 
immediately on its organization, intrusted, as we have~~~ 
seen, to the Amsterdam Chamber the particular manage- pfoyi^^j,,', 
ment of its North American Province. Sworn to the||^™J"j, 
double allegiance which the charter required, Director ^^^^^^^^ 
Peter Mikoit, on his aiTival at Manhattan, commenced |[,"„^[','^'' 
an administration which was to be a faithful reflection of ^ '^^■' 
the peculiar commercial policy of his immediate princi- 
pals. Their wiU, as expressed in inatraotions, or de- 
clared in ordinances, was to he the supreme law of New 
Netherland : in cases not thus speoifioally provided for, 
the civil law, and the statutes, edicts, and customs of the 
Fatherland were to be paramount.* 

To assist the director, a council was appointed, which councH, 
was invested with all local, legislative, judicial, and ex- 
ecutive powers, subject to the supervision and appellate 
jurisdiction of the Chamber at Amsterdam. Crimhial 
justice was administered by the council to the extent of 
fine and imprisonment, but not to the taking away of life. 
If any person was capitally convicted, " he must be sent, 
with his sentence, to Holland."t Next in authority to 
the director and council was the chief commissary or 
"Koopman," who was the book-keeper of the company's 
affairs, and also acted as Secretary of the Province. Sub- 
ordinate to these was the "Schout,"$ whose responsible schout. 

• Moulion, 36B. t WoBBenaiir, lii., US ; Doo. Hist. N. Y., ILL., 43. 

crinieB.— GroUue, Inleyillnge, 1S7 ; DBvies, i., TT. 

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■aii.i: v[. office cornbined the dou"ble duties of PuMic Procurator 
and Sheriff. He was not a memter of the council, but 
their executive officer ; and, besides his other ordinary 
functions, he was specially charged with the due inspec- 
tion and enforcement of the revenue regulations of the 
Colonial Custom-house. During Minuit's direction of af- 
fairs, his council consisted of Peter Byvelt, Jaooh Blbert- 
sen Wissinck, Jan Jansseii Brouwer, Simon Dircksen Pom, 
and Reynert Harmenssen. The schout, or sheriff, was 
■raYinaai Jan Lampo, of Cantelberg. Isaac de Easieres was book- 
keeper and provincial secretary for about two years, and 
was then succeeded by Jan van Bemund. 

Minuit'a administration began vigorously. Up to this 
period, the Dutch had possessed Manhattan Island only 
by right of first discovery and occupation. It was now 
determined to superadd a higher title, by puroliase from 
Pureuoseafthe aborigines. As soon as Minuit was installed in his 
[s[anit from government, he opened negotiations with tlie savages ; and 
inea. a mutually satisfactory treaty was promptly concluded, by 
which the entire island of Manhattan, then estimated to 
contain about twenty-two thousand acres of land, was 
ceded by the native proprietors, to the Dutch West India 
Company, " for the value of sixty guilders," or about 
twenty-four dollars o£ out present currency.* This event, 
one of the most interesting in our colonial annals, as well 
deserves commemoration, as the famous treaty, immortal- 
ized by painters, poets, and historians, which "William 
1682. Penn concluded, fifty-six years afterward, under the great 
elm-tree, with the Indians at Shackamaxon. 

A short time after Minuit sailed, another ship, the 

"Arms of Amsterdam," was dispatched from Holland, 

having on board Isaac de Rasieres, a protege of Samuel 

Blommacrt, one of the leading directors of the West India 

1626. Company. De Rasieres reached New Netherland in July, 

wjiiiy. ^^^ immediately entered on his duties as "opper koop- 

.; Mr. G. Folaom'a Eopi 

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man," or chief commiasary, and secretary of the province c 
under Director Minuit* As yet, no arrangements had ~ 
been made for a regular clergyman ; but hia place was, 
to a certain extent, supplied by two " Krank-besoeckers," 
or "consolers of the sick," Sebastian Jansen Krol and Jan cominnc-s 
Huyok, whose particular duty it was to read to the peo- 
ple, on Sundays, " some texts out of the Scriptures, to- 
gether with the Creods."t Frangois Molemaecker was also 
employed in building a horse-mill, with a spacious room 
above to serve for a largo congregation ; and a tower was 
to be added, in which the Spanish bells captured at Porto 
Eieo, the year before, by the West India Company's fleet, 
were intended to be hung.J 

The island of Manhattan having now become, by pur- 
chase, the private property of the "West India Company, 
no time was lost in providing for its permanent security. 
A large fort, " with four angles," and to be faced withFottoom- 
solid stone, was staked out by the engineer, Kryn Fred- Maohaitsn 
erycke, on the, southern point of the island-^ "This 
point," suggested De Rasieres, " might, with little trouble, 
be made a small island, by cutting through Blommaert's 
valley, so as to afford a haven, winter and summer, for 
sloops and ships." Its commanding position was well ap- commami- 
preoiated; and its future destiny prophesied. "It ought, "on oriho 
from its nature, to he a Royal Fort, so that it coiild bepfe=faied. 
approached by land only on one side. ; as it is a triangle 
bounded by the two rivers. Three angles are indicated 
by nature. The most northern is opposite to, and com- 
mands within the range of a cannon shot, the Great Mau- 

• Do Raaleros'B Letlcr, in il, K. Y. H. S. Coll,, ii., Mt 

t In IJie Choreh of HoUand, it ia the dulj of the " Krank-tasoeckcrs," or " Zicken- 
Irooslera," to vrat and pray with the aick, Sss [dan Liturgy oflhe H. B. Church, pntvi. 
The tnuishitioa oT Waaaenau, in Vk. Him. N. Y., iU„ iX erroneoualy rendeis " met de 
grfo&en," "iw!*ite comment." The "G^oor' reaUymeanB "the CjTCdi" which the 
" voorieezera,^ or darkii, in ttie chnrchea InHolinndf to thia day,rcfld nnm tlis "Doop- 
tinj^e," 01 biyitiaur;, uflder lbs ^plt. UnUl s recent period, thia cDatom waa kept np 
in the Raftumefl Dulch ehntohea in this conntry. 

t Wasaenut, nil., SB ; Don, Hist. N. T., iii., «, 43. 

k WsaBenasr.iii., 38; itI.,13; Hoi. Doc, 11., 370. Monlion, 367, eiHrrae, that the fort 

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Chap. VI. ritius E,iver and the land. The aouthemmost, on the wa- 
"tei: level, commands the channel lietwe en Nutten Island 
■ and the fort, together with the HeU-gate ; the third point, 
opposite to Blommacrt's valley, commands the low land. 
The middle, vrhich ought to bo loft as a landmark, is the 
height of a hillock ahove the surrounding land, and should 
always serve as a Battery, which might command the 
three points, if the streets should he arranged accorduig- 
iiouaes at ly,"* The " Comptoir," or counting-house of the compa- 
ny, was kept in a stone building, thatched with reeda. 
Some thirty other "ordinary houses," constructed chiefly 
of the hark of trees, were clustered along the east side of 
the river, "which mns nearly north and south." Each 
colonist had his own house. The director and tlie koop- 
man and secretary lived together. As soon, however, as 
the fort should be built, it was intended that aU the set- 
tlers should betake themselves within its walla, so aa to 
be secure from any sudden attack of the aavages.t 
The fott In advance of its completion, the post was named " Fort 
"Fott Am- Amsterdam."!: "While it was in progress of building, an 
event occurred which, though its criminal authors may 
have escaped detection and punishment, was destined to 
cause much of the misery which afterward visited the 
province, A "Weckquaesgeek Indian, with his nephew, 
" a small boy," and another savage, came down &om the 
abode of their tribe in "West Chester, bringing with them 
some beaver-skins to tarter with the Dutch at the fort. 
The beaten trail of the savages, coming from the north and 
east to Manhattan, was &,long the shore of the East River, 
from which, just north of wlmt is now called " Kip's Bay," 
it diverged to the westward, and passed near the swampy 
ground forming the " Kolck," or pond of fresh water, until 
Kurdet of recently known as the " Collect." "When the Indian trad- 
guMseeek ing-party reached this pond, they were met by three faim- 
the Kokk. scrvauts, in the employ of Commander Minuit, who robbed 

Hosted by 



the WeckcLuaesgeek of his peltiies, and -then mucdered cnir. vi. 
him. The atrocious deed seems to have remained for a 
long time unknown to the Dutch authorities ; and its act- 
ual perpetrators probably escaped punishment. But the 
young savage, who witnessed hia uncle's murder, vowed 
that, when he grew up, " he would revenge hiniaelf on the 
Dutch." And, in after years, the diity which Indian jus- 
tice inexorably imposed was awfuUy executed.* 

Such were the " rude beginnings" of Manhattan. Its 
first settlers brought-with them the characteristics of their 
Fatherland. " They were as busy and industrious as in 
Holland." One traded with the natives, southward and 
northward ; another built houses ; a thhd cultivated the 
land. Eaoh former had his homestead upon the compa- 
ny's land, and was also furnished with cows, the milk of 
which was his ov^fn profit.t " The island of the Manha- 
tas," wrote De Rasieres to his patron Blommaert, " is full Desctipiion 
of trees, and, in the middle, rooky. On the north side, tan ty De 
there is good land in two places, where two farmers, each 
with four horses, would have enough to do, without much 
clearing or grubbing at first. The grass is good in the 
forests and valleys ; but when made into hay, it is not so 
nutritious for the cattle as the hay in Holland, in conse- 
quence of its wild state ; yet it annually improves by cul- 
tivation. On the east aide there rises a large level field, 
of about one hundred and sixty acres, through which runs 
a verv fine fresh stream '$ ''O that that lind can be plow- 
ed thout ch clci ng It ap| ea a to be good. The 
s X fa n lou t vh cl 1 e aln g tl e E er Hell-gate, 
stretcl mg to the o th de of the lola d have at least 
one hundrel anl tvieity aciea re'idy to be sown with 

rteVne8s"VD13„Ba,16*,JuiiinalYBnN.N.,Hol.Iloc.,Hi.,105,-».,S14. TH8"Ver3oli 
Walev," or Prejft Water, monUoned by De Vries aa llie scene of this murder, was the large 
pon4 fbrmerly abom midway between Broadway and Ctotham Street, known as " net 
KOlok," Of "lbs Pond." Tram lliii Kolok a atteam, over which tbere was abridge, near 
tie eotner of Chatham and Koosevelt Streets, flowed into the East lUfer. The " Koleli" 

t WasBenaar, iii„ 9S ; Doo, Hisl. N, ¥., ill., 43. 
i Tile Koieli. 

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[. winter eed ^^liich, at the iiubt, iin\ have been plowed 
" eight tunes * 

" Whdc ever J thing \iaa thu thiuing at Manhattan, the 
settlors at Fort Orange, lAho, independently of ten or 
twelve ailuis m the company's lervice, forming the gar- 
rison, now numbered eight families, were qnietly pursu- 
ing then faiming operations, and maintaining the most 
friendly relations v, ith the npighboi ing savages. This was 
the most northern point at which the Hollanders had trad- 
ed ; and Commissary Kriecltebeeck,' who had now been 
for three years in command of the post, had hitherto giv- 
en general satisfaction, both to the colonists and the na- 
tives, The super intend enoe of the fur trade, however, aft- 
er Eelkena's superaedure, waa oonduoted by Peter Bavent- 
sen, who, from time to time, went up the river, and along 
the coasts to the eastward, visiting ail the neighboring wa- 
ters in his shallops, and bringing back large cargoes to 
Manhattan. Barentsen soon became very popular among 
the various savage tribes to the north and east, from the 
Mohawks and Mahicans to the "Wapenoos around Narra- 
gansett Bay, and " traded with them for peltries in gi'eat 
friendship." The chief of the Sequins, inhabiting the val- 
ley of the Connecticut, and " to whom all the clans of the 
north coast were tributary," whom Eelkens had treach- 
erously imprisoned on board his yacht in 1622, for a long 
time would have no intercourse with the Dutch. Barent- 
sen at length succeeded in making a treaty mth the chief; 
who, however, " would trust no one but him."t- 

An event now occurred which affected very materially 
the prosperity of the settlement at Fort Orange. The 
stockaded village of the Mahicans was situated on the east 
side of the river, nearly opposite the Butch fort ; and a 
constant intercourse was kept up between the two parties. 
Since the Treaty at Tawasentha, the Mohawks and Ma- 
hicans had lived in harmony with each other, and with 

confined to the uvtiirlpool near HaUctt^s Coro. -waSf as has been si 
ipplied by Ibe Dolcli to the East Hivet gcnetally. 
issenaar, kh., 39 ; Doc, Hist, N. Y., !l!,, 45. 

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GontiQued to observe a strict chap. 
was now interrupted ; and a 

the Dutch settlers, who h 

neutrality. Peace, howe^^JJ., .. uii ^.u.. inuvuvijunni, miiiu. ,„„„ 
war party of the Mahicans orossing the river, asked the commana- 
Dutoh commander to join ihem, with sbc of his men, on a ^ck'^?"' 
hostile expedition against the Mohawks. Krieokeheeok ^ohlilka. 
inconsiderately assenting, accompanied them a few miles 
into the interior from Fort Orange, where they met the 
Mohawks, " who foil upon them so vigorously with a dis- 
charge of arrows," that the whole party was put to flight, 
and many of them killed. Among the slain were Kriecke- la aiam. 
beeck and three of his men, one of whom, Tymen Bou- 
wensen, "was eaten hy the savages after he had been well 
roasted." The bodies of the commander and his other 
two men were buried side by side. Three of the party, 
two of whom were Portuguese, and one a Hollander from 
Hoorn, escaped, One of the Portuguese was hit in the 
back by an arrow as he was swimming for his Ufe.* A 
leg and an arm of the slain were carried home by the vic- 
torious Mohawks, to be distributed among their vrigwams, 
" as a proof that they had overcome their adversaries." 

A few days after this occurrence, Peter Barcntsen ar- 
rived at Port Orange in his trading shallop. The Mo- 
hawks immediately justified their conduct. " We have 
done nothing," said the red men, "against the whites — 
why did they meddle with us ? Had it been otherwise, 
this would not have happened from us."t 

As there was now no commander at Port Orange, Di- sirenisen 
rector Minuit ordered Barentsen to take charge of the post. inMspiBco 
After a short time, having succeeded in placing affairs 
there once more upon a good footing with the Mohawks, 
he was relieved by Sebastian Jansen Krol, one of the " con- succeerteii 
solelrs of the sick" at Manhattan ; who, for several years, 
continued in command of Port Orange, as the company's 
commissary and "vice-director." Soon afterward, Barent- as sepi. 
sen embarked for Holland, in the "Arms of Amsterdam," wiutna w 
Captain Adriaen Joris, in charge of a very valuable cargo 

as ; Due. Hlai, P 

ovidail Willi arc-atms. 

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Chip. VI. of fui's and ship timTier ; and brought to the Amaterdam 
Chamber the interesting intelligence of the purchase of 
' Manhattan Island, and of the diligence and prosperity of 
the colonists there, "whose wives had borne them chil- 

The tragical result of Krieckebeeck's inconsiderate con- 
duct interrupted for a time the progress of colonization at 
Port Orange. Minuit, distrustful of the safety of the set- 
coionMB tiers there, who were so far off fh)m the succor of i.iieir 
from Fori countrymen, now directed the eight families to remove, 
ManimKan. during the coursc of the year, down the river to Manhat- 
tan, A garrison of sixteen men only, "without any wom- 
en," was left at Fort Orange, under the command of Krol, 
who was assisted by Dirck Comelissen Dnyster, as under 
vefiwiBten At the same time, the "Walloons at ""Verhulsten Island," 
Fnri Naa- on the South E.iver, seem to have returned from their lone- 
ed bj the ly post, to Manhattan and Long Island. Fort Nassau was 
also evacuated by its small garrison, which was transfer- 
red to Manhattan; and, for the sake of economy, a single 
yacht only was employed in trading in that region. At 
this early period, the intermediate regions between Man- 
hattan and the South Eiver were very little known to the 
colonists. The Indian tribes of New Jersey were in a state 
of constant enmity, and the inland passage "was seldom 
made." "When the Dutch had occasion to send letters 
overland, they were dispatched " across the bay," and car- 
ried forward from tribe to tribe, by different runners, un- 
less "one among them might happen to be on friendly 
terms, and might venture to go there." The chief motive 
for these arrangements was to concentrate as many house- 
holders as possible at the chief colony on Manhattan, where 
the natives were "becoming more and more accustomed 
to'the presence of foreigners."! 
The Pari- The Puritan Pilgrims had, meanwhile, been quietly aet- 
Fiymomb. tied for five years at New Plymouth. During this period, 

Hosted by 



their attention had been chiefly confined to the domestic ch^p. vi. 
concerns of their colony ; and so little were they, at first, 
aware of the geography of the country directly around 
them, that, relying npon the vague reports of the Indians, 
they supposed New England to be an island.* With Mas- 
sasoit, the sachem of the "Wapanoos, or Wampanoags, 
around Narragansett Bay, they had early concluded a 
treaty of friendship. In the spring of 1623, intelligence 1623. 
reached New Plymouth that a Dutch ship had been driven '*^"*' 
ashore by stress of weather ia Narragansett Bay, near the 
residence of Masaasoit, who was, at the same time, re- 
ported to be dangerously ill. Governor Bradford accord- 
ingly determined to send "some acceptable persons" to 
visit thti sachem, as well as " to have some conference with 
the Dutch, not knowing when we should have so fit an 
opportunity." Edward "Winslow, who had formerly .been 
in Holland, and understood, " in some measure, the Dutch 
tongue," was therefore selected for the service. But the 
Dutch ship had, meanwhile, got afloat, and sailed away 
about two o'clock of the day that Winslow reached the 
Nan-aganaett Bay; "so that, in that respect," his journey 
" was frustrate."t 

From their priority in discovery and their commercial coirnnet- 
superiority, the Dutch had hitherto enjoyed decided ad-rioruyor 
vantages over the Pilgrims. Almost all the fur trade inaiMmhai- 
the neighborhood of Narragansett and Buzzard's Bays was 
monopolized by the enterprising schippers from Manhat- 
tan. This the Pilgrims felt, and grieved ; and one of 
Bradford's chief motives in hurrying Winslow off to Mas- 
sasoit's country, was to endeavor to dissuade the Dutch 
from interfering with a trade in which they so greatly 
overmatched the Plymouth colonists. These enterprising 
rivals of the Puritans supplied the Indian tribes with the 
various fabrics imported from Holland, and obtained in 
return the fu*s, com, and venison of the savages. When 
a cuculating medium was required, the Indians, reject- 
ing tlie corns of Europe, with which they were unae- 

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p. VI quainted, substituted their own aboriginal money, which 

ijiey called Seioan. Of this there were two kinds ; Wam- 

if „■ pujn, or white beads, made of the stem of the periwinkle, 
p"™' and Suckauhock, or hlaok beads, made of a part of the 
inside of the clam-sheU. The black beads were the gold 
of the Indiana — of double the value of the white ; but 
either were of more esteem with the red men than the 
coinage of Europe, The ascertained value of Sewan, or, 
as it was usually called by the English, "Wampum, ren- 
dered it the most convenient medium of trade, not only 
^ue between the European and the savage, but between the 
various tribes of Indians themselves. It was not only 
their money, but their jewelry. Universal in its use 
and unquestioned in its value, it ornamented their per- 
sons, distinguished the rich ftom the poor, paid ransoms, 
satisfied tribute, sealed contracts, atoned for injuries. In 
the form of a belt, it entered largely into tlie ceremonial 
of Indian diplomacy ; and it recorded the various public 
veiai- transactions of the tribes.* The chief manufacturers of 
ef man- tMs aboriginal currency were the Indians of Long Island, 
or " Sewan-hacky ;" and the primitive colonial mint which 
the Dutch at Manhattan thus early possessed, almost at 
their very doors, gave them an immense advantage in 
their trade with the neighboring savages.t Of this they 
had not failed to avail themselves. Their sloops contin- 
ually visited the Narragansett, and penetrated the adja- 
cent rivers. Prom the Indians with whom they traded, 
the New Netherland settlers had often heard of the Pil- 
grims nestled at New Plymouth ; hut, hitherto, they had 
not met. 

The native courtesy of the Dutch colonists now prompt- 

le ftEgaently applied by iba Dutoli to Long Island, 
'k9, tbe Peqoods, end other pDWerTlil tribes, madi 

+ " Sewan-hsclij," 



Moullon,343. "The 


ware upon the Long] 

and a 


flad a wbols sheU, al 

not nnllkaly Uiat raa 


Hosted by 



ed them to open a friendly correspondence 'with the foi- ch«p. vi 
mer guests of their Fatherland. De Uasieres, the seere- 
tary of New Netherland, hy Director Minuit's order, ao-jMardi.' 
cordingly drew up a letter, dated at " Manhattaa, in Fort^^"^^! 
Amsterdam," which, with a counterpart in French, " writ- ™'o™tii 
ten in a very fair hand," was dispatched to Bradford, the*^^""" 
Governor of New Plymouth. This was the first commu- 
nication hetween the Pilgrims and their Dutch neighhoi's, 
" of whom," said Bradford, " we had heard much hy the 
natives, but never could hear from them or meet with 
them, hefore they themselves thus wrote to us, and after 
sought us out." The New Netherland authorities con- 
gratulated the G-overnor of New Plymouth on the pros- 
perous condition of his people ; proffered good-will and 
reciprocity ; alluded to the propinquity and long-contin- 
ued friendship of their native countries ; and inviting 
friendly commercial relations, offered to acconunodate 
their English neighbors witli any commodities or mer- 
chandise they might want.* 

The Governor of New Plymouth at once answered the Qradfon 
friendly overture from Manhattan; and, unwilling to be |^ Man 
outdone in courtesy, translated his reply into the Dutch 
language. Deprecating the " over high titles" which Ba- 
tavion politeness required, and which Puritan usage re- 
jected, Bradford reciprocated the friendly greetings of his 
neighbors . in New Netherland, and oongi'atulated them 
upon the recent alliance of their native countries against 
their " common enemy the Spaniards," This of itself 
was enough to unite the two colonies together "in love 
and good neighborhood ;" " yet," he added, " are many of 
us further tied hy the good and courteous entreaty which 
we have found in your country, having lived there many 
years with freedom and good content, as many of our 
friends do to this day ; for which we are bound to he 
thankful, and our children after us, and shall never forget 
the same." The Plymouth colony being, for this year. 

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.. " fully supplied with all neoesaaries," Bradford suggested 
~ that, at some future oocf^ion, they might, perhaps, have 
' dealings -with their Holland neighbors, if their " rates be 
reasonable." At the same time, his English loyalty 
prompted him to question the right of the Dutch " to trade 
or plant" within the limite of New England, "which ex- 
tend to forty degrees." Yet the Plymouth colonists, de- 
sirous to continue " good neighborhood and correspond- 
ence" with the Dutch, would not " go about to molest or 
trouble" them in any thing, if only they would " forbear 
to trade with the natives in this Bay and River of Narra- 
L- gansett and Sowames, which is, as it were, at our doors."* 
The claim of English supremacy over New Netherlands 
which the G-overnor of the New Plymouth colony thus set 
up, could not be admitted by the authorities at Fort Am- 
sterdam. A few weeks afterward, Director Minuit ac- 
cordingly dispatched a letter to Bradford, which, though 
expressed in very friendly terms, firmly maintained the 
"right and liberty" of the Dutch to trade with the Nar- 
1 of ragansetts, as they had done, for many years, without 
question or interruption. "As the English claim author- 
ity under the King of England, so we," said Minuit, " de- 
rive ours fi'om the States of HoUand, and will defend it."t 
i Thinking that this correspondence of the Plymouth ool- 
r onists with the Dutch would give their enemies at home 
En- " occasion to raise slanders and frame accusations" against 
them, Bradford took care to send copies of De Itasieres's 
" first letter, with our answer thereto, and their reply to 
B. the same," to the CouncU of New England. He wrote, at 
the same time, another letter to Sir Ferdinando Grorges, 
and intrusted his dispatches to the care of Isaac AUerton, 
who was now sent out a second time to London, as agent 

. S, Col 

,1., 360. 361. 








B reply to 
Itan atont 


« England, of 

Sill (asth) 


reply," t 

wtaleh be 




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for the colony. In his letters to England, Bradford s1 
that ihe Dutch, " for strength of men and foctification, far ~ 
exceed us, and all in this land." " They have used trad- 
ing here," he added, "this aix or seven and twenty years, 
hut have hegun to plant of \ater time ; and now have re- 
duced their trade to some order, and confined it only to 
their company, which heretofore was spoiled by their sea- 
men and interlopers, as ours is, this year, most notorious- 
ly." And, besides spoiling their trade, the Dutch still con- 
tinued "to truck pieces, powder, and shot," with the In- 
dians, " which will be the overthrow of all, if it be not 
looked into."* 

Meanwhile, no answer was returned to the last commu- 
nication from Fort Amsterdam, Minuit, after waiting 
three months longer, accordingly dispatched Jan Jacob- v Angnsi. 
sen, of Wiringen, the captain of the ship " Three Kings," sends a 
which then happened to be in port, as a special messen- with pree- 
ger, with another letter, reiterating the most friendly sen- Bradford, 
timents, and inviting the English to send an authorized 
agent to Manhattan, to confer "by word of mouth touch- 
ing our mutual commerce and trading ;" or, if that should 
be inconvenient, offering " to depute one" themselves. At 
the same time, in token of their good-will, the Dutch au- 
thorities sent " a rundlet of sugar and two Holland cheeses," 
as a present to the governor of New Plymouth. 

The Dutch messenger was kindly received, and hand- 
somely entertained by Bradford ; and, a few days after- 
ward, brought back to the authorities at Fort Amsterdam ^| Augost. 
the reply of the Puritans to their two last letters. Ac- 
knowledging their acceptable presents, and reciprocating 
their expressions of friendship, Bradford requested that theTnoPuri- 
Dutch would delegate a commissioner to New Plymouth, Daion w 
and excused himself from sending one to Manhattan, be-egaMm 
cause "one of our boats is abroad, and we have much bus- omh. 
iness at home." With friendly zeal, he added a warning 
to his neighbors against " those of Virginia, or the fishing 
ships which come to New England," which might make 

• BradJMd'a Lena- Book, Mass. Hisl. Coll., iii„ 98, IB, M, S7. 

Hosted by 



CH»r. VI. prize of them, " as they surprised a colony of the French 
"777"" not many years since, which was seated within these 
' bounds." And against the Dutch claim of rights, by rea- 
son of their early and long-continued trade, and the charter 
from their government, Bradford, pleading, prior English 
title, under Elizabeth's grant of Yirginia, and James's 
sweeping patents, suggested that the Ktates General 
should come to some "agreement with the king's majesty 
and state of England hereabout, before any inconvenience 
befall; for howsoever you may be assured for ourselves, 
yet we should be sorry to hear you should sustain harm 
from any of our nation."* 

Minuit, on receiving the report of the " kind and friend- 
ly entertainment" with which ' Bradford had treated his 
messenger, determined to send a formal embassy to New 
Plymouth, conformably to the governor's request. Isaac de 
isasc de Raslcres, the Secretary of the Province, and second in rank 
dispBtciiEd to the Director, was selected as the first ambassador of New 
Dnssytoiiw Nctherland. He was " a man of fair and genteel behav- 
ior," and weU fitted for a mission, which was of aa much 
relative importance, in the primitive days of the Dutch 
and Enghsh colonies, as the more stately embassies of Eu- 
rope. Freightuig the " barque Nassau" vrith a few arti- 
cles for traffic, and manning her with a retinue of soldiers 
sppi™[,er. and trumpeters, De Raaieres set out from Manhattan, late 
in September ; and, sailing through Hell-gate, and along 
the shores of Connecticut and E,hode Island, arrived, early 
the next month, off " Frenchman's Point,t at a small riv- 
er, where those of Patuxet (New Plymouth) have a house 
made of hewn oak planlcs, called Aptuxet; where they 
keep two men winter and summer, in order to maintain 
Arrnes bi the trade and poasession."t This was Manomet, near an 
on Bm- ' Indian village, at the head of Bu^ard's Bay — the site of 
' the present village of Monumet, in the town of Sandwich, t 
Hither the Dutch and French had " both used to come" 
to traffic with the natives. It was about eight miles from 

- Bradford's Letter Eoolt, Muss. ITlst. Coll., ili., 53 ; tl., N. T. H. S, Coll., i., 389. 303. 
f Monon's Meomrial, 61. t Ve Raaierea's Lcllm, tl., N. Y, H. S Coll.. tl., 350, 

t ii., N, Y, H. S, Coll., i., Ssa. 

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Cape Cod Bay, into which flowed a oreelc, aiFordiog a leady ci 
channel of communication across the peninsula.* " For 
greater convenience of trade," says Bradford, "to discharge 
our engagements, and maintain ourselves, we build a small 
pinnace at Manomet, a place on the sea, twenty miles toManomf 
the south ; to which, hy another creek on this side, we man-a 
transport our goods by water within four or five miles, 
and then carry them overland to the vessel. "We thereby 
avoid compassing Cape Cod, with those dangerous shoals, 
and make our voyage to the southward with far less time 
and hazard. Por the safety of our vessel and goods, we 
there also build a house, and keep some servants, who plant 
corn, rear swine, and are always ready to go out with the 
bark, which takes good effect, and turns to advantage."t 
The Dutch trumpets awoke unusual echoes, as they 
saluted the advanced post of the English colony. De Ra- 
sieres at once dispatched a courier with a letter to Brad-4 oeioii 
ford, announcing his arrival on the part of the director and 
oouncii of New Netherland, to have a friendly conference 
"byword of mouth of things together," and to assure him 
of the "good-will and favor" of the Dutch West India 
Company. Specifying the articles which composed the 
Nassau's cargo, he requested Bradford to furnish liim with 
the easiest conveyance to New Plymouth. " John Jacob- 
sen aforesaid hath told me," wrote the Dutch envoy, " that 
he came to you overland iu six hours ; but I have not gone 
so far this three or four years, wherefore I fear my feet 
will fail me," Bradford promptly complied, and sent a 
boat to the head of the Manonsoussett Creek. A short 
portage of five miles divided its waters from those of the De iia 
Manomet Biver. Crossingthis portage, De Rasieres, withrtsntis 
"the chief of his company," embarked in the Enghsh boat, oum. 



.une'G Gbnmicleg, 301 

i. Prince, 308 (wrillDg 1 

inw Cape Cod Bay, s 


J. TUB fliatance ovci 

■land, from bay to t8y,ia 


cars, ivllch would be a i 


ng the long dans 


OM Colony Reeords 


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I. which awaited him at the head of the creek ; and soon 
"reached New Plymouth, "lionorahly attended with the 
' noise of trumpeters."* 

Here Bradford entertained the Dutch amhassador sev- 
m-eral days. The friendly colonists of two aUied Europesin 
nations now met, for the first time, in the solitudes of 
America. That first meeting, too, was "the joyful meet- 
ing of kindred as well as friends ; for the wives and ohil- 
dred of some of the Pilgrims had also their birth-place in 

The English colonists' form of government ; their an- 
'^ nual elections ; their abolition of primogeniture, with only 
a small difference in favor of the eldest son, as an " ac- 
knowledgment for his seniority of birth ;" their stringent 
laws on the subject of morality, which they even enforced 
among the neighboring Indian tribes ; the example which 
they set to those savages, of " better ordinances and a bet- 
ter life," were noted with interest by the envoy of New 
Netherland. " They have better means of living than 
ourselves," wrote De Basieres, " because they have the 
fish so abundant before their doors;" but then "their 
farms are not so good as ours, because they are more 
stony." With these fish they manured their barren soil, 
which otherwise would produce no maize. Q,uaintly, hut 
graphically, the representative of Manhattan described the 
les rival settlement. " New Plymouth lies on the slope of a 
hill, stretching east toward the sea-coast, with a broad 
street about a cannon-shot of eight hundred [paces ?] long 
leading down the hill, and with [another street] crossing 
in the middle, northward to the rivulet and southward to 
the land. The houses are constructed of hewn planks, 
with gardens also inclosed behind and at the sides with 
hewn timber ; so that their houses and court-yards are ar- 
rar^ed in very good order, with a stockade against a sud- 
den attack. At the ends of the streets are three wooden 
gates. In the centre, on the cross street, stands the govern- 
or's house ; before which is a square inclosure, upon which 

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four swivels are mounted, eo as to flank along the streets. ch*f,vi. 
Upon the hill they have a largo square house with a flat roof, 
made of thick sawn plank, stayed with oak beams ; upon 
the top of which they have six cannon, which shoot iron 
balls of four and five pounds weight, and command the sur- 
rounding country. The lower part they use for their church, 
where they preach on Sundays and the usual hoUdays, 
They assemble by beat of drum, each with his musket or 
firolook, in front of the captain's door. They have their 
'cloaks on, and place themselves in order, three abreast, and 
are led by a sergeant, vfithout beat of drum. Behind comes 
the governor in a long robe. Beside him, on the right hand, 
comes the preacher, with his cloak on ; and on the left hand 
the captain, vrith his side-arms and his cloak on, and with 
a smaU cane in his hand. And so they march in good or- 
der, and each sets his arms down near him. Thus they 
are constantly on their guard night and day,"* 

Having "demeaned himself to his own credit" andDoRa- 
that of his government, De Easieres pledged to the Plym-mmsto 
outh colonists "assistance against the French, if need 
were," and returned to his bark at Manomet, accompa- 
nied by an escort of the Puritans. And now they readily The Pmi- 
purchased some of his wares, especially the Sewan orciSao^"' 
Wampum, " which was the beginning of a profitable Buwh? 
trade." The Dutch naturally desired to retain the con- 
trol of the wampum traffic in the Karragansett, because 
" the seeking after Sewan" by the Puritans, said De Ba- 
sieres, ".is prejudicial to us, inasmuch as they would, by 
so doing, discover the trade in furs, which, if they were 
to find out, it would be a great trouble for us to main- 
tain ; for they already dare to threaten that, if we will 
not leave off dealing with that people, they will be obliged 
to use other means." The chief supply of this universal- 
ly current Indian coin came, as we have seen, from Long 

• De Ha^BKB'B Letler, 3S1, 392. The accuracy of De Ra^eres's acconntls conflnned 
bj Iilocuin in his MeiunriBl, f . 82, Mr, W. S, Rnssell, in his "Pilgrim Menunisls," p. 
28, MjB that Leyden StreM al PlymonlU was originally named Firsl Strtet, anfl after- 
memory or the klDdneai and hospitality shown (a tin Pilgrims dnring Uielr ^even years' 

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cmF. VI. Island ; and De Rasierea now sold a large quantity to the 
—j English, " telling ns," says Bradford, " how vendible it is 

at their Fort Orange, and persuading us we shall find it Kennebeok." Nor were the Puritans disappointed. 
As soon as the neighboring Indians learned that the Plym- 
outh colonists had a supply of wampum, a great demand 
sprung up, which, for a long time, yielded them large 
profits. " The Massachusetts and others in these parts 
had scarce any, it being made and kept among the Pe- 
quots and Warragansette, who grew rich and potent by it ; 
whereas the rest, who use it not, are poor and beggarly."* 
Huiuai Thus, when the whole tonnage of New England con- 

lEahedai sisted of " a bass-boat, shallop, and pinnace," a mutually 
advantageous trade sprung up between the neighboring 
European coloniste. "After which beginning," says Brad- 
ford, " they often send to the same place, and we trade 
together divei^ yeai-s, sell much tobacco for linens and 
stuffs, &c., which proves a great benefit to us, till the 
Virginians find out their colony."t 
j'j-oci. On his return to Manhattan, De Rasieres carried with 

K^a w him a letter &om Bradford to Minuit, in which, saving al- 
ure^'ui™* ways their allegiance to the King of Great Britain, he 
Srui^r pledged the Pilgrims to the performance of all good offices 
New'Neiii- toward the Dutch colonists in New Netherland. "We 
""""*■ aknwll u I td Tote the Puritan governor, 
uat tblatnut your country and state, for 
tl ood nt tarn nt and tree hberty which we had, 
and nr b th n nd co nt y nen yet there, have and do 
nj d -t h n able Lords the States," With 

respect to the qu t n f t a le and supplies, he expressed 
his regret that it had not been " propounded at the begin- 
ning of the year," before Allertonhad gone as agent to 
England and Holland, until whose return a positive de- 
termination must be postponed. But, in the mean time, 
he reiterated the desire of the Puritans that the Dutch 
should " clear fJic title" of their planting " in these parts 

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which His Majesty hath, by patent, granted to divers his 
nobles tuid auhjects of quality ; lest it he a bone of divi- 
sion in these stirring evil times, which Grod forbid. "We per- 
suade ourselves, that now may be easily and seasonably 
done, which will be harder and. with more difficulty ob- 
tained hereafter, and perhaps not without blows."* 

Thus earnestly did Bradford maintain the English title to spirn or 
New Netherland, and urge the Dutch to " clear" their own. oisim- 
A royal charter, of doubtfnl validity, was the alleged apol- 
ogy for caUing in question those territorial rights which, 
while in Holland, the Puritans had themselves distinct- 
ly admitted, when, in 1620, they solicited the States Gren- 
eral "to protect and defend them" in their proposed set- 
tlement within the Dutch Province, But now they found 
it convenient to insist upon the paramount authority of 
a patent which had been denounced from the speaker's 
chair by the highest legal authority, as a monopoly, con- 
taining " many particulars contrary to the laws and priv- 
ileges of the subjects,"! and which was not sealed until 
nearly a year after the apphcation to the States G-eneral, 
by which they had virtually afRimed (.he Dutch title to 
the fullest extent. 

Under these circumstances, the director and council at Miimii 
Fort Amsterdam felt obliged to call the attention of the m^^a ot 
West India Company, as soon as possible, to the somewhat djeis. 
threatening aspect which the subject had assumed. " The 
last ship from New Netherland brings tidings," reported ifl Nov. 
the College of XIX. to the States General, in November, 
" that our settlers there were menaced by the English at 
New Plymouth, who (notwithstanding the people of this 
land had some years ago commended themselves to those 
very English in all good correspondence and friendship) 
now wish to hunt them out, or disturb them in their quiet 
po^cssion and infant colony. They, therefore, ask the as- 
sistance of forty soldiers for their defense."? 

But if Bradford was pertinacious in urging the parch- 

* Brodlbcd, ut sup., 3S5, t Sic Ednud Cdia ; see unit, p. laS. 

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chjip. VI. ment claims of England, King Charles himself was, ap- 
' ifio-^ parently, more considerate. A month before De Rasieres 
-> s HI ' ™^^*^ New Plymouth, an order in council, formally re- 
tiariBB 1. oiting the terma of the treaty signed at Southampton in 
Dntchw.L 1625, declared that the ships of the West India Company 
should have free access to and egress from all English 
ports ; and commanded all English officers to treat the of- 
ficers of the company " with that respect and courtosy as 
is fitting to be used toward the subjects of a state with 
whom his majesty is in firm and ancient amity."* Con- 
tenting themselves with the liberal provisions of an order, 
which, by throwing open to them all the English ports, 
and protecting their vessels from seizure by British cruis- 
ers, virtually recognized their trade to New Netherland, 
the "West India Company seemed to thinlc it unnecessary 
to take any immediate steps to settle the question of title. 
1632. A few years later, when the question was distinctly pre- 
sented, they vindicated their title with ability and success. 
At present, the quiet advancement of their colony in New 
Netherland, and the regular prosecution of trade, was the 
company's policy. The value of that trade had doubled 
during the four years succeeding the first permanent col- 
onization under May. In 1624, the exports from Amster- 
dam, in two ships, were worth upward of twenty-five 
thousand guilders, and the returns from New Netherland, 
iiicreoaing twenty-soven thousand guilders. In 1627, the value of 
reioniie the goods which the Amsterdam Chamber exported, in four 
Neihcr-*" ships, had risen to fiily-six thousand guilders, and that of 
the peltries received from New Netherland had increased 
to. the same sum.t 
1628. The prosperity of the growing colony steadily increased. 
10 August, In the autumn of the next year, Director Minuit dispatch- 
ed from Manhattan two ships, the " Arn^ of Amsterdam," 
Captain Adriaen Joris, and the "Three Kings," Captain 
Jan Jacobsen, of Weiringen, with cargoes of ship tunber 
and furs for the "West India Company, the aggregate 

• Lpnd. Doc, i., 36 ; Hoi, Boc, ii., 292 ; N. Y. Col. MSS., iu,, 13, 13. 

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value of wliicli exceeded sixty-one thoiT-and guilders.* chap. vl 
Strengthened by the addition of the settlers who had lor-' " ™'„ 
merly resided near Fort Orange, and by the garri'^on of the 
deserted Fort Nassau, on the South Eiver, the colony at 
Manh^ttan now numbered two hundred and aeventy souls. Population 
mcluding men women, and children. Fearless of the In-wn. 
diana with wh ra they now lived in hippy peaoe, these 
farml es all continued to reside outside the walls of Fort Fon aki- 
^mstbidam wh ch was now completed, with four bastions, compioiod. 
and a facing of stone 

At Fort Orange there were now "no families;" they *J^^!f8 «• 
had all been brought dovra to Manhattan. That post it- ™k«- 
self was occupied by only twenty-five or twenty-six trad- 
era, under the vice -director, Sebastian Jansen Krol, who 
had succeeded to the command two years before, when 
Bareotson returned to Holland. In the spring of 1628, 
hostilities broke out between the Mahicans, near Fort Or- 
ange, and the Mohawks ; hut the latter killed and cap- Tho mo- 
tured most of the Mahicans, and expelled the remnant, aji'? "'^ 
who settled themselves toward the north, near the " Fresh," tn^w iii| 
or Connecticut River, where they began to cultivate the'iioCon- 
ground ; " and thus there was now an end of war in that 

By order of the "West India Company, " all those who 
were at the South K-iver," at Verhulstcn Island, and Fort 
Nassau, were likewise removed to Manhattan. A small Tmdo on 
vessel only was retained there, to keep up the fnr trade. River. 
That trade, however, was less profitable than the traffic on 
the North River. The factors found that the inland sav- 
ages, who came down to tide-water, would not barter the 
" lion skins with which they were clothed," because they 
were " much warmer than other furs." 

The colonists at Manhattan subsisted chiefly by their 
ferming, the deficiency in their crops being made up by 
supplies from the "West India Company. Their winter pmspHii: 
com had turned out very well ; while the summer grain, niai8° ™ ' 
being prematurely ripened by the excessive heats, was 

' Wasseiiaat, jvi„ 13 ; De Lset, App., 23. 

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niAp. VI. very meagre. But tlie cattle and beasts, which had t>e6n 
' ■"■■ sent from Holland three years before, had thriven ; and ev- 

ery thing wore an air of progress and improvement.* 
isTsi mc- While the ships which brought these flattering accounts 
le Duicii. firom Manhattan were yet at sea, an event ooourred which 
materially influenced the fortunes of the growing colony. 
The renewal of hostilities with Spain had enabled the 
Dutch to gain the most brilliant successes at sea, and 
bring ruin and dishonor upon their enemy. Swift min- 
isters of retributive justice, the fleets of the West India 
Company swept the ocean, and wrested from the Span- 
iard the rich spoil he had wi-ung from the unoffending 
princes of Mexico and Peru. In 1627, Peter Petersen 
Heyn, a native of Delft-Haven, who, by reason of his 
courage and abilities, had been raked from a low station 
to the rank of admiral, distinguished himself in the con- 
so May. quest of Saint Salvador, and the destruction of twenty-six 
ships of the enemy. Heyn now received orders to inter- 
cept and capture the Spanish " Silver Fleet," on its an- 
5 Sept. nual return from the West Indies. Sailing to Cuba, he 
fell in with ten of their galleons off Havanna, and cap- 
tured them in a few hours. The next day the remainder 
of the fleet was perceived about three leagues off. Chase 
was made at once ; but the Spaniards, oarrying a press 
of sail, took refuge in the Bay of Matanzae, where nearly 
HsjQiMip- all ran abound. Heyn instantly following them in, took 
spniBh nine more prizes ; and brought all the captured vessels. 
Fleet. except two, safely to Holland. The booty was immense. 
Including nearly one hundred and forty thousand pounds 
of pure silver, it was valued at twelve millions of guilders.t 
The enthusiasm of the people was unbounded on Heyn's 
triumphant return. He was introduced into the Assem- 
bly of the States General, and received the public thanks 
of the nation. As modest as he was brave, he asked for 
nothing of the enormous treasure he had won. Soon aft- 
erward, the vacant office of Lieutenant Admiral was forced 

' Wassenaar, i"i., IS ; Doc. Hist. N. Y., Hi., 47, 48. 

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upon liiin in spite of his huniHe protestations that it ckap. vi. 
was too high, a dignity for one of his mean "birth and 
unpolished manners.* The next year, Heyn dying glo- j, j„u^' " 
riously on the deck of hia ship, which he had holdly laid 
between two Dimkirlt pirates, his hody was interred in 
princely state, near that of William of Orange, in the old 
mausolean church at Delft, where his grateful government 
erected a magnificent martie monument to his memory. t 
Successfal war thus poured infatuating wealth into 
tho treasury of the We&t In li-i Company In one year 
they divided fifty ppr cent In tw o j 6ar& they hid cap- 
tured one hundted and foui puzea t Whit Bxrneveldt 
had feared soon came ta pass To the lust of luoie was 
now added the pride of conquest The nation shaied the 
glory, while tht. company seeuied the spoil of the war. infawuiing 
It is not surprismg, theiefore, that when the negotiation, the wesi 
which the King of Spain opened m 1629, to renew the late panj. 
truce, became puhlic, it should ha\e met with genei aland 
determined opposition. The West India Company, covet- 
ous of gain, presented A strong remonstrance to the States as ocioier. 
General against the proposition, and warmly urged the 
advantages of a longer, war ; the clergy, suspicious of 
Philip's sincerity, opposed the truce, as detrimental both 
to Church and State ; and a large majority of the people 
themselves, encouraged by the late naval successes, were 
disposed to continue a contest, now become not only glori- 
ous, but profitable. The opposition to the proposed treaty 
became So universal and so strong, that the negotiations 
were necessarily abandoned. The West India Company, 
continuing " a prince-like, instead of a merchant-like war," 
soon added Brazil to their possessions ; and the maritime 1630. 
superiority of Holland no longer remained a problem. 4 

* Ailtana, L, 730. 

t The Slsles General, on Ihe ooesalcpn of Hejn's dealb. sent a message ofcondolenoa lo 
bis moUier, an llonesl peasant, who, notwilhslanding her son's elevaUon, had been con- 
lent lo remain Inherori^nal slalion. When abe received Ibe message, she rvplled, " Ay, 
i thought whal would be the end of him. He was always a vagabond— but I did my best 
to earract him. Ha has got no more llian he deserved."— Cfires jet. Tableau dea Prov. 
Unlea, li., 40 ; Davles. 11., in-S73, 687, 

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Chap. VI. Yet the preservation of the Dutch territories in Ameri- 
"~" ~" oa was enormously expensive ; and thus far, the colonists 
Coal of ^^° were settled in New Netherland, had hecn "not a 
Himd*^'' pJ^ofit, hut a loss to the company." The peltry trade, how- 
ever, continued to be "right advantageous;" hut it could 
" at the utmost return, one year with another, only fifty 
thousand guilders,"* Duly appreciating tJie importance 
of the island of Manhattan as a peiraanent commercial 
emporium, the company had purchased it for their own 
private property, and had concentrated in its noighhorhood 
nearly the whole European population of the province. To 
a contemporary English ohserver, the Dutch colony ap- 
peared "to subsist in a comfortable manner, and to prom- 
ise fairly both to the state and undertakers." The cause 
of its prosperity was evident. . The emigrants under the 
"West India Company, "though they be not many, are 
well chosen, and known to be useful and serviceable ; and 
they second them with seasonable and fit supplies, cherish- 
ing them as carefally as their own families."t The trad- 
ing post at Fort Orange was garrisoned by military factors 
alone. On the South River, a single vessel, with a small 
crew, sufficed to Iceep up the trade and possession of the 
Dutch. Still, notwithstanding their apparent prosperity, 
the families clustered round Fort Amsterdam hardly sup- 
ported themselves ; and the armual returns irom New 
Netherland did not satisfy the directors of a victorious 
company, flushed with the easy spoil of Spanish fleets. 
Plans »r This state of things they desired to improve; and plans 
loiion. ' for the systematic and extended colonization of the whole 
province were earnestly considered. 

De Rasierea, who had fallen into disgrace with Minuit, 
had now returned to Holland. Though deprived of "his 
things and notes," he still was able, from recollection, to 
draw up a statement of affairs in New Netherland, for his 
patron, Samuel Blommaert, one of the leading directors of 

* Hoi. Doc, i., 16i ! Lamteecblaen, 34, 3i. 

t " The Planlet'H Plea," London, 1630. TMb Inleresllng pampUel, Ihe anlhorshlp of 

flie asUIng of Winlhtop's fleet, 8rti of June, 1830 —Young, Ciron. Mass,, la. 

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the Amsterdam Chamber. After mucK deliberation, it ciuf, vi. 
was determined tliat the manifold resources of its large 
territory oould "be best developed hy the establishment of ,^^ ^^^'_ 
distinct and independent Colonies, at various points on the ]'o''n,J|J°p™[. 
North and South Rivers. These colonies were to he, in^yciioiigBd 
some respects, analogous to the lordships and seigneuries 
of Europe, yet all in general suliordination to the West In- 
dia Company ; and it was thought that their suecess could 
be better secured by private enterprise, than by the com- 
pany itself, whose attention was now almost enthely en- 
grossed by the affairs of the Spanish war. The fostering 
of its own colony on the island of Manhattan, and the ad- 
vancement of the fur trade, of which it proposed to retain 
the monopoly, were qnite sufficient to occupy all the time 
and capital which the Amsterdam Chamber could at pres- 
ent devote to the subject. 

With the view of inducing private capitalists to engage cimrter or 
in the proposed plan, the College of XIX. accordingly pre- Kr^^mns 
pared the draft of a charter conferring certain special priv- ^'"^ 
ileges upon such members of the company as should, at 
their own expense and risk, plant colonies in any part of 
New Nethcrland, excepting the island of Manhattan. More 1628. 
than a year was spent in considering the details; and in ""'' 
the summer of 1629, the plan, as revised and amended, in 1629, 
thirty-one articles, was finally adopted by the CoUege of AdHJnert, 
XIX., and was approved and confirmed by the States Gen- 
eral. In the foUowing autumn, their High Mightinesses 
estahUshed several articles for the government of the Dutch u ocin:>ar. 
transatlantic possessions, and published a decree, author- 
izing the different Chambers of the West India Company 
to appoint a council of nine persons, to whom the general con.miss=- 
direction of colonial affiiirs should be assigned.* 

While the West India Company was thus maturing its 
selfish commercial scheme for the introduction of the feud- 
al system into its American province, English emigrants ci^"^-" 
were gradually occupying the territory on the north and Eugiond, 

• Hoi, One., a., 05-09 ; Oioot FlBcaa 
brectatseD,^; MonlloD, 331,399; O'Gi 

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CH*r. VI. east of Kew Netherland. Straggling plantations, some ot 

tliem but single families, were already settled on portions 

■ of the coast iDetween New Plyraonth and Piacataqua. A 

few persons tegan a plantation i 
1625. near what is now Q,uincy, which they oaUed Mount Wol- 
Mouni laston. The settlement soon afterward fell under the con- 
<it"Her™' trol of Thomas Morton, who changed its name to " Merry 
Mount ;" sold powder and shot to the savages ; harbored 
runaways ; and, setting :up a May-pole, broached a oaslt of 
wine and held a high carousal. But the New Plymouth 
1628. people, at the solicitation of "the chief of the straggling 
plantations," at length interfered hy force ; and Morton 
was taken prisoner and sent bacli to England.* 
Ksiunpie of In the mean time, the Puritans in England had grown 
oolii' pro-"' more and more uneasy under the restraints of English 
lanoniLsta-law, and the intolerance of the English hierarchy; and 
the example of the New Plymouth colonists had inspired 
their brethren at home with the desire of emigrating across 
tho Atlantic. It was a favorable moment to execute the 
design. The leading members of the council for New En- 
gl^id, unable or unwilling to undertake the colonization 
of the country which had been granted to them by James 
I., were limiting their ambition to the sale of subordinate 
Oram of patenis. At the instigation of John "WMte, a Puritan cler- 
Mossncttii- gyraan of Dorchester, Sir Henry RoseweD, John Endicott, 
oMuned^ and several other persons of distinction in that neighbor- 
i^oimniiot hood, obtained from the New England corporation the 
irijinii. grant of a belt of land on Massachusetts Bay, extending 
from three miles south of the River Charles to three miles 
north of the River Merrimack, and stretching from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific, Other associates from London and 
its vicinity — ^Winthi'op, Dudley, Johnson, Pynchon, Eaton, 
Saltonstall, and Bellingham — soon afterwaid became joint- 
ly interested in the enterprise. In the autumn of the same 
year, about sixty emigrants, under the guidance of Endi- 
14 scpi. cott, were dispatched to Naumkeag, or Salem, where they 
soi™. were welcomed by Roger Conant, who, expelled fr'om New 

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Plymouth, had settled himself there, two years before, cmp. vt 
This was the first English emigration to Massachusetts 
Bay. The " Old Colony," at New Plymouth, had preceded, 
by about eight years, Endioott's settlemeat at Salem.* 

Early in the following spring, a royal charter passed the 1629, 
great seal, incorporating "the governor and company of ^«^"^^'^ 
the Massachusetts Bay in New England ;" confirming to |^^^J^^|^ 
them the Plymouth Company's grant to Rosewell and his ^"y 
associates ; and superadding powers of government. The 
territory conveyed, included all that portion of New Neth- 
erland lying north of Esopns and south of the Mohawk Riv- 
er ; but it was expressly provided that, with respect to such 
parts or paroeis as had, before the third day of November, 
1630, heen " actually possessed or inhabited by any other Eicemms 
Christian prince or state," the grant should be "utterly"'"™ 
void." Nothing was said in the charter about any par- 
ticular religion : there was no suggestion that the new 
colony was to be exclusively Puritan. Nevertheless, it 
was declared and granted, that the colonists themselves 
" shall have and enjoy all liberties and immunities" of Brii> 
ish subjects ; and no laws or ordinances were to be made 
or executed, by the corporation or its officers, "contrary 
or repugnant to the laws and statutes" of the realra.t 

About two hundred fresh emigrants, sent out at the ex- 
pense of the corporation, joined the settlement at Salem an ju,,^ 
in the course of the summer. The whole population of 
Massachusetts Bay now numbered about three hundred ; SMUe- 
one third of whom soon afterward planted themselves aM^ami 
little south of Salem, at Chorton, or Charlestown. Under lown" 

Ohilmcre, ISfl ; Yonng'f 

. Ch. Mass., 13, 

30 1 Banotoft,!., 340, 


aroth, i„ 1 

Original Chotiet in the 

State Honse at 




ChBlmera, 13T. 

The eicepllng clause 


nds, &c,WMe,Btlhe 



,t, flalafl the ttlird day of Nwember. In 

the eight 


itbresua (me). 

by any 01 


Ixinnds, limits, or [«r; 




:e)8 Ihereof, So formarty 

Inhabited, or lyi 

ng within (he honnda . 


as aftoreaaia ; but, as 

to those parts o 

1 or inhabit*! by a 

LsUan prince or sla!3, i 

,r bains Wthh. 

the bonnda atbresald. 

ulterly v, 


e presents en any (him 

; tlierein contained lo (he coDtrary notwithatan 


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Chap. VI. Endioott's influenoe, a church was immediately organized 
at Salem, by the aignature of a covenant by thirty persons 
fiAuEuai' '^^^ of the two hundied who formed the settlement. The 
polity of the ecclesiastic colony rejected the Anglican Lil> 
urgy, and even denied its use to those who were " sincere 
in their affeotion for the good of the plantation." This 
innovation displeased several of the colonists, who, headed 
by John and Samuel Brown, both members of Endicott's 
council, demanded the enjoyment of the right of all Brit- 
ish subjecbs, to worship God according to the ritual of the 
Heiigiona Established Church. But Endicott, " whose self-will was 
^wtehM inflamed by fanaticism," instantly forbade them the re- 
-jiinsena. ligious liberty they desired. The wrongs which the hie- 
rarchy bad inflicted upon the Puritans in the Old "World, 
were now retorted upon powerless Episcopalian emigrants 
in the wilderness of the New, The Browns were arrested 
as " factious and evil-conditioned," and immediately sent 
back to England, because they adhered to an " immunity" 
which the charter had granted and declared. But they 
found that "the blessings of the promised land were to be 
kept for Puritanic dissenters." Thus early Was freedom 
of conscience banished from Massachusetts, by her colo- 
nists themselves ; for it was, indeed, "an age of much less 
charity than zeal."* 

' Young's CU. MasB,, 6", 89, IM, 887-192 ; Neal'a Putilans, 1„ im, 300 ! Nenl's N. E., 

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"When Philip of Burgundy, as sovereign of the Nether- chap. 
lands, instituted the Order of the Golden Fleece, he gave "7 
to it the expressive motto " Pretium non vile lahorum."* ^^^ ^, 
The legend was more significant than Philip imagined. ™ ^'^' 
Industry had at last received heraldic honors ; and the 
recompense of labor could never he ignohle, while knight- 
hood wore upon its glittering collar the emblem of that 
valued object which Argonautio enterprise had sought 
and found in Colchis. 

The self-relying spirit of the Dutch had already conse- indust 
crated, in the heart of the nation, the sentiment that labor H""^" 
is honorable. In Holland, human industry and human 
skill early won their most splendid triumphs. The whole 
land was a monument of victorious toU. A great portion 
of its marshy surface lymg below the level of the ocean, 
required to be defended, by artificial means, against the 
irruption of the tides. And every moment was a moment 
of peril. The dikes, which had been built by hardy in- 
dustry, could be maintained only by ceaseless vigilance. 
A breach in an embankment might flood a territory which 
years of incessant labor could scarcely drain. But the in- 
domitable sphit of the nation was equal to any emergency. 
That all-pervading spirit was stUl further developed by 
the system of looal association, which the genius of a self- 
relying people introduced. Holland was rather an aggre- j^^ 
gate of towns, than a state in which, as in other nations, f^l 
the towns were of less relative importance. The greater 

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rinp. VII, part of its land was originally held by feudal lords, who 
" were bound to protect and defend their tenants and re- 

■ tainers, in return for their allegiance and assistance. But 
while there were lords and vassals in Holland, there were 
Noeerfeiiino serfs.* By degrees, industry sought companionship, 
and busy hamlets clustered behind the rising dikes. These 
liamlets gradually expanded into towns ; and the hum of 
the active loom was never intermitted. The towns soon 
grew rich and powerful ; concessions of tanchises were 
successively extorted from the necessities of feudalism ; 
and while the accumulating wealth of manufacturers and 
merchants contributed increasing quotas to the expenses 
of the construction and maintenance of the dikes, the ter- 
ritorial nobles avoided raising questions of their waning 
BarBbar authority. On the other hand, the thrifty burghers, from 
me™». the time they first surrounded their towns with perma- 
nent walls, insisted upon the principle of self- assessment ; 
for they felt that, " although the same tribute and tax, 
laid by consent, or by imposing, be all one to the purse, 
yet it worketh diversely upon the courage."t In every 
vicissitude of affairs, the Dutch burghers, therefore, clung 
to their essential principle of self-taxation, which soon be- 
came an immunity, by usage and prescription ; and the 
territorial lord found thai he must yield to the progressive 
spirit of popular freedom many of the attributes of feudal- 
ism, which, in other lands, were jealously maintained. 
The ftuaai Thus the industrial ideas of the Dutch people and the 
imidiflod. growing influence of the Dutch towns curtailed the au- 
thority of the feudal chief. Those ideas and that influence 
naturally modified the rigorous form of the ancient ten- 
ures of Sand. The noble owner of the soil, from being the 
predatory head of an armed band of dependents, soon be- 
came the careful landlord, drawing his revenue from as- 
certained rent. Living in the hum of industry, he could, 
not help unconsciously imbibing some of the thrift and 
prudence of the laborious classes which surrounded him. 
Constant intercourse, in the relations of business and in the 

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meetings of the Provincial and General States, at length ch*p. vn. 
brolce down many of the rusting barriera which had sep- 
arated the castle and the coronet frora the counter and the 
loom. Gradually, the nobles began to imitate the mod- 
esty of the traders and working people in garb and in hab- 
it ; and frugality and industry became as universal and 
as honorable among the Dutch landlords, as they were al- 
ways the characteristic attributes of the operatives in tlie 
towns, and of the subordinate tenants on estates. The re- 
wards of labor had lessened the distance between the lord Lanaiord 
and the peasant ; and the rights of the humblest man in ant. 
Holland could not fail to be respected, when, by the cease- 
less toil of man alone, the lands of Holland were preserved 
from the invasion of the sea. Common interests assimi- 
late humanity ; and distinctions in rank must necessarily 
become less marked, when all must work or drown.* 

Still, the lord of the manor continued to exercise a lim- 
ited jurisdiction within his own domain. The inhabitants 
of Holland are described by Grotius as being early di- 
vided into the three classes of nobles, well-born men, and 
common people ; but without any mention of serfs as hav- 
ing ever exiated.t "When ccmipared with the social condi- 
tion of the people of the towns, that of the rural popula-tondnun 
tion was, perhaps, less secure and happy, and was less fit-peasantn 
ted to develope the self-relying spirit of the nation. Yet. 
if the landlord attempted oppressicsi, the tenant had but 
to fly to the next town, where he would be sure to find 
abundant employnient, shelter, and protection. Accus- 
tomed to bear arms for the common defense, the peasants 
of Holland had learned to use them for their own. Dutch 
feudalism was thus shorn of many attributes which ren- 
dered it repulsive in other lands. Though the rustic ten- 
antry certainly enjoyed much less pohtical influence than 
the inhabitants of the towns,, they still possessed a large popular 
measure of popular freedom. They were happy and con-ious'n^ 
tented, in tilling their lands, and in freely worshiping their 

t Onitius, Inleyi^nge, i. 

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R![*v. \'ii. God according to their oonsoiences. No religious perse- 
oution drove ^em from that Fatherland which they loved 
■ to veneration. They needed strong indue ementa, hefora 
they would consent to emigrate to the New "World. 
Charier of The charter of "Privileges and Exemptions," by which 
(ngo's and an armed commercial monopoly proposed to effect the per- 
uonj'^ftr manent agricultural colonization of New Netherland, while 
New Nein- it naturally embodied the peculiar policy of its mercantile 
projectors, encouraged the transfer, across the Atlantic, of 
the modified feudalism of the Fatherland. Reserving to 
Muiihaiian themselves the island of Manhattan, which the company 
□ra. declared it was their intention to people first, they desig- 

nated it as the emporium of their trade, and required that 
aU fruits and wares " that arise on the North River, and 
lands lying thereabouts," should be first brought there. 
To private persons, disposed to settle themselves in any 
other part of New Netherlaud, the company offered the ab- 
solute property of as much land as the emigrants might bs 
able " properly to improve." They were also to have " free 
liberty of hunting and fowling," according to the regula- 
tions of the Provincial director and council. Exploration 
was specially encoui'aged. "Whoever should "discover any 
shores, hays, or other fit places for erecting fisheries, or 
the making of salt ponds," was promised an absolute and 
exclusive property in such discoveries. 

But it was obvious that the rural tenantry of Holland 
did not possess the requisite means to sustain the expenses 
of eVnigration ; and the associated directors thought that 
the permanent agricultural settlement of their American 
province could be best accomplished by the organization 
of separate subordinate "colonies," or manors, under large 
proprietaries. To tempt the- ambition of such, capitalists, 
peculiar privileges were offered to therri. These privi- 
leges, nevertheless, were carefully confined to membei-s of 
the "West India Company, The chai-ter provided that any 
such member aashould, within four years, plant a colony 
of fifty adults, in any part of New Netherland, except the 
reserved island of Manhattan, should be acknowledged as 

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a "Patroon," or feudal chief of the territory lie might CKAf, vj. 
thus colonize. The lauds selected for each colony might ~"I" 
extend sixteen miles in length, if confined to one side of a pai^sona! 
navigable river ; or eight miles on each side, if hoth hanka 
were occupied ; but they might run as far into the coun- 
try " as the situation of the occupiers will permit." If a 
proportionate number of additional emigrants should be 
settled, the limits of the colonies might be proportionally 
enlarged. Each patroon was promised a full title by in- 
heritance, v^fith venia testandi, or, the right to dispose of 
hia eatate by will. He was to have " the chief command 
and lower jurisdictions," and the exclusive privilege of fish- 
ing, fowling, and grinding, within his own domain. In 
case any patroon " should in time prosper so much as to 
found one or more cities," he was to have " power and au- 
thority to establish officers and magistrates thei'e." The 
patroons were to furnish their colonies with "proper in- 
structions, in order that they may be raled and governed 
conformably to the rule of government made or to be made 
by the Assembly of the XIX," From alljudgmentsin the 
manorial courts of the patroons, for upward of fifty guild- 
ers, an appeal might lie to the director and council in New 
Netherland. For the space of ten years, the colonists un- cci™irt8 
der the patroons were to be entirely fi-ee from " customs, pairoMB. 
taxes, excise, imposts, or any other contributions." But 
none of these colonists, " either man or woman, son or 
daughter, man-servant or maid-servant," could be allowed 
to leave the service of their patroons during the period for 
which they might be bound to remain, exicept by the vn'it- 
ten consent of such patroon ; and the company pledged it- 
self to do every thing in its power to apprehend and de- 
liver up every such colonist " as shall leave the service of 
his patroon and enter into the service of another, or shalJ, 
contrary to his contract, leave his service." 

The patroon^ themselves might trade all along the coast Pni.icfisB 
from Elorida to Newfoundland, provided the cargoes pro-u-oonB. 
cured were brought to Manhattan ; whence they might he 
sent to Holland, after paying a duty of five per cent, to 

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oai.-, lit. the company. The patroons were also promised the free- 
dom of trade and traffic ' ' ail along the coast of New Neth- 
ThB^ni fii'^an*! ^i<i places circumjacent," in every kind of mer- 
's^oiito chaudise, " except "beavers, otters, minks, and all sorts of 
(lie coinpa- pejtiy," which trade the company reseiTed to itself The 
fur trade, however, was permitted to the patroons, ' at 
such places where the company have no factories,' upon 
condition that all peltries thus procured should be htought 
to Manhattan, ■ and delivered to the director for shipment 
to Holland. Freedom of the fisheries was also promi'<ed 
with the fish they caught, the patroons might trade to It- 
aly and other neutral countries, paying to the company a 
duty of three guilders for every ton. 
Rsciprmai A.11 the colonists, whether independent or under patroons, 
8nd™™c. were positively forhidden " to make any woolen, linen, or 
"''"*' cotton cloth, or weave any other stuffs there, on pain of 
being banished, and as perjurers to he arbitrarily pun- 
ished." On the other hand, the company promised to pro- 
tect and defend all the colonists, whether free or in serv- 
ice, " against aU outlandish and inlandish wars and pow- 
ers." The company likewise agreed "to finish the fort 
on the island of the Manhattes, and put it in a posture of 
defense, without delay." The company further promised 
to siipply the colonists with " as many blacks as they con- 
veniently cotdd ;" but they were not to be bound to do this 
" for a longer time than they should think proper." The 
charter also distinctly provided, that "whoever shall settle 
any colony out of the limits of the Manhattes Island, shall 
be obliged to satisfy the Indians, for the land they shall 
settle upon." The patroons and colonists were likewise 
enjoined to make prompt provision for th,e support of " a 
Minister and Schoolmaster, that thus the seiTioe of God 
and zeal for religion may not grow cool, and be neglected 
among them ; aiid that they do, for the first, procure a 
Comforter of the Sick there." Each separate colony 
might appoint a deputy, to confer upon its affairs with the 
director and council of New Netherland ; and every col 
ony was specially required to make an annual and exact 

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report of its situation, to the authorities at Manhattan, foy cmaf. vu, 
transmission to the company at Amsterdam.* 

Such were the chief features of the West India Com- 
pany's famous charter of " Freedoms and Exemptions" for 
the agricultural colonization of its American province. Tiicdiairu 
But the spirit of that charter was adverse to the true in-wemthe 
terests of the province, and its effects were blighting and 
unhappy. It encouraged the transfer to New Netherland 
of some of the most objectionahle elements in the modified 
feudalism of the Fatherland. It offered the most attract- 
ive inducements to the ambition of stockholders of the 
company, in the peculiar privileges which were to be en- 
joyed by the patroons of separate colonies ; and it sought 
to allure colonists to emigrate under such patroons, by 
promising, to them alone, a ten years' exemption &om tax- 
ation. "While it conferred enormous specific powers on 
these patroons, it carefully recognized the universal com- 
mercial monopoly of the company ; and it aimed at main- 
taining an unquestioned pohtioal supremacy, by requiring 
annual reports of the condition of each subordinate colony 
to he made to the director and council at Manhattan. It 
prohibited colonial manufactures under penalty of hanish- 
raent, and restrained colonial commerce by the threat of 
confiscation. It pledged the company to a qualified sup- 
port of the slave trade. 

Yet, notwithstanding all the blemishes by which the HedeemiiiB 
selfishness of monopoly defaced the charter, it still had 
many redeeming features. It solemnly recognized the 
rights of the aboriginal red man, and secured him satis- 
faction for his land. It invited the emigration of inde- 
pendent fanners, by promising to every one a homestead. 
It provided for the good government of the subordinate 
colonies, and for the right of appeal fi'om the manorial 
courte. It promised protection and defense to all the col- 
onists ; and it encouraged religion and learning, by enjoin- 
ing the support of churches and schools. 

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ciiiF. vii. The introduction of the feudal system into New Neth- 
erland, was the most unfortunate result of the charter of 
Fauamiem exemptions. In the Fatherland, the industrial spirit of a 
into'Hsw* self-relying and liberty-loving people had shorn feudalism 
wtrtier. jjf many of its worst attributes ; and, practically, there 
wss, perhaps, now, more popular freedom in Holland, than 
in England, or in any other country in the Old "World. 
But there is always danger in delegating pohtical pow- 
ers ; and the danger increases tiie further the exercise of 
those powers is removed from the fountain of supreme au- 
thority. Feudahsm, which in Holland, was made to how 
before the spirit of a people long accustomed to self-gov- 
ernment, had less restraint in the distant Province, which 
was iiself wholly under the arbitrary rule of a commercial 
corporation. The free spirit of the Netherlander went with 
him, indeed, to Ms new home across the sea. Exit his po- 
litical freedom was less secure there, than in the Father- 
land. It was only by degrees, and after constant struggles 
against an oppressive colonial government, that the people 
of New NciJierland worked their way to some of those 
fi-anohises which their countrymen were enjoying at home. 
The colonists under the patroons were subjected to the 
double pressure of feudal exaction and mercantile mo- 
Smni™ Thi:^ it was, that the agricultural colonization of New 
™i^OT/ Netherland was begun under circumstances, in many re- 
ih^tn^"'* spscta, less favorable to the development of true popular 
"™ ^- liberty, than was the colonization of New England. The 
feudal system of Europe was never mtroduced into the 
Puritan colonies; nor were their magistrates the agents 
of close commercial monopolies in the mother country. 
The first settlements in New England were unembarrassed 
by the difficulties which paralyzed the prosperity of New 
Netherland. The Puritan emigrants to America had a 
clear field and a fair start; No political incubus oppressed 
them. They claimed to form their own governments ; and, 
to a great extent, they did form them. Every advantage 
was on their side ; and it was lesji the fault of circum- 

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stance than of will, if the grand principles of Democratic ch*p. vii, 
liberty did not, at once, receive a nohle illustration at~^ 
their hands- If religious intolerance aroothered popular " 
freedom in the Puritan colonies, it was not because the 
Council of Plymouth forced an involuntary policy lipon 
their inhahitants. If civil liberty waa hampered and re- 
strained, it was not because the people of New England, 
like the people of New Netherland, were constantly 
obliged to wring reluctant concessions of popular rights 
from grudging superiors at home. 

The privileges which the charter oifered to patroons rn-'UcgM 
were peculiarly attractive to the aristocratic sentiment s^McMve 
which grew with the acquisition of wealth in Eepuhlican Buicb mer- 
Holland. Almost all the land outside of the walls of the 
towns was already the property of old and noble families, 
■who were loth to part with any portion of their hereditary 
estates. It was, therefore, no easy matter for a Dutch 
merchant, who had grown rich, to become a Dutch land- 
lord. Though much of the prejudice which had separated 
the ancient noble from the wealthy burgher of the Father- 
land was worn away, there still remained a great gulf be- 
tween them. But now, boundless estates might easily be 
secured on the magnifi^nt rivers of New Netherland, and 
the yearnings of suooessful tradesmen be readily gi-atified. 
From the middle rank of enterprising men who had reared 
Dutch commerce and trade upon the basis of Dutch liber- 
ty and industry, was now to be formed a specially-privi- 
leged class, m a new and growing world. The Holland 
shareholder might now become the colonial patroon. The 
lord of the Amsterdam counting-house might now become 
the lord of the New Netherland manor. 

The charter of Freedoms and Exemptions, which had cbonei 
been adopted by the College of XIX. in the summer of 
1629, was printed, in a pamphlet form, early the follow- March, 
ing year, and circulated throughout the United Provinces. 
By this means, the attention of stockholders in the com- 
pany, who might he desirous to become patroons, as well 
as of persons of all classes who might he disposed to emi- 

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Chap, vii ^ia,te lioiii the Fatherland, was invited to the temperate 
~~T^T~ chmate, feitile soil, varied resources, and advantageous 
■ commpicial uituation of New Netherland* 

Whilf the details of the charter were yet under advise- 
paitoon- ment in the meetings of the company, several directors of 
uuredby the Amsterdam Chamher, who had been appointed "com- 
dsmdirec- missarios of New Netherland, "t hastened to appropriate 
to themselves the extensive privileges which they knew 
would soon be publicly gnaranteed to colonial proprieta- 
ries. The most prompt in action were Samuel G-odyn and 
Samuel Blommaert ; the latter of whom had befriended 
IsasLo de Rasicres, the late secretary of the Province. In- 
fluenced, perhaps, by his representations, G-odyn and Blom- 
maert dispatched two persons to the South River, "to ex- 
amine into the situation of those quarters," and purchase 

1629. a tract of land from the savages. At the first meeting of 
19 June. j.j^g Amsterdam Chamber after the adoption of the charter, 

Godyn notified his associate directors that, in quality of 
patroon, he had undertaken " to occupy the Bay of the 
South Eiver," and that he had " advised the director, Pe- 
ter Minuit, and charged him to register the same there."t 
The agents in New Netherland faithfully executed the 
oodyn aiifl orders of their principals in Holland. A tract of land on 
porchaBeon ""the south comcr of the Bay of South Uiver," extending 
River. northward about thirty-two miles " from Cape Hinlopen 
to the mouth of the said liver," and inland about two miles 
in breadth, was actually purchased from the native In- 
ijune, dians, for Grodyn and Blommaert, a few days before the 
adoption of the charter in Holland. The formal patent 

1630. for the territory thus secured, was attested in the summer 
b jniy. ^£ ^j^^ following year, by the director and council, at Man- 
hattan.^ It was the first European title, by purchase 
from the aborigines, within the limits of the present State 

• Wasaenasr, KvUi., 94 1 Lamlirechleei!, 29 ; MouHon,3B9; il,,N,Y.H.S, Coll., i.: 389. 
t De Vries, 16S. * Haiard's Ann. Penn., S2 ; O'Call., i., 478. 

4 H61. Doc,, i., 118 ; OT^I., 1., ISS. The oiiginnl patent to Codyn and BlommaBn— 

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of Delaware ; and it bears date two years "before the ohar- Chap. vii. 
ter of Maryland, granted to Lord Baltimore by Charles I. 

Another director of the Amsterdam Chamber, Ki!iaenn,,jj^,^u 
van jR-ensselaer, " who was accustomed to polish (rafijiee- ^^yg ^i"^' 
ren) pearls and diamonds,"* had his attention meanwhile ^"^'j,'^''" 
directed to the regions adjacent to Fort Orange, on the 
North River ; where Sebastian Jansen Krol had now been 
stationed for four years, as under director and commissa- 
ry of the West India Company. At Van Rensselaer's re- 
quest, Krol purchased for him, from the Indian proprietors, SApm. 
a tract of land on the west side of tlie river, extending 
northward from Beeren Island! to Smack's Island, and 
" stretching two days' jonrney into the interior." In the 
mean time, vigomus preparations for colonization had been send* om 
made ; and several emigrants, well provided with imple- Renaaei- 
ments and cattle, were sent out from Holland, early in the "*"™^'^ ' 
spring, under the supervision of "Wolfert G-erritsen, as " op- 
per-bouwriieester," or overseer of farms. The colonists em- si MRrct. 
barked at the Texel, in the ship " Eendragt," or Unity, 
Captain John Bronwer. In a few weeks they arrived at 
Manhattan; whence they proceeded at onoe to Fort Or- 21 May. 
ange, and commenced the actual settlement of the " colo- 
nie of itensselaerswyck." Krol's first purchase, however, 
did not comprehend the lands in the immediate vicinity of 
Fort Orange. A few weeks after the arrival of the first 
colonists, the patroon's special agent, G-illis Hossett, in sail- 
ing up the river, came to the place where several men were 
busy in cutting timber for a new ship which Minuit was 
building at Manhattan. Meeting there several Indian sa- Addiiionai 
chems, Hossett secured for Van E.enaselaer the cession of chasS'™ 
their lands "on the west side of the North River, south and eosi 
and north of the Fort Orange," and extending nearly tonvev. 
the " Monemins Castle," on a small island now called 
Haver Island, at the confluence of the Mohawk, The land 
on the east side of the North River, extending northward- 

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Chap. Yii. ly from Caatle Island to the Mohawk, was the private prop- 
' . erty of the sachem Nawanemitt. From him, Van Rena- 
■ selaer'a agents also purchased the territory " called Sem- 
esseeck, lying on the east side of the aforesaid river, op- 
posite the Fort Orange, as "Well ahove as helow, and from 
Poetanock, the mill creek, northwards to Negagonce, heing 
s Aiijust. about twelve miles large measure." Theae purchases were 
13 Auguat. oon£i-med a few days afterward, hy formal patent-s, signed 
Biientof hy the director and council at Manhattan.* Thus a large 
ofK^Si^N portion of the present counties of Albany and Rensselaer 
aerflwyc |,g^j^(^g jj^g private property of a shrewd member of the 
Amsterdam Chamber. Fori Orange itself, with the land 
immediately round its walls, was all that now remained, 
in that neighborhood, under the exclusive jurisdiction of 
the West India Company. 
MicLaei An inviting region near Manhattan was still unappro- 
JtMse^r- priated. Another director of the Amsterdam Chamber, 
siaieuiai- Michael Pauw, of Aohtienhoven, near Utrecht, finding 
that Van Rensselaer had aheady monopolized the lands 
in the neighborhood of Fort Orange, hastened to secure 
la Juij. for himself, the tract oaUed " Hobokan-Haoking, lying op- 
posite tlie Island Manhatas," and hounded on the east by 
the North River, and on the south hy Ahasimus.t A few 
days afterward, Pauw also procured from its Indian own- 
ers the cession of the whole of Staten Island, "on the west 
shore of Hamel's Hooftden,"$ now called the Narrows. 
The purchase of Staten Island was succeeded, in the fol- 
K Not. lowing autumu, by the still more advantageous investiture 
of "Ahasimus" and "Aressick," extending "along the 
River Mauritius and Island Manhatas on the east side, 
and the Island Hobokan-Haoking on the north side, and 
surrounded by marshes, serving sufficiently for distinct 
boundaries." The spot was a favorite resort for the In- 
dians, who were in the habit of conveying their peltries 

* Hoi. Doc, i, Ifil ( AJb.R8o.,i.,iag; G.G.,+- 
ii., 49 : ReflSGBlaorBwyck MSS. ; ffCaU., i., 125-1 

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from that point, directly across the river to Fort Amster- ciiAr. vii. 
dam. This deairable purchase included the whole neigh- 
hothood of "PauIns'Hook," or Jersey City; and the sa- 
gacious Pauw, Latinizing his patronymic, gave "the name 
of "Pavonia" to his embryo colony,* 

Thus the most important points on the North and South ttw best 
Eivers of New Netherland were caught up by astute New rjeib- 
managers of the Amsterdam Chamber. But .in all mo- nopoinod 
nopolies there is a selfishness which repels the disinterest- woqus. 
ed. "What lure could the company now hold out to inde- 
pendent emigrants ? Rich directors, forestalling humbler 
competition, had made prize of the most valuable regions ; 
and, the company's rigorous protective impolicy prohibit- 
ing all colonial commerce and manufactures, individual 
enterprise bad little inducement to emigrate to a new 
country against such heavy odds. Where was the good 
genius of the liberal republic, when trade and commerce 
wore unworthy shackles in the American province, which 
Holland merchants claimed to govern ? For engrossing 
cupidity now reigned triumphant in the councils of the 
Amsterdam Chamber, and the fortunes of New Netherland 
awaited the issue of the experiment it proposed. 

The several patroonshipe, however, had been acquired JesiwaiBH 
by the adroitness of a few directors who "helped them- ^rssiors ai 
selves by the cunning tricks of merchants ;" and it was i^™- 
soon found necessary to conciliate the good-will and co- 
operation of those less wary associates who had been an- 
ticipated by their prompt proceedings. 

"When the news of the purchases reached Holland, jeal- 
ousy of the fortunate patroons was very naturally express- 
ed by their colleagues. Dissatisfaction was also felt among 


G. G., 1-30 ; D 

Vrlea, 163 ; MmUMn, *0B, 403 ; CCaU 

Island, which was altested by MinuLt 





Di tonnoU of N 

w Netherlanil, and todared lliat, " jo c 


d sold Iba island lo Michad Paaw. in w 



11 would scarcely liaTC been aignad by i 

aen toiighi by 
l.,p,lM. Ths 

im, in IBM, Ibr the West India Compa 
stalemenls in Hoi. Dqc., vii„ 70, and 1 

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i:inp. VII. the shareholders of the company, that individual directors 
"""" had grasped too much territory ; and Pauw's purchase of 
■ Pavonia was especially unpopular, as it included the im- 
portant spot ■where the Indians had heen accustomed to 
assemtle for trade, and whence they crossed directly over 
to Manhattan.* 

To appease the dissatisfied, as well as to secure more 
The pa- ample capital and more general interest, the original pa- 
iiivideii. troons were ohliged to receive other members of the com- 
pany into copartnership with themselves. This was nec- 
1631. essary, in order to insure the confirmation of the patents 
8j»n«=ry, ^^^ ^^^ patroonsMps by the College of XIX. But even 
this arrangement did not entirely allay dissatisfaction, nor 
relieve the charter itself fiom ciiticism and attack,! 
1630. Accordingly, Van Ben&aelapr divided his estate about 
I ociober. j,^^ Orange into a common 'itock of five shares. Two of 
iienseoi- thess shares he retained m his own hands, together with 
tiisred, the title and honoia ot original patroon ; one, share was al- 
lotted to the historian Jnhn de Laet, another to Samuel 
Grodyn, and the fifth to Samuel Bbmnmert ; all of whom 
were directors of the Amat«rdam Chamber. "With Blom- 
maert were also associated Adam Bissels and Toussaint 
Mousaart. By their articles of association, the six partners 
became co-direotors of the " colonic" of Uensselaerawyck ; 
the particular management of which, however, was in- 
trusted to a hoard, in which Van Rensselaer controlled 
two vot«s, and all the other partners two.t 
nodjn and Godyn and Blommaert also shared with other partners 
aisTXS' the benefits of their purchase on the South River. It hap- 
chasV" pened opportunely, that David Pietersen de Vries, the en- 

' De Vriea, 

162; Mc 




Doc, 11., 100-103 iMc 

lulian, 404, 


(tec, lill,, 


1153, MSB. iDe Vries, 

)Wh, 109 

t map of tlia colony, ii 



an ReliBi 


alAliany, "BIoi 

s Bars" ie laid i<ma 



eek. "DeLacl'aWi 

original nami 

BH'sMana, opposite 

Albany ; and 


!sent Grs. 



'. Barnard iDtHnaUs that Ibe i 

of Ottober, 10: 


III besides iHe 




>iiih= Dill map, tb 

era ia dear ptoofoflhe partneisbip 

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terprising raariner of Hoom, who, in 1624, had atti 
to invade the "West India Company's monopoly, had just LTIl" 
returned from a three years' voyage to the East Indies, ^~ j^^^_ ' 
where he had served as supercargo. His good conduct 
gained him many friends ; and G-odyn, with whom he had 
old acquaintance, meeting him ahout two months after his aubd&e. 
return, asked whether he would lilte to go to New Keth- 
erland, as "under patroon" and commander? Do Vries 
assented, upon condition that he should he made a paii'oon 
upon an equality with the rest. A partnership was ac- le ooiober 
oordingly forined between Q-odyn and Blommaert, andvtiesmad. 
Van Rensselaer, De Laet, and De Vries himself. ■ Pour 
other directors of the West India Company — Van Ceulen, 
Hamel, Van Haringhoeok, and Van Sittorigh — were soon 
afterward admitted as additional partners; and the ship 
" "Walvis," or Whale, of eighteen guns, and a yacht, were 
immediately equipped to prosecute their enterprise. Gro- 
dyn having heen informed that whales abounded at the 
mouth of the South Bay, thought that a profitable fishery 
might be carried on there, " and thereby that beautiful 
country be cultivated." So, besides a number of emi- 
grants and a large stock of cattle, to begin a colony on 
the South River, the vessels carried out whaling equip- 
ments. In the middle of December, the expedition sailed 12 Dec. 
from the Toxel, with instructions to land some of their pas- seS m m 
aengers at the island of Tortugas, which Godyn and hisetnnder 
partners had contracted with sixty Frenchmen to hold forHej-ps. 
them as a colony, under the States General and the West 
India Company. The command of the vessels was intrust- 
ed to Pieter Hcyes, of Edam, in North Holland; De Vries 
himself remaining at Amsterdam.* 

The expedition was unlucky from the start. A week ao dec. 

' Moullon, and al 

.1 the writers wliD follow him, relying on ihe InaoentalB WanelBlion 


1 MSS., erroneoDsly roptesenl He Vries as accompanying, in person, 

tbe llTst mpedition 

, the Brsl expeibtion s^led lYoin Holland under the command of Pieter 

lleyes. Ontheretl 

jni of Heyes, In Seplember, 1631, De Vries (onsented lo go onl lo New 


irm time, on Ito Mlb of May, 1633 ; and b^ng delayed two monlha at 

Ponsmomli, and Ibur moTB in Ita Weat Indies, he did nol reach Ihe Souft Kii-er unlil De- 

cember, 163a.-DE 

Vries's Voyages, p. B5-101 ; Alb. Rec, ixvi., ST, SO ; post, p. 313. 

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LHip. VII. after it sailed, the partners at Amsterdam received intel- 
^"" ligence that, through the carelessness of the large ship, 
■ the. yacht had bt^en captured hy a Dunkirk privateer. 
The Walvis, however, pursued her course ; and, after vis- 
iting Tortugas, which was found in possession of the Span- 
iards, conveyed her passengers to the South River, where 
1631. she arrived early the next spring. Running along the 
■""■"■ west shore of the bay, a few miles within Cape Cornelius, 
Heyes came to the Horekill, " a fine navigable stream," 
filled with islands, abounding in good oysters, and bor- 
dered by land of "exuberant fertility." "Upon the bank 
of this beautiful oreek, which afforded a roadstead une- 
qualed in the whole bay for safety and convenience, "a 
brick house," to serve as a fort as well as a residence, was 
soon erected and inclosed with palisades. Gillis I 
who had acted as Van Rensselaer's agent in the p 
Colony ea- arouud Fort Orange the previous summer, was placed in 
awBancii- charge of the settlement, which was now formally named 
" Swaanendael ;" and the Dutch title, by discovery, pur- 
oha,s6, and occupation, was solemnly asserted by the erec- 
tion of a pillar, surmounted by a piece of tin, on which 
Were emblazoned the arms of Holland. Thus, upon the 
soil of Delaware, near the present town of Lewiston, a 
Dut«h colony of about thirty souls was first planted in the 
spring of 1631. The voyage of Heyes was " the cradling 
of a state."* 
5May. After establishing' the colony at Swaanendael, Heyes 

Cape May. orossed ovor to the Jersey shore, and, in behalf of Godyn 
and Blommaert, purchased from ten Indian chiefs, " the 

* De VrlBB, 65, iOO ; Korte Veriael van N. N. ; Vwloogh ?an N, N., in E<A. Too., iy., 
71, aai in ii., N, T. H. S, CoU., U., 881 ; Moulwn, 406 ; Bancroft, II., BBl ; Ferris, 81, W ; 
Haiard, Ann. Penn.,as. Wa»3enaar,befbre relitteila [imte, p. 183), Blato3,lhat inlho 
year 16S8, Ihs West India Compony " removed all thoas wiio -were on ibe Sontli River." 
Peter Laiu«nsen, liD;i?ever, In his depoalUon, mads in lOBS (qnotcd onle, p. ICO, noU). 
says, tbal In tlis year 1830, lie vrent lo tlie Delaware, "wbereUie company bad a trading 
bonm, wUh ten or (uv^ gervonts betanging to it, wkich the deponent hmseifdid see there 

saUed up thillier on Iha Sib of January, 1633, (bund "the ForE Nasaan.wlicte Ibrmerly eome 
flimlliea under the West India Company hud dwell," in llio possession oftiia Bavagea.— 
Vojsses, p. lOi; poal, p, SS5. 

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rightful owners, proprietors, and inhabitants," a tract of chxp. vii 
laud, extending from Cape May twelve miles northward 
along the shore of the hay, and twelve miles inland, The 
bay itself Heyes now named " Godyn's Bay," in corapli- 
mont to his chief patron. A few weeks afterward, he vis- 3 June, 
ited Manhattan, in company with Hoasett, and caused a 
formal record of the new purchase to be attested by Minuit 
and his council.* 

Returning to Holland in the following autumn, Heyes septemtier. 
repoi-ted his proceedings to the patroons. But though aiurmoHoi- 
colony had been founded at Swaanendael, the whale-fish- 
ery had proved a failure. Heyes excused his ill luck, be- 
cause "he had arrived too late in the year." But his 
owners attributed their losing voyage to the incapacity of 
their captain, who had been accustomed only to three or 
four nionths' absences from home at Greenland, and who 
" dared not to sail alone through the "West Indies in a 
ship of eighteen guns."t 

It is somewhat extraordinary that, in all the appropria-HoDmch 
tions of territory for patroonshipa, the valley of the Fresh utS'iion 
River should have been neglected. Up to this period, thenectLom' 
Dutch were the only Europeans who, since Adriaen Block's 
first discovery, had visited that region. As early as the 
year 1623, the "West India Company's agents seem to have 
taken actual possession of the river, and to have projected 
a fort. But it appears to have been their policy to pre- 
vent the establishment of independent colonies there ; and 
complaints were afterward made respecting their "injuri- 
ous" conduct, in opposing the settlement of any Dutch 
families upon that river. t. 

English colonization had, meanwhile, been gaining 1630- 
ground on the north and east of New Netherland. In the iSS^^of 
summer of 1630, John "Winthrop, the ncsrly-chosen gov-SS™;^™ 
ernor, arrived in Massachusetts Bay, with a fleet of fifteen fJi^t'S'of' 

Hosted by 



i ii.p. vii. ships, and more than a thousand emigrants. Winthrop, 
who had the charter in hia custody, at first settled him- 
' self, with his immettiate followers, at Charlestown. But 
this position not pleasing them, they soon afterward tooli 
possession of the opposite peninsula, of which the Indian 
iiosiou name was " Shawmut." At first it was called " Tri- 
7 Sept. ■ mountain," on account of its three contiguous hills ; but 
it soon received the name of Boston, after the town in 
Lincolnshire, from which some of the principal emigrants 
oilier had come. Other parties settled themselves at Dor- 
iiwi, Chester, "Watertown, and Newtown, now known as Cam- 
bridge. In imitation of the example of Plymouth and 
Salem, the new settlements established among themselves 
distinct churches, which admitted their own members and 
1631. chose their own officers. The next year, a form of gov- 
'^ ""''" ernmcnt was established in Massachusetts, upon the the- 
ocratic basis that none should be admitted to the freedom 
of the body politic, "but such as are members of some of 
the churches within the limits of this jurisdiction." It 
was not easy, however, to obtain the privilege of church 
membership. Of the whole adult population, not a fourth 
part were members. Three fourths of the people were 
Govern- thus practically disfranohised. As among themselves, the 
Maasschu- minority of church members seemed thoroughly imbued 
iisioiiBoii- vv-ith a spirit of equality ; " but toward those not of the 
Church, they exhibited all the arrogance of a spiritual ar- 
istocracy, claiming to rule by Divine right." The elect- 
ive franchise, jealously withheld from the people, was as 
jealously confined to the members of the churches ; and 
the civil pofity, which Massachusetts thus deliberately 
adopted, was an oHgarchy of select rehgious votaries.* 
New pism- The population of New Plymouth had, by this time, in- 
'™"'* creased to nearly three hundred; and, through the agency 
1630. of Lord "Warwick and Sh Ferdinando G-orges, the colony 
5 j Jan. had obtained a new and ample patent from the council for 
New England, This instrument defined their boundaries 

Hosted by 



as extending from iJie Cohassctt Uivei on "the north, to the chip, v 
Narraganaett River on the south, and inland, westwardly, 
to "the utmost limits of Pokenakut, alias Sowamset."* 

The complaints which Bradford had sent to England 
against the traifio of the Dutch and other strangers with 
the Indians, had already attracted the attention of Gorges 
and Mason. Similar complaints &om Endicott induced 
the general court of Massachusetts to petition the Privy 
Council to reform " so great and insufferahle abuses." ThesiNoi, 
result was a royal proclamation, " forhidding the disorder- lammiua 
ly trading with the savages in New England." No per- '"^== 
sons, except those authorized hy the council for New En-N"»\^"' 
gland, were to frequent those coasts, or trade with the na- 
tives, or intermeddle with the English planters or inhah- 
itants, or teach the Indians the use of fire-arms, under pain 
of the king's high displeasure, and the penalties expressed 
in the proclamation of King James, in 1622. t 

Thus far, the New England colonies had not encroach- 
ed upon the territories claimed hy the Dutch. The Mas-nstcwi 
sachusetts patent included, indeed, within its sweeping Engian 
grant of land as far west as the Pacific, a portion of the moms, 
northern regions of Now Netherland. But the infant set- 
tlements at Salem, and near Boston, were confined to the 
sea-coasts north of Kew Plymouth; and the Hollanders 
had already tacitly admitted the jurisdiction of the "Old 
Colony" to extend as far south and west as Narragansett 
Bay.'- AH the coasts and inland regions, however, from 
that bay, as far south as Cape Hinlopen, and as far north 
as Canada, were claimed hy the Dutch as rightfully he- 
longing to New Netherland. During the pleasant inter- 
course which was opened with New Plymouth in 1697, 
the Hollanders, seeing that the Puritans were there seated 
"ni barren quarter," with firiendly purpose told them of aTiioD 
river, " called by them the Fresh River, but is now known Fvmn 
by the name of Conighticute River, which they often com- ncctjci 
mended to them for a fine place both for plantation and 

■ ; Hymer Fedf 

Raiard,i,,SOS: HiLdielh, 1., IT 
'edern, lix., 310 ; Haiard, 1., Sll 

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cn*p. vu. trade, and wished them to make uae of it." But the hands 
of the Kew Plymouth colonists "teing full otherwise, they 
■ let it pass."* In thus inviting the English to settle them- 
selves within the territory of New Netherland, iilinuit 
could have had no intention to surrender any of the char- 
tered rights of the West India Company, or to raise a doubt 
respecting their title, which he had so stoutly maintained 
in his correspondence with Bradford. If the New Plym- 
outh people had accepted Minuit's proposition, they could 
have settled themselves on the Connecticut only in due 
allegiance to the States Grcneral, and in subordination to 
the Company's authorities at Manhattan. 

The fame of the " pleasant meadows" on the Fresh Riv- 
er soon reached the young hamlets on the Massachusetts 
1631. Bay. In the &st spring after his arrival, "Winthi'op wa-s 
A^nnco- visited by one of the Mahican sachems upon the " River 
chera'^'sits Quonehtacut," who extolled the fraitfuhiess of his coun- 
''°"™' try, and urged the English to come and plant themselves 
there. But Winthrop, though he treated the sachem Itind- 
ly, would send none of his people to explore the country, 
which " was not above five days' journey" from Boston. 
The intentions of the saohem were soon unveiled. He was 
at war vrith the Pequods, and desired a European settle- 
ment as a defense against his powerful enemies.t At New 
Plymouth the suggestion was better appreciated. The sa- 
chem's story confirmed the accounts which they had be- 
fore received from the Dutch ; and Edv^ard "Winsiow, vis- 
L632. iting that region in 1633, verified these favorable reports 
vkiB'Sie by his own observation, and even " pitched upon a place 
i.orraccu- £^^ ^ house."!: But the people of Kew Plymouth, know- 
ing that the Connecticut valley was beyond the bounds of 
their patent, took no immediate measures to plant a set- 
tlement there. 

While the colonial authorities of New Netherland and 
New England were thus all postponing actual occupation, 
a questionable English title to ihs territory was obtained 

' BradRird, MS. in Hutch., U., App., 416 ; Prince, 434. 

Hosted by 



ty other parties. Saltonstall, who had accompanied Win- chip. vu. 
throp to Massachusetts, returning to England in the spring 
of 1631, carried homo with him the glowing accounts 39^^^^,' 
which he had heard of the ftuitfulnoss of the Connecticut 
valley. Through his exertions, the Earl of "Warwick wasTheEarioi 
induced, early the next year, to grant and confirm to Lord p-nnt of 
Say and Seal, Lord Brook, Saltonstall himself, and others, ""• 
all the territory extending forty leagues to the southwest ,g jg^^ck'^ 
of the Karragansett River, and hy the same hreadth 
"throughout the main lands there, from the Western 
Ocean to the South Sea." The territory thus conveyed 
is alleged to have heen granted to Lord Warwick, by the 
council for New England, in 1630 ; and Warwioli's sub- 
sequent conveyance has heen considered by American his- 
torians as the original English charter for Connecticut. 
But no evidence of the grant to Lord Warwick has ever 
been produced ; if such a grant was really made, it does 
not appear to have been confirmed by the king. Thus 
stood thfe question of right and title between the Dutch 
West India Company, by virtue of Block's first discovery 
and of their charter, and the English proprietaries of Con- 
necticut, by virtue of Lord "Warwick's conveyance. But 
no steps Vi'ere taken hy these proprietaries to colonize that i^i^^ wai- 
territory, until several years after the end of Minuit's ||^"i^^_ 
government of New Netherland; though the commence- <""'"""'■ 
ment of his successor's administration was destined to vrit- 
ness the first disagreement between rival Dutch and En- 
glish settlers on the banks of the Fresh River.* 

The attention of Director Minuit had heen, meanwhile, AOaira at 
chiefly confined to the prosecution of the far-trade for the 
benefit of the West India Company, and to the domestic 
affairs of the chief colony at Manhattan. No subordmate 


.'a conveyan 


Say ana Seal, and his a88 


131. IMaol 

33. The"j™mrii!,«ir 



>rch. IflM. 



jeai. Wbai pnrpons 




MBce at Hartford, ftoDi 

which wag 1 


py In Trttmbull, i., App., 

and in 

inglas speak of a preti 

ong granl ftmn Ihe con 

pcjl of New England to 




But Cbalnwa Ip. aW) showB ihai 

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tF. vii. patroons ever exercised any jurisdictioii over the reserved 
island : the "West India Company alone was the territorial 
proprietary. After De Rasieres " fell into disgrace" with 
Minuit, his place as provincial secretary and keeper of the 
company's pay-books, was filled hy Jan van Roraund, who 
continued to hold these offices for several years. In 1629 
ipo'i* and 1630, the imports from Amsterdam arose to the value 
"s. of one hundred and thirteen thousand guilders ; while the 
exports from Manhattan exceeded one hundred and thirty 
thousand guilders, showing a considerahle balance in favor 
of the company. Its admirable commercial situation in- 
iriypr*- dioatcd Its futurc renown; and its ships, which now ear- 
ip build- ry the fame of Its naval architects to the ends of the earth, 
even at that early day had begun to attract the attention 
and excite the envy of England. In the year 1631, the 
real ship " New Nethcrland," a ship variously estimated at from 
eiher- " 600 tunnos, or thereabout," to eight hundred tons, was 
iManhsi- built at Manhattan, and dispatched to Holland.* This 
ship was not only by far the largest tliat had ever been 
built in America, but it was probably one of the greatest 
merchant vessels at that time in the world. It was not 
until nearly two centuries afterward that the ship-wrights 
of Manhattan again began to build ti'ading vessels which 
rivaled the mammoth proportions of the pioneer ship ' ' New 
'urt ot- At Fort Orange, Vice-director Krol continued to super- 
"^''" intend the fur-trade of the company, which was annually 
growing more important. The subdued Mahioans had 
three years before been expelled from the valley of the 
North River ; and the victorious Mohawks were glad to 
cultivate the most friendly relations with the Dutch set- 
tlers, hy whom they now began to be supplied with the 
fire-arms of Holland. 

"While the new patroons were vigorously commencing 

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agricultural colonization on tho North and South Eivera, chap, vu, 
they determined, under a Uheral construction of the char- 
ter of Freedoms and Exemptions, to participate in the re- ^^ ^^ ' 
served trafficwith the Indians. PleadingthattheAmster-*;"™^"^"' 
dam Chamher "had no factories" at certain points, the pa-"!^^"' 
troons assumed that they had the right to engage in the 
peltry trade, which the company had certainly intended to 
retam in its own hands. But the direotora, already jealous '^^"^'^ 
of their colleagues, who had secured auch ample estates, ^'^ '">"' 
could not quietly permit their darling monopoly to he thus !jp™"j,J^|,p^ 
invaded. Articles were soon prepared, limiting and re- 
straining the privileges of the patroons, in respect of the 
fur trade, to an extent which excited their hitter com- 
plaints ; the charter of Freedoms and Exemptions itself 
was attacked, and " drawn into dispute ;" and feeling ran 
so strongly against ail who were supposed to favor the 
pretensions of the new colonial proprietaries, that Minuit, 
with whose knowledge and approbation these large appro- 
priations of territory had heen secured, was recalled from Minuit re- 
his directorship. But no successor was immediately ap- 
pointed, and the post of director remained vacant for more 
than a year. Lampo, the sohout at Manhattan, was, how- 
ever, superseded at once hy the appointment of Conrad 
Notelman, who sailed for New Netherland late in the 
Summer, in the ship Eendragt, bearing with him Minuit's Anguei. 
letters of recall.* 

Upon the arrival of Notelman, Director Minuit resigned 
his government into the hands of the council, at the head 
of which was Van E-emund, who had acted as secretary 
of the province since the departure of De Rasieres. Em- 
barking on board the Eendragt, with several families of Minun re- 
colonists who were anxious to return to Holland, the re- iioiian.i. 
called director and superseded schout set aail from ^^'^ jf ^ 
Netherland early in the spring of 1632. 

The Eendragt reached the channel in safety, but stress aissiiipat- 
of Weather drove her into Plymouth. Her arrival there piymomh. 
was no sooner known, than the watchful jealousy of Cap- 

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Chap; vn. tain Mason caused her to be attached, at the suit of the 
council of New England, on a charge of illegally trading 
3Aptji- ' ■within the king's dominions. Minuit instantly comrauni- 
oated the circumstances of the ship's arrest to the West 
India Company, and to Joachimi and Brasser, the Dutch 
ambassadors at London. The court was, at that moment, 
8 April, at Newmarket, Hastening thither, the ambassadors ob- 
ofiho tained an immediate audience, and presented to the king 
bassadora. an earnest remonstrance against the proceedings of the 
Plymouth authorities. The ship, they said, had come 
from New Netherland, where the Dutch had peaceably 
traded for many years, and had established a colony on an 
island purcha'sed from the savages, in the River Manhat- 
tans, "now called the Mauritius." There the colonists lived 
" surrounded on all sides by the native inhabitants of the 
land." Hitherto, their ships had been used to enter and 
depart from the English ports without hinderance ; but 
now, a vessel coming from those parts had been seized for 
an alleged trespass within his majesty's jurisdiction. Un- 
der these circumstances, they hoped the king would order 
the Eendragt's immediate discharge.* 
Reply of The king rephod, that the Grovemor of Plymouth had 
Charles 1. ^gg^^jy ijjfonned^ him of the arrest ; and that, some years 
ago, upon the complaint of his father, James I., the States 
General " had interdicted their subjects irom trading in 
those regions." He could not, at the moment, say what 
was the exact situation of the affair, but would inform 
himself more particularly. The ambassadors persisted in 
urging a provisional release of the ship. The king, how- 
ever, declined complying with their request, " as long as 
he was not quite sure what his rights were." 
lOAnrij. Itetuming to London, the ambassadors detailed their 
goiLaMona. proceedings to the States General, and asked to be fur- 
nished with documentary evidence in support of the right 
of the Dutch to New Netherland, which they thought 
would "undoubtedly be most sharply disputed by the En- 
glish. "+ Several interviews were also held with the lead- 

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ing members of the privy council. But Mason took care cimv. vil 
to write a strong letter to Sir John Coke, the Secretary of 
State, complaining of the Hollandera, who, he aiSmied, ^ .^' 
" as interlopers," had fallen "into the middle," hetween 
Virginia and New England. Notwithstanding the alleged 
disclaimer by Caron, in 1623, the Dutch had fortified Mnson-a 
themselves, in two several places, on the " River of Mana- John coke. 
hata," and had built ships there, " whereof one was sent 
into Holland of six hundred tunnes, or thereabouts." And 
though warned by the English at New Plymouth "to for- 
bear trade," and to make no settlements within the terri- 
tories of tho King of England, the Dutch had persisted, 
and had made "sundry good returns" into Holland, which, 
during the last year, had amounted to " fifteen t 
beaver skins, besides other commodities."* Mason's 
scrupulous letter effected its purpose. En^ 
was thoroughly aroused, and the Privy Council were deaf 
to the representations of the Dutch ambassadors. 

In the mean time, the "West India Company had ti'ans-swaj. 
mitted to the States General a formal deduction of their ti- The vjmi 
tie to New Netherland. The discovery of the North River pVy's d?' 
by the Dutch in 1609 ; the return of " some of their people" iiiie, 
there in 1610 ; the grant of the special trading charter of 
1614 ; the maintenance of a fort and garrison there, until 
the charter of the West India Company in 1621, which 
included that country ; the failure of the English to occu- 
py the regions between Virginia and New Plymouth ; and 
the provisions in James's patent of 1606, by which tlie re- 
gion between the thirty-ninth and the forty-first degrees 
of latitude was left open to the Dutch, were the main 
points on which they relied. The company alleged their 
entire ignorance of the demand made by tho British gov- 
ernment, in 1621, and of its results. They urged that the 
ambassadors at London should press for the release of their 
vessel, on the further ground that the American Indians, 

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[I, "being free, might trade with 'whomsoever they pleased. 
~ The King of England might, indeed, grant exclusive priv- 
■ ileges to his own subjects, and so might the States Gen- 
eral to theirs. But it was unjust for any power to at- 
tempt to exclude all the rest of the world from regions 
which their own subjects had never occupied ; and atUl 
more so, for England to claim sovereignty over territories 
of which the Dutch had obtained the title, by treaty and 
honest purchase from the native owners. The States Gen- 
eral must maintain their ov?n sovereignty, the freedom of 
the seas, and the validity of the treaties which the Hol- 
landers had made with the unsubjugated tribes of North 

This able vindication of the Dutch title was immediate- 
ly sent by the States General to their ambassadors at Lon- 
don, with fresh inatmctions to press for the release of the 
ship, and an intimation that the right of the West India 
Company to trade to New Netherland should be main- 

But English nationality was now thoroughly aroused. 
In a few days, the Dutch ambassadors received the formal 
rof answer of the British ministry to their memorial. The 
. roaming savages of America were not "bona fide possessors" 
of the land, so that they could alienate it ; and if they were, 
it could not be proved " that all the savages had contracted 
with the purchasers ;" these were the technical objections 
to the Dutch title by purchase. The title of the English 
was asserted to be by " first discovery, occupation, and pos- 
session," and by charters and patents from their sovereigns. 
Such patents the States General had never passed to their 
own subjects, as was proved when Carleton, the English 
ambassador, made his remonstrance in 1631. If the Dutoh 
now settled in America would " submit themselves as sub- 
jects to his majesty's government," they might remain in 
New Netherland ; otherwise, his majesty's interests would 
not allow them to "usurp and encroach upon a colony of 

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STioli importanoe, and which he has strong motivea to cher- ciiai 
ish and raaJntain in its integrity."* " 

Thus the Bratiah ministry boldly denied the Dutch title 
to New Netherland, and claimed it as English territory. 
Their strenuous assertion of superior British right was 
probably the last important American State Paper prepared 
by Sir John Coke,t whom Lord Clarendon describes as " a 
man of a very narrow education, and a narrower nature." 
Unwilling, at that moment, to embarrass his foreign rela- 
tions, already sufficiently complicated, Charles I. content- 
ed himself with a bold claim of sovereignty over New 
Netherland, and did not appear anxious to press the ques- 
tion of title to a settlement. In a few days, the confident 
note of the British nunistry was followed by an act of w w 
grace ; and the Lord Treasurer, quietly yielding to the ^=1^1 
reiterated demand of the Dutch ambassadors, released the 
Bendragt from arrest, " saving any prejudice to His Maj- 
esty's rights."! 

Notwithstanding the abuses whioh had induced Minn it's nm 
recall, his administration of the government of New Neth- tm 
erland was, upon the whole, prosperous and successful, erin 
Honest purchase had secured Manhattan Island to the 
West India Company ; industry had flourished around the 
walls of Eort Amsterdam ; the ■western shore of Long Isl- 
and had become studded with the cottages of its early 
"Walloon settlers ; a pleasant intercourse had been opened 
with the English colonists at New Plymouth; friendly 
relations had been generally maintained with the Indian 
tribes; the colonization of Rensselaerswyok and Swaanen- 
dael had been commenced ; and the trade and commerce 
of the province had largely increased. During the six 
years of Minuit's directorship, the exports from New Neth- 
erland were trebled. The value of the commodities sent 

4,p.3T-!l, nndinQiCiiU 

le found at length in th 

EH fiir B ftw jeam longer ; I 

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Chap, vn.homs in 1626 was about forty-aix thousand guilders ; in 
1632, it had increased to more than one hundred and for- 
■ ty-three thousand guilders. Within the same period, the 
value of the imports from Holland was a little over two 
hundred and thirty-eight thousand guilders, while the 
gross value of the exports from New Netherland exceeded 
four hundred and thirty-five thousand guilders. The ship 
in which the Director returned to Amsterdam brought to 
the company's warehouse a cargo of five thousand beaver 
coniinuad Miuuit's rstum tb Holland did not quiet the unfortunate 
b1^7""" differences between the "West India Company and the pa- 
Iiy ™ihe troons. The large appropriations of territory were not as 
exasperating causes of irritation as was the pertinacious 
interference of the patroons with the fui' trade, which the 
company had intended to reserve to itself. To arrest the 
encroachments of the new manorial lords, who claimed, 
under the charter, the largest freedom of traffic " within 
-* Jane, the territories of their patroooships," the company issued a 
proclamation, forbidding all "private" persons in New 
Netherland from dealing, in any way, in sewan, peltries, 
or maize. The patroons instantly protested against this 
decided step, and insisted that, according to the charter, 
they were " privileged," and not " private" persons. But 
the company, resolute to maintain ite superior monopoly, 
18 Nov. soon afterward dispatched commissaries into the different 
uisuifot- patroonships, with orders to post the proclamation, and to 
wsdoin oblige all the colonists, under oath, to abstain from any 
interference with the interdicted traffio.t 
1631. Meanwhile, the colony which Heyes had established at 
swmS™- Swaanendael had gone on pleasantly, for a time, under 
''"''■ the superintendence of Gillis Hossett ; and De Vries him- 
self hsid prepared to visit New Netherland, Heyes's un- 
lucky voyage damped, for awhile, the ardor of his 
ployers ; but the vision of a profitable whale-fishery still 


haunted Godyn. Early in the year 1632, a new a 


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merit was made between the paitner-patroons, to equip chip. vii. 
another ship and yacht, with whioh De Vries himself was 
to go out to the South River, aa "patroon and command- 
er," and test the experiment in person, during the next 
\vinter. The expedition accordingly left the Texel toward 
the end of May. But just before it sailed, news hrought^Maj 
by Minuit, from Manhattan, reached Amsterdam, that the aesirui-iion 
colony at Swaanendael had been destroyed by the savages, Holland, 
and thirty-two men killed outside of the fort, as they were 
isrorking in the fields.* 

In sadness and disappointment De Vries proceeded on De vricH 
his way. But misfortune still attended the enterprise of thescmh 
the South River patroons. An unskillful pilot ran the 
ship on the sands off Dunkirk ; and the leaky vessel was 
navigated with difficulty to Portsmouth, where she went sb May. 
into the "King's Dock" to be repaired. After two months' 
delay, De Yiies set sail again, in company with the " great i i.agmi. 
ship New Netheriand," which had been built at Manhat- 
tan, and was now making her first return voyage from 
Holland. Running southwardly by Madeira, and linger- 
ing three months among the "West India Islands, De Vries 
arrived, early in December, at the South River, and an- 5 dm. 
chored off Swaanendael, where he promised himself " roy- 
al work" with the whales, and a "beautiful land" to cul- 

The next day, a well-armed boat was sent into the kill^P.^^- 
to open a communication with the savages. Reaching s^jwin^"- 
the spot where their little fort had been, they found the 
house itself destroyed, the palisades almost all burned, and 
the ground around bestrewn with the skulls and bones 
of their murdered countrymen, intermingled with the re- 
mains of horses and cattle. The silence of the grave hung 
over the desolate valley. Not a savage was seen lurking 
about the ghastly ruins. Gloomy and sorrowful, De Vries 
returned on board his yacht, and ordered a gun to be fired 
to attract the inland Indians. 

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r.Hn.. VII. A smoke was seen, the next morning, near their devasta- 
"■ ted post. Again the "boat was sent into the creek, and two 

7 Dec. ' ^"^ three savages were observed prowling among the ruins. 
But mutual distrust prevented any intercourse. Fearful 
e Dec. of the arrows of the Indians, De Yries now took his yacht 
into the creek, to give a better shelter than the open boat 
afforded. The savages soon came down to the shore ; but 
none, at first, would venture on board. At last one made 
bold to come ; and De Vnea, prpsenting him with a cloth 
dr^a, sent word to the chief that he wished to raalte a 
An [ndim peace. That night one of the savages remained on board 
sioryottbothe yaoht, and was prevailed on to relate the catastrophe 
ofswaan- wMoh had befallen the colony. Pointing out the spot 
where Heyes had set up the piUar bearing the tin plate 
with the arms of Holland, he said, that one of their chiefs, 
not thinking he was doing amiss, had taken down the 
glittering metal, to make it into tobacco pipes. But Hos- 
sett, who was then in charge of the post, made such an 
ado, that the savages, to hush up the affair, slew the chief 
who had done it, " and brought a token" of their deed to 
the Dutch commander. Hossett told them they had done 
wrong : they should have brought the chief to the post, 
when he would have been simply forbidden to repeat the 
offense. But the mischief was already done. The friends 
of the slaughtered savage instigated their companions to 
a bloody vengeance on the unsuspecting strangers. A 
party of warriors soon visited the settlement, where they 
found most of the colonists at work in the ifields, having 
left one siok man at home, and a large English mastiff 
chained up. Had the dog been loose, " they would not 
have dared to approach the house." Hossett, the com- 
mander, stood near the door. Three of the boldest sav- 
ages, under pretense of bartering some beaver skins, en- 
tered the house with him, and, as he was coming down 
stairs from the garret, where the stores lay, struck him 
dead with an axe. They then killed the sick man ; and 
going to the place whore the dog, " which they feared the 
most," lay chained, they shot him "with full fivc-and- 

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twenty arrows, before he was dispatched," The rest of cii*f. yii 
the colonists, who were scattered over the fields at work, 
were then approached under the guise of friendship, and, 
one hy one, all were murdered. 

Such was the awful, narrative whicli one of the spoilers 
of Swaanendael related to Le Vries, The hones of his 
countrymen marked the spot where the patroon had hoped 
to estahiish a flourishing colony. Thus early was the soil 
of Delaware moistened hy European hlood. The Dutch 
possession was " sealed with hlood, and dearly enough 
bought." But what could now be done ? A barren venge- 
ance alone conld follow retaliation against the roaming 
savages. So a formal peace was ratified the next day, by » uec, 
presents of duffels, buUeta, hatchets, and Nuremburg toys ; wsm th= 
and the astonished red men " departed in great joy," to 
hunt beavers for the Hollanders, who, instead of exacting 
a cruel retribution, had quietly let pass tiieir inhuman of- 

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.r.viii. New Netiierlakd had now been, iui morp than a year, 
without a dhector. The experhnent of intioducmg a mod- 
'«- NEih-ifi^ feudal system into the province had ju^t hoen com- 
^01 a inenced ; jealousies had already sprung up hetween the pa- 
""*'■ troona and the West India Company, and erabaiias^ment 
was evidently in store ; the British government had agam 
boldly denied the Dutch title to any pait of New Nether- 
land ; and English colonists, firm of purpose and zealous 
in faith, were preparing to take actual possession of por- 
tions of the territory, over the whole of which then sover- 
eign claimed an exclusive jurisdiction In this crisis, the 
administration of the afFaira of the Dutch province should 
have been intrusted only to the ablest hands But when 
did a commercial monopoly ever govern a country wise- 
L-ouier ly ? The person selected to- succeed Peter Minuit as Di- 
rappoiiii-reotor General of New Netherland, was "Wooter vak Twil- 
wdMin- LER, of Nieuwkerke, one of the clerks in tlie "West India 
Company's warehouse at Amsterdam. He had married a 
niece of Van Rensselaer, and had been employed by the 
patroon in shipping cattle to his colony. These were "Van 
Twiller'a recommendations ; the influence of kinsmen and 
friends, rather than acknowledged administrative ability, 
secured for him the most important colonial office under 
the "West India Company. The now director was inexpe- 
rienced, except in the details of ti'ade which he had learn- 
ed in the counting-room. Incompetent, narrow-minded, 
irresolute, and singularly deficient in knowledge of men, 
Van Twiller was rashly intrusted with the command of 

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a province. But interest — which, rather than considera-cnAP.vm. 
tions of personal fitness, so often controls public appoint- 
ments — triumphed over all objections. Embarking in the 
company's ship " Soutberg," of twenty guns, with a mili- 
t£iry force of one hundred and four soldiers, the raw Am- 
aterdam clerk set sail to assume the government of New 

Van Twiller arrived at Manhattan early in the spring, Apni. 
the ship having captured, on her voyage, a Spanish oara- ler sn-nes 
vel, the Saint Martin, which was brought safely intx) port. tm. 
Among the Soutberg's passengers were Jacob van Cou- 
wenhoven, and his brother-in-law, Govert Loockermans, 
both of whom were soon taken into the company's service, 
and afterward rose to distinction .in the province. Ever- Everardos 
ardus Bogardus, the first clergyman at Manhattan, andtteHrst ' 
Adam E-oelandsen, schoolmaster, came out from HoUand 
at the same time.* 

The new director commenced his administration, assist- 
ed by the experience of Secretary Van Remund and Schout 
Notelman. The council consisted of Jacob Jansen Hesse, Proyincun 
Martin Gerritsen, Andries Hudde, and Jacques Eentyn, odicera. 
Gornelis van Tienhoven, of "Utrecht, was made the com- 
pany's book-keeper of monthly wages at Fort Amsterdam ; 
and Sebastian Jansen Krol was succeeded in the command 
at Fort Orange by Hans Jorissen Houten, who had trad- 
ed on the river in 1621. Michael Paulusen was commis- cominisso- 
sary of Pauw's " colonie" at Pavonia.t ma. 

In their management of New Netherlanii, the "West In- TinwiBB co- 
dia Company seem to have looked rather to the immedi- cy oriho 
ate profits which they might derive from its trade, than to company, 
the permanent political interests of the province. Those 
interests would have been best secured by the prompt col- 
onization of the country with free agricultural emigrants, 
bringing along with them the industrious habits and the 
simple virtnes of their Fatherland, During the fh^st years 

- DsVrlea, U3; Bo Lael, App., 5; Hoi, Doc, v., S96, 309; Alb. Roc.,!., 53, 107 ; ii., 
3!Si Renss. MSS. ; 0'Call.,i., 142 ; ii„ N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii„S38, 339. 

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.F.viii.of their orgartization, the company had, indeed, done some- 
thing toward the agricultural settlement of New Kether- 
" land. But their policy was soon changed. Un vi ely aur 
rendering to sutordinate patroons the care of sub I ng and 
cultivating the soil, the company seemed to I t tl eu 
own views to the improvement of their reven e d ti e 
jealous maintenance of their trading monopoly HI ey 
iseemed anxious "to stock the land with their erv 

ants." This was the cardinal error which, for so many 
years, retarded the progress and blighted the prosperity of 
the province, 
'onue The temptation, indeed, was strong. During the year 
hor- 1633, the exports of furs from New Netherland had ex- 
ceeded in value one hundred and forty thousand guilders. 
This revenue formed, it is true, an inconsiderable item in 
the grand total of the company's yearly income. But it 
would probably improve by careful management ; and to 
this end the efforts of the Amsterdam Chamber were chief- 
ly bent. Its mercantile directors viewed New Netherland 
rather commercially than politically, and exhibited them- 
selves as selfish traders, rather than enlightened states- 
men, They authorized large expenditures in building 
forts and mills, and for "unnecessary things, which, un- 
der more favorable circumstances, might have been suit- 
able and very proper," But in making these expendi- 
tures, they seemed to have had "more regard for their 
own interest than for the welfare of the country."* Pow- 
erful and suceessftil as the West India Company had now 
unquestionably become, its directors displayed far less sa- 
gacity in the management of their American province, 
than in the conduct of their naval war with Spain, 
lutacicr Van Twiller's chief objects seem to have been the main- 
wiiiM's tenance and extension of the commercial monopoly of his 
on. principals. In many respects he was, perhaps, their faith- 
ful representative. He was acquainted with trade ; hut 
he was ignorant of public affairs. From the dealing with 

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■wares, and the shipping of cattle, he had been suddenly chap.vhi. 
exalted to the command of men, and the management of 
a province. It was only natural that, fi'oni the moment 
he hegan to administei the government of New Ttether- 
land, Van Twiller should have given constant proofs of the 
folly and danger of intrusting to inexperienced and incom- 
petent hands the interests of a community and the well- 
being of a state. 

In the mean time, De Yries, after concluding a peace cevrieaiu 
with the savages at Swaanendael, had endeavored to re- daei. 
trieve his damaged fortunes, hy estahlishing a whale-fish- 
ery on the South Uiver. But provisions soon hegan to i jarmary. 
run short ; and, in hopes of obtaining supplies of beans 
from the savages, he went up the river through the float- 
ing ice, in his yacht, "the 8c[uirrel," as far as Fort Nassau, goes up w 
That post, " where formerly some families of the West India sau. 
Company had dwelt," was now deserted hy the Hollanders, 
Here De Tries found some savages, who urged him to go 5 January. 
up the Timmer Kill, or Timher Creek. But a Sankitan or 
Stankokan Indian warned the Dutch not to venture into the 
creek; for the savages were only plotting to desti'oy them, 
as they had a little while before murdered the crew of an 
English shallop, which had gone into " Count Ernest's Uiv- 
er," The Squirrel's small crew of seven men, therefore, 
stood on their guard. At the mouth of the Timmer Kill, a January 
more than forty savages from Mantes, or Red Hook, came 
on board, offering to barter heaver skins, and playing on 
reeds, to lull suspicion. But De Vries, observing that 
some of them wore the jackets of the slaughtered English- 
men, ordered them all on shore, declaring that their " Ma- 
neto" had revealed their treacherous designs ; and the yacht 
dropped down again to Fort Nassau. Here the chiefs sjaimatj. 
of nine different tribes came on board ; some of whom 
had worn English jackets at the Timmer Kill. These 
they had now replaced by robes of fur. Sitting down in Treaty 
a oirole on the yachf s deck, the chiefs declared that they Tan^va. 
had come to make a lasting peace ; and a present of ten 
beaver skins, each accompanied with Indian ceremony, 

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.p.viii. ratified their formal treaty with the Dutch, After ottain- 

■ " iiig a small supply of beana and com, and purchasing some 

j„ijj^'j, beaver skins, De Yries returned to his ship off Swaan- 

anmry. A fcw days afterwEiid, the yaoht again ascended the 
isiis river. After remaining a fortnight frozen np in "Vine- 
yard Creek," the beautiful banks of which abounded in 
wild grape-vines, and shooting multitudes of wild turkeys, 
" weighing from &irty to thirty-six pounds," De Yries at 
eb. length reached Fort Nassau once more. But the Minquas 
were now at war with the Sankitans, and no provisions 
could be obtained. So making the best of her way through 
the floating ice, the yacht rejoined the ship, whose crew 
Fei. were overjoyed to m,eet once more their adventurous com- 
rades. De Yries now resolved to go for supplies to Vir- 
ginia, where he thought that corn could he more readily 
obtained than at Fort Amsterdam. Supposing that no 
Dutch vessel from New Netherland had yet gone to the 
iatc^i. Chesapeake, the patroon was ambitious to be "the first 
rginia. Hollander from this quarter to visit that region."t 
lutcb. In three days, De Vries reached Cape Henry, As he 
sailed up the James River, he saw, everywhere, beautiful 
gardens stocked with Provence roses, and apple, and cher- 
ry, and pear, and peach trees, blossoming around the houses. 
Moroh. Arrived at Jamestown, he wa^ welcomed by Sir John Har- 
GDvein-vey, the governor, who came down to the beach, attended 
'by a guard of halberdiers and musketeers, ""Whence 
come you?" was the friendly challenge, " From the South 
Bay of New Netherland," the prompt reply. " How far 
is that from our Bay ?" demanded the governor. " About 
ninety miles," replied the Dutch patroon. Inviting De 
Yriea into his house, and pledging him in a "Venice glass 
of sack," Harvey produced an English chart, on which ho 
I out the South Bay, "named by them my Lord 

* Do Vrtes, 101-104. 

t Db Vrits, 104-107. May, iiowever, had Tjsilcd Jameslown In 

L 1620 imte, p. 07) j end 

It laema, from an eWry in WintHH^'s journal, ihai in Uib momli 

of April, !633,sDuIch 

Otif arrived M Boewa ftom Virginia, brloging two thousand bjial 

lala of .corn, Wbich wet a 

aold.iit Riur »nd alxpance a ItualiSl.-^Vtnlbrop, 1., T!. 

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Delaware's Bay." Some years before, explained the gov- cbap-viii, 
ernor, Lord Delaware had been driven into this bay by 
foul weather, but, finding it full of shoals, had supposed 
it unnavigalile ; and therefore they had not looked after it 
since.* " Yet it is our king's land, and not New Neth- Harvey's 
erland," insisted the loyal Itnight, De Yries replied, thatm™ 
the South River was a beautiful stream, into which no 
Englishman had been for ten years ; and that, several 
years before, the Dutch had built a fort there, which they 
called Fort Nassau. Harvey was surprised to hear that 
he could have had such neighbors without knowing it. 
He had, indeed, heard that the Dutch had a fort upon 
" Hudson's River, as the English called it ;"t and only 
in the previous September, he had sent a sloop, with sev- 
en or eight men, to Delaware Bay, " to see whether there 
was a river there." But they had not yet returned; "he 
did not know whether the sea had swallowed them up or 
not." De Vries then told Harvey of the savages he had 
seen in the South Uiver, wearing English jackets, and re- 
lated what he had heard of the tragical fate of the sloop's 
company. " There are lands enough — we should be good 
neighbors with each other," said the hianest knight ; add- 
ing expressively, " you will have no trouble from us — if 
only those of New England do not approach too near you, 
and dwell at a distance from you."t 

Thus a pleasant intercourse was opened between the intercourse 
Dutch and their English neighbors in Virginia. Harvey's ihe'nmiii 
genial frankness, on his first interview with De Tries, con- v^rginLns. 
traats significantly with Bradford's querulous pertinacity 
six years before. The Virginia governor's warning was 
prophetic. From " thoseof New England" came encroach- 
ment and annoyance ; until, in the end, the coveted pos- 
sessions of the Dutch in New Netherland were seized by 
an overwhelming British force. The open-hearted cava- 

"Ihe adjoining 

j eecms 10 anst 




1 pasitioi 




Hudson Hiver only. 





o suppose that Hsrve 



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CHAP.vui.liers of tiie " Old Dominion," though they did not fail to 
insist upon tlie paramount English title to Delaware Bay, 
■ were always more amiably disposed toward the Holland- 
era on the North Uiver, than were those austere neighbors 
who soon began to people the valley of the Connecticut, 
and push theii thriving villages west and south. It was 
only natural tJiat the New Netherland Dutch, on their 
part, should liave regarded the inhabitants of Virginia, 
with much more kindlinosa than they did the colonists of 
Ifew England.* 
iflMcich, After a week's sojourn at Jamestown, De Yriea took 
leave of the hospitable Harvey, who, understanding that 
" there were no goats at Fort Amsterdam," sent several on 
board the yacht, as a present to the governor of Kew Neth- 
DeVriea erlaud. Returning to Swaanendael with a welcome sup- 
as somii ply of provisions, De Vries found that his ship had, mean- 
as MaVcu. while, taken a few whales. But he was now satisfied that 
the fishery could not be prosecuted to advantage ; and 
preparations were, therefore, made for a final departure 
14 April, from the South River. Once more Swaanendael was aban- 
doned to its aboriginal lords ; and, for a space, European 
colonization paused in its progress on the banks of the 

"Wishing to explore the coast, De Tries embarked in his 
16 April, yacht ; and after a pleasant voyage of two days, aiTived 
ManbBitan, before Fort Amsterdam.t Here was lying at anchor, with 
her prize, the ship Soutberg, in which Van Twiller had 
juat come out from Holland. De Vries immediately land- 
ing, wa 1 dVytln i t t hom he re- 
ported I d apj nt nt n th hal fi I ery on the 
South E, nd t n t d h p rp t 1 ve his large 

ship atanl n dyHk nllpth his yacht, 

as aoo p bl tt ImNwE Indnd Canada.! 

* K. Y. H. S. Coll., i, IN. S.), p. 274. 

t De Vries, 111-113. The journal speaks of his visiling "Eyer Haven," or Egg Hor- 
tor, soil of bis anchoring in » Ibg, on the ISih of April, off " Barande.gat," or BrealMr'H 

HloseofNewlbundlana." Tfieao names, to Ihis day, commcmorale, in the vernacular of 

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A few days ai'terwmrd, the " William," a London vessel, chap.vih. 
arrived at Foi-t Amsterdam from New Plymouth, whither "~~7r~ 
she had "been dispatched to set up a fishery, and "so tojg^^j^, ' 
go to trade at Hudson's E.ivor."* The supercargo, or ^iJ^'u^j^p 
" Koopman," on board this vessel was Jacob Eelkens, tlie™!!^^"^ 
former commissary at Fort Orange, whom the "West India '^"'''^''"■ 
Company had superseded in 1623. After hia dismission 
by the Dutch, he went to England, and was engaged by 
some London merchants to manage for them an adventure 
in the peltry trade in New Netherland, Thoroughly in 
the interest of his English employers, Eelkens now wished 
to go up the river, and traffic in the neighborhood of his 
old habitation. But Tan Twiller, learning his purpose, 
demanded his commission, which Eelkens refused to pro- 
duce. He was now, he said, in English service; and 
New Netherland itself was British territory, discovered by 
Hudson, an Englishman. This claim of sovereignty was 
promptly repelled by the director and his council Hud- 
son, they admitted, had discovered the river ; but the dis- 
covery was made in the service, and at the cost, of the 
Bast India Company at Amsterdam; and no English col- 
onists had ever been settled in the country. The river it- 
self was named "Mauritius River, after our Prince of 

Eelkens, intent to aooomplish his object, informed Yan it Apru 
Twiller, after a few days, that he would go up the river, 
if it cost him his life. The director peremptorily refused 
his assent, and ordered the Orange flag to be run up at 
Fort Amsterdam, and a salute of three guns to be fired in 
honor of the Prince. Eelkens, on his part, caused the En- 
glish flag to be displayed on board the William, and a sim- 
ilar salute to be fired in honor of King Charles. After lin-Saiiau; 
gfiring a week before Fort Amsterdam, and failing to re-™^- . 
oeive a license, the ship weighed anchor, and boldly sailed 
up to Fort Orange. The "William," of London, was the 
first British vessel that ever ascended the North Kiver. 

3. at this audacity, Yan Twiller collected all the 

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Cii:vp.yiii. people in the fort before hia door, and, "broaeliing a cask 
™of wine, filled a bumper, calling on those who loved the 
Van Twil- P'^^it's of Orange and himself to imitate him, and " assist 
™iauct."^ in protecting him from the violence which the Englishman 
had committed." But the ship was already out of sight, 
sailing up the river ; and the people all began to laugh at 
their pusillanimous director. De Yries, dining with Van 
Twiller the same day, told him bluntly that he had "com- 
mitted great folly." The Englishman had no commission, 
but only a custom-house clearance to sail to New En- 
gland, and not to Kew Wetherland. " If it had been my 
case," said the mortified patroon, "I should have helped 
him from the fort to some eight-pound iron beans, and 
have prevented him from going up the river." The En- 
glish " are of so haughty a nature, that they think every 
thing belongs to them." "I should send the ship Sout- 
berg after him, and drive him out of the river."* 
ADBUifc The counsels of the energetic East India captain at 
patched 10 last arouscd Van Twiller to action. A few days aiter- 
ango. ward, some soldiers, and "a pinnace, a caravel, and a 
hoy," were dispatched to Fort Orange, with a protest 
against the intruders, and an order for their departure 
In the mean time, EelJcens had pitched a tent about a 
mile below the fort, and, for a fortnight, had been carry- 
ing on a lucrative trade with the Indians, with whose lan- 
guage and habits his former residence had made him iia- 
miliar. Houten, the commissary at Fort Orange, had also 
set up a rival tent beside that of Eelkens, and used every 
exertion to hinder his trade. When the little fleet ar- 
Maj, rived at the encampment, the intruders were ordered to 
retire. Eelkens still persisting, his tent was struck, and 
hia goods reshipped by the Dutch soldiers, who, as they 
were thus engaged, "sounded their trumpet in the boat 
Tiiej'wni-in disgrace of the English." The anchor was weighed at 
tinjHsht once, and the ship, accompanied by the Dutch vessels, was 
Maniianaii. taken down to Fort Amsterdam, Here the director re- 
quired from Eelkens a list of his peltries. This was fur- 

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niahed; "but Van Twiller forliade any of the people at Man- chaf-viii. 
hattan, " on pain of death and loss of all tlieir wages," to"" 

mediately afterward, the " "William" was convoyed to aea ; *^^- 
and her supercargo returned to London, entirely foiled in 
his purpose of interfering with the Dutch fur trade on the 
North River, the annual returns from which were now es- 
timated at ahout sixteen thousand heaver skins.* 

Eelltens's intrusive visit, besides damaging the fnr trade 
of the Dutch, did them a much more serious injury. The 
friendly relations of the Hollanders with the Indians were HosWity of 
for awhile interrupted, and " the injurious seed of discord" loword ins 
was sown between them. Peace was not fully restored, Fori or- 
until many "serious mischiefs" had been effected by the 
savages, and the colonists at Fort Orange had lost several 
" men and cattle."t 

Van Twiller soon had another opportunity to enforce the 
trading monopoly of his immediate superiors. Before re-vanTwu- 
tuming with his large ship to Holland, De Vries wished hous cn- 
fo send his yacht, the Squirrel, through Hell- gate, " toward »ota ee 
the north," to trade along the coasts. The director, how- 
ever, refused hia assent, and ordered a lighter alongside, so May. 
to unload the yaoht of her ballast : to which her owner 
demurred, and produced his "exemptions" as a patroon. 
Van Twiller, however, insisted that " ail princes and po- 
tentates" were aceustomed to search vessels, and that it 
was his duty to see whether there was any thing on board 
the yacht subject to the company's tax. He then ordered 
the guns of Fort Amsterdam to be trained on the Squirrel. 
Seeing this, De Vries ran to the angle of the fort, where 
stood the director, with the secretary, and one or two of 
the council. " The land is full of fools," exclaimed the in- 
dignant patroon ; " if you want to shoot, why did you not 
shoot at the Englishman who violated your river against 
your will ?" Upon this, " they let their shooting stand ;" 
and the Squirrel sailed through Hell-gate, followed by a 

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CBip.^ra. yacht, which Van Twiller dispatched from Manhattan to 
■~~" watch her movements. 

The accounts which De Vcies "brought from the South 
Kiver indicated the necessity of prompt measures to se- 
cure the fur trade and possession of the West India Com- 
pany there, especially as Fort Nassau had now heen, for 
.irsniii some time, deserted hy the Dutch. Arendt Gorsson was 
appt^med accorduigly appointed commissary, and was instructed to 
""on ^ purchase a tract of land on the SehuylkiU, which, " for its 
e.. " fitnesb and handsome situation, as well in regard of trade 
as of culture," was held in high estimation. The heaver 
trade with the Minquas and the " wild Indians" could be 
carried on very hriskly at that point, and would "amount 
PutchasBs to thousands" annually. In the course of this year, Cors- 
ote scuuji- sen succeeded in purchasing, " for certain cargoes," from 
"the right owners and Indian chiefs," a ti'act of land call- 
ed " Armenveruis," lying atout and on the Schuylkill. 
The Indian title heing thus secured, formal possession of 
Pennsylvania was taken hy the Dutch, who erected a 
trading-house there ; and afterward a more considerahle 
post, to which they gave the name of " Fort Beversrede."* 
Affiiite on The Dutch, who were the only Europeans that had thus 
HottiBiver. far actually occupied any part of the present territoiy of 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware, were 
now to assert, against a pertinacious rival, their right to 
the possession of Connecticut, which, from the time of 
Block's exploration, and long "before any English had 
dreamed of going there," they had constantly visited, and 
where they had carried on an exclusive and lucrative 
trade. "When the remnant of the Mahicans opposite Fort 
1628. Orange, who had been subdued by the Mohawks, were ex- 
pelled from their ancient abode, they settled themselves 
on iJie Fresh River, " called Connittecock by the natives," 
under the sachem Sequecn, who claimed the aboriginal 
ownership of "the whole river, and the lands thereabouts." 
It was a beautiful flat country, " subject in the spring to 

* Hal. Doc. viii., 39, SS; Kudde's S«piir(,in Alb. Rec.. xvii,, and in ii., N, Y. H. S. 
CoU., L, 480. 440 : O-Cdl., i., 158 i li., 81, 581 1 Haiard, Ann. Fotin., 35, 77, 78 r Da Viies, 

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inundations like those of the Nile," But constant qucs-cnAP.vm. 
tions of jurisdiction arose "between Seqneen and the Pe- 
quoda, who, under Meautinay, their chief, inhabited tlie 
regions east of the river, as far as the Narragansett coun- 
try. It was, therefore, agreed that their differences should Tte pe- 
he settled by arms, " upon condition that the winner should uil™!"" 
always, for himself and his successors, remain the true 
owner of the Fresh River." After lihree different hattles 
in the open field, Meautinay ohtained " the victory and 
the land ;" and so defeated and humbled Sequeen, that he 
" became subject to the Pequods." "With the consent of 
the victors, Sequeen placed himself, and the remnant of his 
tribe, " under the protection of the Netherlanders."* 

From, that moment, the relations between the Dutch 
and the tribes on the Connecticut became still more inti- 
mate. The fur trade was carried on briskly, and to mu- 
tual satisfaction. But the humbled warriors panted to be 
revenged. The policy of the Dutch avoided any interfer- 
ence in the quiurel ; and, in hopes of engaging the recent- 
ly-arrived English on hia side, Wahginnacut, the sachem 
of the expelled Mahicans, made a journey to Boston, as 1631. 
we have seen, " to extol the fertility of hia countiy, and tV *p"'' 
solicit an English plantation as a bulwark against the Pe- 
quods." But neither Massachusetts nor New Plymouth 
would then become parties to the Indian strife ; nor were 
any stepa taken by the Bngliah to plant a settlement ; 
though Edward Winalow viaited the river the next year, 1639. 
and selected a site for a house. The Dutch remained in 
quiet possession of their valuable trade ; but before the 
recall of Minuit, no purchases of lands had been made, 
nor had any patroonships been erected, under the charter 
of 1639, in any part of the Connecticut valley .+ 

While detained in England by the negotiationa for the 
release of the Eendragt, the recalled director probably be- 

Sowbeas, the great sachBin at MalubeGlcli, or Mlddlelown.— Trnmbnll, L, 40, 41. 
r Winthrop, I., S3 ; Uancroll, i., SSI ; Hmdiinson, i., 118 ; mte, p. Mr, 310. 

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iiiAP.viu. came aware of the grant of Connecticut, which the Earl 
" ■■ of "Warwick had just sealed. The "West India Company 
mswcM '^•'^ perceived that their title to that part of New Neth- 
^^!?^™' erland would be "sharply contested" by the English. It 
ands of ihc ^^' therefore, thought expedient that, to their existing 
Miiin^a rights by discovery and exclusive visitation, should he 
added the more definite title, by purchase from the ab- 
origines. In the course of the following summer, the 
Dutch traders on the Connecticut were accordingly di- 
rected to arrange with the native Indians for the purchase 
of " most aU the lands on both sides of the river." This 
was accomplished ; and " Hans den Siuys, an officer of 
the company," also purchased, at the same time, the 
"Kievit's Hoeck," afterward called Saybrook Point, at 
the mouth of the Conneetiout, where the arms of the 
States Greneral were " affixed to a tree in token of pos- 
1633, One of the most important duties of the new director 
was to secure the West India Company's title to Eastern 
Mew Kctherland ; and Van Twiller, soon after his arrival 
comnnssa- fit Manhattan, dispatched Jacob van Curler, one of his 
c°^p^ commissaries, with six others, to finish the long-projected 
^ivet. fort oji ti)e Connecticut River, and obtain a formal Indian 
deed for the tracts of land formerly selected. The trading- 
house which had been projected in 1623, and " had been 
a long time in esse," was now commenced on the west 
bank of the river, about the site of the present town of 
ejupB. Hartford. In a few days, Van Curler agreed with the 
Sachem Tattoepan, the "owner of the Fresh River of 
New Netherland," for the purcht^e of the " flat land ox- 
Purehaaes tending about three miles down along the river to the 
next little stream, and again upward, a musket-shot over 
the kill, being one mile broad to the heights." The pur- 
chase was made " with the free will and consent of the 
inhabitants there," upon condition that the ceded territo- 
ry, " named Sicajoock," should always he a neutral ground, 

• Hoi. Duo., iv., 71, 110; Vetlooihvan N. N.,ln ll.,,N, Y. H, S. Col]., ii., p. a;6. W7. 

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where all the trihes might resort for purposes of trade, and chjip.viii, 
where no wars should ever be waged With the consent 
of the Pequod sachem Magaritinne, "chief of PloupS Bay," 
it was also arranged that Sequeen should theieaftPi live 
with the Dutch. This land " was bought from the Pe- 
quods as conquerors, with the good-will and a'isent of Se- 

Thus the Dutch "West India Company obtained the In- 
dian title to the territory on the Connecticut K-ivor, of the 
.whole of which they "had previously taken possession." 
The purchase was made of the natives, who " declared 
themselves the rightful owners ;" Lord Warwick's grantees 
had, as yet, done nothing toward the occupation of the re- 
gions which they claimed ; and the people of New Plym- 
outh had made no attempt to plant a settlement in a re- 
gion wMoh they knew was beyond the limits of their pat- 
ent. Van Curler, the Dutch commissary, soon completed a'van cmier 
redoubt " upon the flat land on the edge of the river, with K!L'iP°°* 
a creek emptying at the side." The little post was fortified 
with two small cannon, and named the "Good Hope."+ 

Van Twiller had an early opportunity to acquaint the 
West India Company with his proceedings. De Vries be- Jnns. 
ing about to sail for Holland, came up from his ship at 
Sandy Hook, to take leave of the director, and receive his 

' Hoi. Doc, Ix., 185, lS9iHaiard,il., 663,263; N.Y.H.S.CoU.,!., 571,372; O'CoU., 
i.,lSO,l&l; VerbBBl van Beverntnck, WT. The SBchem Tntlospan, of whom Van CbtIbt 
made Ihe purcbaae, is called, Ijy WinslDW, " Twobum, wlioao Ulle lo Iho river was by 
conquest."— Morton's Mem., App., 306. It ssems tliat a l^w years afterward, wlien tbe 
PequodB had been exlsrminaled, Seqnasson, Uie son of Sequeen, was induced to make file 
Mlowlng declaralion before Ibe Hstlford aulhorlUes-, "IMO.adluly, Ssqueslon leBdfios 
[n court Ihal he never sold any ground lo Ihe Dutch, neilber was M any Ume conquered 
by fixe Pequods, nor paid any Iribulc lo them."— J. H. Trumbull's Colonial Records of 
Cohnecficut, 66. 

t De Vries, 150i Hoi. roc.,ii,,36B; Alb.Kec.,XTiii.,2e9; Haiatd, ii., S68. "InlSlO," 
aays Dr.Helmes, the annalist, " I went wilh Iifr. Perkins, of Hanfbtd, lo see the remains 
of Ibis Dutch ibrt, which were tben distinctly visible on the bank of the Connecticut River, 
not liir below the seat of the Wjllys femily. There were BimiE decayed pieces of timber 
and brictB."— Eolmea, Am. Ann., i., BIfl, note. The point where the " Little River," which 
now runs through Haitfbrd, empties into Ihe Connecticut, ia still known as " Dutch Point" 
On a map ot HartfOrd In 1640, recently prepared by W. S. Porter, " surveyor and antlqua- 
rlan," the meadow on the BOUlh of the Litfie River is also marked as " Dutchman's land." 

Trnmbull, the able compiler of that excellent work, the " Public Records of ConnecLlcut," 
informs me, Ihat the rnlna of the old Ibrt have been traced bj persons now living i and 
that several of the yellow Dutsb brlcia used inila construction are still preserved by res- 

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CBiP.viH.diapatohea. But Yan Twiller, renewing his "vexatious 
conduct," objected to the sailing of the ship until she had 
vanTwii- been visited by the offioera of Fort Amsterdam. This De 
iMrepeaia Y^jgg refused to allow. "I am going," said he, "to the 
dS« ™' Fatherland ; if you wish to prepare letters, you can send 
vrlsB."" thera after me ; I shall return with, my hoat." The di- 
rector immediately dispatched a dozen musketeers down to 
the heach, to prevent his departure ; hut the patroon or- 
dered his boat's crew to row away at once, in spite of the 
soldiers, who were now " ridiculed with shouts and jeers 
by all the by-standers." Returning to the fort, De Vries 
reproached Yan Twiller for his "buffoonery" in sending 
down a guard, by which he had made himself a laughing- 
stock to all the people. He then joined his boat, which 
had been waiting behind Nutten (G-overnor's) Island, and 
rowed across the river to Pavonia, where he was " well 
entertained" by Michael Paulusen, the commissary. 
June. The next morning De Yries reached his ship ; which 

eiiipvisiisdwas Eoou afterwavd visited by a yacht from Fort Amster- 
ttorathe dam, bringing the director's letters for Holland, and Re- 
mund and Notolman, the provincial secretary and sohout, 
who were welcomed on board. E,emund, however, see- 
ing a dozen beaver skins lying on the deck, declared them 
" a prize," because they had not been entered at the fort. 
De Yriea told him that he might seize them ; but Notelman, 
the schout, interfered. "Let them lie," said he; "we are 
not now at the fort. If there is any thing wrong, the pa- 
troon can an,swer for it in Holland." The secretary, more 
faithful to his trust, threatened to send the ship Soutberg 
after De Yries ; who, in reply, severely censured the con- 
duct of the company's officers at Manhattan, " They know 
nothing," said the irritated patroon, "but about drinking: 
in the East Indies they would not serve for assistants ; but 
the "West India Company sends out at once, as great mas- 
ters of folks, persons who never had any command before ; 
and it must therefore come to naught." With this reproof, 
the discomfited officials returned to Fort Amsterdam.* 

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Setting sail for Holland, De Vries met an English ves-ca.p.vni. 
eel just outside of Sandy Hook, " running directly upon 
the shoals," and in danger of shipwreck. A gun was fired ,g j„„j, ' 
to warn the stranger, and a boat was sent to point out the ^aurror' 
channel. The English captain immediately visited De^"^'""^' 
"Vries, who recognized him aa an old acquaintance named 
Stone, whom he had met in the AVest Indies, and afterward 
at Jamestown, the previous spring, Stone was carrying 
a large cargo of cattle from Virginia to Kew England; 
and being in want of water, he was anxious to run up to 
Manhattan. But no one on hoard knew the channel AtAnEngusi! 
Stone's earnest entreaty, De Vries allowed one of his crewyire*ni»»f 
to join the English ship, and pilot her up to Fort Amster- Manhaitau. 
dam.* The first British ■vessel that evei ascended the 
North Uiver had been navigated m, a tew months before, 
by EelkeiK, a discharged officer of the Butch West India 
Company ; a second English ship now enteied the harbor 
of Manhattan with a Bati'h pilot furnished by De Vries. 

"While Stone was lying at anrhor betore Fort Amster- 
dam, a trading pinnace armed fioni iHew Plymouth; and 
a quarrel soon arose between the Vugima captain and the 
master of the New England craft. Van Twiller, having 
been drinlcing with Stone, was prevailed upon to allow him 
to seize the pinnace, "upon pretence that those of Plym- 
outh had reproached them of Virginia." Watching an op- ^^^™^^^ 
portunity when most of the New Plymouth people were p'?^° 
ashore, Stone hoarded the pinnace with some of his men, >^ captain 
and "set sail to caiTy her away to Vii^, 1 B t some 8:>"a "tip, 
of the Dutch, " who had been at Plyn tl an 1 ece vod 
kindness," pursued the marauders, a d b ght them Eeacned b? 
hack. The next day, Van Twiller ai d '^tone ent eated 
the master of the pinnace, who was one f the Ne Plym- 
outh council, "to pass it by." This he p onued to do, 
" by a solemn instrument under his hand ;" and both the 
English vessels set sail for Massachusetts. Stone, how- 

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Chip. vm. ever, no sooner arrived at EcKton, than he was arrested at 
the suit of the New Plymouth people, and bound over to 
■ appear in the Admiralty Court in England. But the re- 
cognizance was soon withdrawn ; for the prosecutors found 
that " it would turn to their reproach."* 

On the return of their pinnace ftom Manhattan, the 
New Plymouth people learned that the New Netherland 
authorities had now secured an Indian title, and taken 
formal possession of the valley of the Connecticut. G-ov- 
winaJow eruor "Winslow and Mr. Bradford, therefore, hastened to 
ford Tiait Boston, " to Confer ahout joining in a trade to Connecticut 
^fiuLy. for heaver and hemp," and "to set up a tiading-house 
there, to prevent the Dutch."t But Winthrop again de- 
clined engaging in the enterprise. It was "doubtfnl 
whether that place was within our patent or not," thought 
the Massachusetts authorities ; nevertheless, they assigned 
MBEBnehu- other reasons for their refusal. " In regard," said Winthi-op, 
ciines w " the place was not fit for plantation, there being thi-ee or 
Piymtraui four thousand warlike Indians, and the river not to he 
ingcon- gone into but by small pinnaces, having a bar affording 
but six feet at high water, and for that no vessels can 
get in for seven months in the year, partly by reason of 
the ice, and then the violent stream, &c., we thought not 
Jfjuiy. iit to meddle with it." After a week's delay at Boston, 
Winslow and Bradford returned to New Plymouth, with- 
out having been able to engage the co-operation of the Mas- 
sachusetts authorities, but with their "leave to go Gn."t 
ptoiaMe It is probable that the real motive of Massachusetts in 
iteMaLa- thus declining the proposition of the New Plymouth peo- 
^^i" pie was an indisposition to interfere with the colonization 
of Connecticut, under the charter which Lord Warwick 
had just granted to Saltonstall and hie associates. Not 
long afterward, the authorities at Boston distinctly admit- 
ted that the lower part of the Conuecticnt valley was "out 

* Winlhropi i., J04; Morton's MemorlaT, 178- 

i Winttirop.l.,105. Wtnalow, however, in a letter to Wlnibrop, wrilien len yeors oft- 
erward, on the 6th of Aprtl, 1643, alleges ihat " the Duicli come in by way of prevenUon, 

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of the claim of the Massachuaetts patent,"* The value chip. vui. 
and importance of the upper part of that valley, which was ' 

reaUy comprehended withia their patent, was, however, 
aoon made known to the G-eneral Coiart, John Oldh'am, John oid- 
of "Watertown, and three others, in the course of the sum-iandjonr- 
mer, penetrated one hundred and sixty miles through theneoiimt. 
wilderness,. to trade with the native tribes on the upper 
waters of the Connecticut. The travellers were hospitably 
entertained at all the Indian villages through which they 
passed ; and the sachem whom they visited, near the pres- 
ent town of Springfield, "used them kindly, and gave 
them some beaver." Early in the autumn of 1633, the sepiember. 
first British explorers returned to Boston, with glomng 
accounts of the luxuriant meadows which bordered the riv- 
er, and bringing samples of hemp which " grows there in 
great abundance, and is much better than the Bnglish."t 

Though Winthrop would not join with the New Plym- wimbrop 
outh authorities in iheir projected enterprise of opposition van twh- 
to the Dutch, he nevertheless thought it necessary to as- ciaima 
sert, promptly, the superior title of the English to the c ™foMh8 
whole of the Connecticut valley. Accordingly, he dis- 
patched his bark, the " Blessing of the Bay," on a trading 
voyage through Long Island Sound, with a " Commis- ^^ August. 
sion," to signify to the New Netherland. government " that 
the King of England had granted the river and country 
of Connecticut to his own subjects," and that the Dutch 
should therefore " forbear to build there." On their way, 
the bark's company visited Long Island, where they found 
the Indians had "store of the best wampampeak," and 
" many cauoes so great, as one will carry eighty men." 
They also visited "the River of Connecticut, which is 
barred at the entrance, so as they could not find above one 
fathom water." At Manhattein, 'Winthiop's messengers 
" were very kindly entertained, and had some beaver, and 
other things, for such commodities as they put ofF,"$ 

After five weeks' absence, the bark returned to Boston, _' oci. 

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Chip. VHi. with a " Very courteous and respectful" letter from Yan 

Twiller to Winthrop. The Director of Ne'w Netherland, in 

aa^M " turn, desired the Massachusetts authorities to defer their 
4 ocuiwr, " pretence or claim" to Connecticut, until the King of En- 
van TwLi- gland and the States General should agree about tlieir lim- 
and aaaens its, so that tho colonists of both Dations might live " as 
t'ls- good neighhora in these heathenish countries." " I have," 
added Van Twiller, "in the name of the Lords, the States 
G-eneral, and the authorized "West India Company, taken 
possession of the forementioned river, and for testimony 
thereof have set up an house on the north side of the said 
river, with intent to plant, &c. It is not the intent of the 
States to take the land from the poor natives, as the King 
of Spain hath done by the Pope's donation, but rather to 
take it from the said natives at some reasonable and con- 
venient price, which, G-od be praised, we have done hith- 
erto. In this part of the world are divers heathen lands 
that are empty of inhabitants, so that of a little part oi 
portion thereof, there needs not any question."* 
KfiwPiym- Notwithstanding the refusal of the Massachusetts au- 
mencesa thoritios, the Ncw Plymouth people did not abandon their 
on ihs Con- purpose of encroachment on the Connecticut ; where the 
Hollanders were now in quiet possession, under their three- 
fold right by original discovery, constant visitation, and 
formal purchase from the aboriginal owners. To secure 
a color of adverse title, a tract of land, just above Fort 
Oood Hope, was bought of " a company of banished In- 
dians," who had been " driven out fi'om thence by the po- 
tency of the Pequods." A small frame of a house was 
prepared, and stowed in " a great new bark ;" with which 
" a chosen company," under the command of Lieutenant 
An esjwii:- William Holmes, was dispatched to the Coimectiewt. With 
paiciicd lo Holmes and his party the bark also conveyed the banished 
necucut. Indians, from whom the land had been purchased. This 
rendered it indispensable that the English intruders should 
be provided with "a present defense" against the Pe- 

' Lonfl. Doe., I., 63-, N. Y. Col. MSS., ill., 18; Winlhrop, i., 113; Ttumbull, i., 70; 
AddresslielbreN.Y.H.S..lSJ4,89)0'Csll.,i.,lS2. Holmes, Ann., i., 323, eirs in placing 
tbiB tranBclion nndei the ys&t ICM, instead of 1633. 

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quods, " ■who were much offended that they hrought home chip.vhi. 
and reetored the right sachem of that place, called Nata- 

The Plymouth adventurers soon reached Fort Good ib Sept. 
Hope. " When they came up the river," says the quaint pj^ouui 
Puritan' chronicler, "the Dutoh demanded what they in- era seine 
tended, and whither they would go ? They answered, up ai wind- 
the river to trade. Now their order was to go and seat 
above them. They hid them strike and stay, or else they 
would shoot them, and stood hy their ordnance ready fit- 
ted. They answered, they had commission from the Grov- 
ernor of Plymouth to go up the river to such a place, and 
if they did shoot, they must obey their order and proceed ; 
thoy would not molest them, but would go on. So they 
passed along; and though the Dutch threatened them 
hard, yet they shot not. Coming to their place, they 
clapped up their house quickly, and landed their provi- 
sions, and left the company appointed, and sent the bark 
home, and afterward palisadoed their house about, and for- 
tified themselves better. "t Thus was begun the first En- 
ghsh settlement at Windsor, in Connecticut. 

Advised of the intrusion of the resolute "Plymotheans,"vanTwii- 
Van Twiller sent to Commissary Yan Curler a formal noti- ineSecmsi- 
fication, to be dehvered to Holmes, protesting against his as oomuer 
conduct, and commanding him to "depart forthwith, with 
all his people and houses," from the lands on the Fresh 
Eiiver, continually traded upon by the Butch, " and at 
present occupied hy a fort." But Holmes, who had de- 
fied the ordnance of the Hope, was not to he moved by a 
protest from the Director of New Netherland, " He was 
there," said the New Plymouth lieutenant, " in the name 
of the King of England, whose servant he was, and there 
he would remain. "J 

t Bradforfl, in Hulch., i 

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chai-.vhl Finding hia protests disregaided, Yan Twiller sulimit- 
ted his perplexities to his superiors in Holland. But he- 
■ fore any reply could reach Manhattan, a new emharrass- 
ment occurred. Captain Stone, on his return from New 
England to Yirginia, early the next year, entered the 
1634. mouth of the Connecticut, for the purpose of trading at 
januM)-- ^YiQ Dutch fort ; and, while on his way up the river, was 
Captain treacherously murdered hy the Pequods. The massacre 
of Stone and his company was followed, soon afterward, hy 
the killing of some friendly Indians ; and Commi^ary Van 
Curler punished the douhle atrocities by executing the 
War be- *' old sachcm, and some other" of the assassins. This ex- 
Feouoiia oltcd the Pequods to open war with the Dutch ; and, in 
■jjuich. revenge, the savages now desired to gain the friendship 
« Nov. of the English. They, therefore, dispatched an embassy to 
tweenrte BcBton, where a treaty was negotiated, hy which the Fe- 
int Massa- quods agreed to surrender the two surviving murderers of 
Stone's party, to " yield up Connecticut" to the English, 
and to give their new allies a large store of wampum and 
heaver. This treaty, though it heneiited Massachusetts 
rather than New Plymouth, gave the Windsor colonists 
fresh courage. Van Twiller, who hy this time had re- 
Deceijiiier. ceived instructions from the "West India Company, soon 
Lneffmuai- afterward dispatched " a hand of about seventy men, in a 
M dislodge warlike manner, with colors displayed," to dislodge the 
ivomwind-New Plymouth men from "Windsor. But the intruders 
standing upon their defense, the Dutch force withdrew 
" without offering any violence."* 
1633. While important puhlio questions had thus continued to 
sff^rTof try the inexperienced Van Twiller from the day he landed 
liJce'!""^' st-t Manhattan, the domestic concerns of the province had 
required much of his attention. From the first, he seems 
to have formed an extravagant estimate of the wealth and 
resources of his commercial employers. They had au- 
thorized him to make' large expenditures at the points 
where their fur trade centered, and where their revenue 

• PeVriEs.lM; Winthrop, L, 123,149. 153, W6 i Priuco, 436; Motion's MEinurial, 170, 

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officers were stationed. Fort Amsterdam, ■which had be-CHAP.v[i!. 
come dilapidated, was repaired, and a guard-house, and a " 
barrack for the newly-arrived eoldiers, were constructed p^„ ji|„.' 
within the ramparts, at a coat of several thousand guilders, f^^l™ " 
Three expensive wind-mills were also erected ; hut they Miiis ^a^ 
were injudiciously placed so near the fort that the build- miiH ai 
ings Vfithin its walls frequently " intercepted and turned 
off the south wind." Several brick and &ame houses were 
built for the director and his officers ; and on the compa- 
ny's farm, north of the fort, a dwelling-house, brewery, 
boat-house, and barn. Other smaller houses were built 
for the corporal, the smith, the cooper, and the midwife ; 
and tho goats, which Harvey had sent from Virginia as a 
present to Van Twiller, were accommodated with an ap- 
propriate stable. The !oft, in which, the people had wor- The 
shiped since 1636, was now replaced by a plain wooden 
building lilce a barn, " situate on the East River," in what 
is now Broad Street, between Pearl and Bridge Streets ; 
and near this "old church," a dwelling-house and stable 
were erected for the use of "the Domine."* In the Fa-ThCDam- 
thetland, the title of "Domine" was familiarly given to 
clergymen, and head-masters of Latin schools. The phrase 
crossed the Atlantic with Bogardus ; and it has survived 
to the present day, among the descendants of the Dutch 
colonists of New Netherland. 

Manhattan was also invested with the prerogative of"saiJie 
"Staple right," one of those peculiar feudal institutions labiiatiSai 
enjoyed by Dordrecht and other towns in Holland, in vir- 
tue of which all the merchandise passing up and down 
the rivers on which they were situated was subject to cer- 
tain impost duties. This right was now to he exercised 
at Manhattan ; and all vessels passing before Fort Am- 
sterdam were to be obliged either to discharge their car- 
goes, or pay the " recognitions" which the "West India Com- 
pany imposed.! 

Besides the costly works which Van Twiller undertook 

- Hoiard, i., 397 , Alb. Bec.,1., 66, 8S, 86 ; x., 355; nd. Doc, iii., BTi iv., las, Vtr- 
looBh vonN. N.,SB0,S93 ; O'Cnll., 1., 15S ; MouUon ; Bonson's Memoir, 103 ; Dp Vries, 153. 

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p.viiL at Manhattan, two houses were ordered to te tuilt at Pa- 
~ vonia ; another in Fort Nassau, on the South Hiver ; and 
; at Fort Orange, " an elegant large house, with "balustrades, 
F^Ns^' ^^"i f'ight small dwellings for the people."* All these en- 
Foitor- terprises were undertaken on account, and at the expense 
'"'^"- of the company. The sound of the hammer was now con- 
stantly heard ; hut only at the points where the trade of 
the company was to he protected. No independent farmers 
attempted the cultivation of the soil. The agricultural im- 
provement of the country was in the hands of the patroons. 
The oolonie of Rensselaerswyck, during the first three 
coionieof years after its settlement, had grown very gradually. A 
laerswjck. few farms on the rich aUuvion yielded large returns. But 
most of the colonista clustered around the walls of the 
1634. company's reserved Fort Orange. From the form of the 
river hank at this place, which was supposed to resemhle 
a hoop-net, the hamlet soon received the name of the 
TheFojok. " Fuyok."t This was subsequently changed to " Be 

wyck," hy which it was long known. At first, owing, 
perhaps, to the discord between the patroons and the com- 
pany, its population increased very slowly ; and for sev 
eral years it was esteemed at Manhattan a place of " litth 
consequence. "t Arendt van Curler, a man of large henev- 
olence and unsullied honor, waa the patroon's coramissa- 
iisBratof-ry and secretary; Wolfert G-erritsen, superintendent of 
prominent farms ; and Jaooh Alhertsen Planck, schout. Uoelof Jan- 
sen, Brandt Peelen, Martin G-erritsen, Maryn Adriaensen, 
G-errit Teuuissen, Cornells Teunissen, Cornells Maassen van 
Buren, Jan Labbatie, and Jan Janson Dam, were among 
the most prominent of the pioneer colonists. § Some of 
these, afterward removing from E-ensselaerswyck to Man- 
hattan, became distinguished or notorious in the larger 
field of provincial politics. 

From some unexplained cause, the Uaritan savages. 

; Doc. Hlat. N.Y., i 

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soon after Van Twiller's arrival, attacked several of the ( 
company's traders, and showed other signs of hostility. 


Peace, however, was restored in the course of the follow- t^o„^ij,' 
ing year ;* but the savages in the neighborhood of Port JJj,'j,|;n" 
Amsterdam were never afterward as friendly and cordial ^^^s^- 
toward the Dutch as were the Mohawks near Fort Orange. 

Van Twiller's conduct in the administration of provin- van twh- 
cial affairs seems, before long, to have provoked a severe 'eprimood- 
reprimand from Domino Bogardus, who is said to have ws Boear. 
written him a letter describing him as " a child of the'iJunf- 
devil," and threatening hira with " such a shake from the 
pulpit, on the following Sunday, as would make him shud- 
der." Whatever causes may have provoked this coarse 
attack, neither the license of a rude and early age, nor the 
habits and temper of Bogardus himself, could justify con- 
duct, which, his enemies afterward charged against him, 
was " unbecoming a heathen, much less a Christian, let- 
ting alone a preacher of the G-ospel."t 

The affairs of New Netherland had hy this time at- complaints 
tracted the serious attention of the home government, hs of the 
Upon the return of the " "William" to England, the depo- ^m lo om 
sitions of the crew were taken; and a statement of the bassado™ 
case was communicated to Joachimi and Brasser, the 1633. 
Dutch ambassadors at London, with a demand of damages ' N"^' 
from the "West India Company, and the threat of an appli- 
cation to the British government, in case satisfaction 
should be withheld. The ambassadors immediately trans- 1634, 
mitted the papers to the States General, with an iiitima- ^'^J^|j_ 
tion that the disputes which had lately broken out be- '^j^j'^^'J^^^ 
tween the patentees of Virginia and New England wore"^'- 
instigated by the Spaniards, and " were not agitated be- 
cause these parties were suffering loss from one another, 
Wt in order that men might have occasion to quarrel with 
the Dutch about the possession of New Netherland," Upon Ref^ " 
the report of their committee, the States General referred in-na com- 
the case to the "West India Company, with directions " toaoiune. 

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CHAr.vm. inform their High Mightinesses of the right of the mat- 

25 October After some montlig delay, the depntiea from the College 
mn'msi"^ of the XIX. submitted a memorial to the States General, 
pany '''""' i^ciiying the claim of the London merchants for eompen- 
saiion, aijd insisting that the "West India Company had 
reason to allege damages against the English trespassers. 
The renegade Eelkens himself was well aware that TJew 
Wetherland had been discovered at the cost of the East 
India Company, in 1609, " before any Chi-istians had been 
there, as was testified by Hudson, who was then employ- 
ed by the said company to find out a northwest passage 
to China." Subsequent occupation, purchases from the 
aborigines, and colonization under the West India Com- 
pany, had confirmed this original title by discovery. None 
but "some prohibited traders, and especially Jacob Eel- 
kens," had bitherto questioned the company's rights un- 
der their charter. Eelkens's conduct had done them great 
damage, and the "injuiioua seed of discord" had been 
sown between the Indians and the Dutch, who had, up to 
that time, lived with each other in good friendship. To 
arrange the present dispute, and prevent future difficulty, 
the company suggested that the whole question should be 
referred to the arbitration of Bosweli, the English ambas- 
sador at the Hague, and Joaohimi, the Dutch ambassador 
at London, and that their High Mightinesses should take 
prompt measures to establish a boundary line between 
the Dutch and English possessions in North America.t 
S5 ocioher. The States General, however, though they consented that 
icii unset- the company might confer with BosweU, left the affair to 
" take its own course ;" and the question of damages,' as 
1638. well as that of boundaries remained unsettled. Four years 
S4 May. afterward, Joachimi wrote from London that tlie owners 
of the "William had again complained to him ; but the 
1633 I^i^t"^^ government took no further notice of the subject.! 
M My. Meanwhile, De Vriea had returned to Amsterdam, where 

• Hoi. Doc, i[., 51-55, B0-fi3. t Hoi. Doc, 11., 196 ; O'CaU., I., 164. 

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he fannd hia partners at variance with the other directors chap.vhi 
of the company. The chief cause of difficulty was the" 
interference of the patroons with the peltry trade ; and vi 
even the few heaver skins, " not worth speaking of," which fheTrec- 
De Vries himself had procured in New Netherland, were w.^i^c™^ 
made the subject of recrimination, Unwilling to he in-t™p™ 
volved in the quarrels which were defeating the purposes ^juiy. 
of the Charter of Privileges, De Vriea retired from his part- 
nership with the other patroons of Swaanendael, But his 
return to Amsterdam seems to have occasioned a heneficial 
change in the provincial administration. Notelman, theNoteimon 
unfaithful sohout-fiBoal, was promptly superseded ; and 
Luhhertus van Dinoklagen, " an upright man and a doc- Lothertu- 
tor of laws," was dispatched to succeed him at Manhat-iajsn hp- 
tan.* In this appointment, the Amsterdam Chamber ex- sthoui. 
hihited much more wisdom than they had done in select- 
ing Van TwiUer to he director. 

The patroons, however, were not so much at variance The pa- 
with each other &s with the company, whose engrossing bioe 
monopoly of the fur trade they longed to change into spe- dtt°'"»rs ol- 
oiiic monopolies for themselves. The Amsterdam Cham- ny- 
her having determined that the Charter of Privileges was 
legal, opened unsuccessful negotiations with the patroons. 19 Dec. 
Both parties, therefore, appealed to the States G-eneral, who Both par- 
appointed a committee of their own body to hear and de- " 'be 
cide upon these differences. The patroons accordingly sub- erai. 
mitted a statement of their grounds of complaint against j^ j„^ 
the company, and of their " claims and demands," They ^^j' j™ 
alleged that they had involved themselves in expenses to f^'^^g "^ 
the amount of one hundred thousand guilders for their'™"'' 
three patroonships, which now were costing them "at 
least forty-five thousand guilders annually," As the com- 
pany had repeatedly called their privileges in question, the 
damages thus caused should be made good. "Within the 
limits of the patroonships, there were certain " lordships, 
having their own rights and jurisdictions," which had 

* Do Vrlas, 1J9, ISO ; Ransa, MSS, ; Hoi. Doc, ii., 167, 169, 17a ; v., ai7 ; Verloogti 
van N, N., in ii„ N. Y. If. S. Coll., U., 291. 

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i.been ceded to the patroons, along with the ownership of 
~the soil; and over the grantees of these prerogatives the 
■ company had no more power than it had " over the lords 
sachems the sellers." The inland fur trade within the 
patroonships, it was argned, was not included in the res- 
ervation of the company's monopoly ; and the patroons 
were not bound to pay any recognitions on peltries. 
"Wherever the company had no commissaries at the time 
of the granting of the charter, the patroons also claimed 
the riglit to trade, on payment of the recognition ; and 
they maintained that, without their consent, the company 
could not send commissaries into the patroonships, nor af- 
fix placards, nor oblige the colonists to abstain from the 
fur trade. "Wiiii respect to the r^ht of appeal in civil 
cases to tJie Du'ector and Council of New Netherland, it 
" should not prejudice, in the least, the higher jurisdic- 
tion and other privileges of the patroons." 

These were the chief points which the patroons thought 
they had common cause to urge against the company. 
The destruction of Swaanendael by the Indians, furnished 
a specific ground of complaint on the part of the South 
River proprietaries, who inskted, that as the company had 
promised to aid and defend the colonists in New Wether- 
land from all inland and foreign wars, they were " bound 
to make good the injuries which befell the patroons, their 
people, cattle, and goods there, and which they still con- 
tinue to suffer."* 

The directors avowed their willingness to submit the 
pa- question as to the construction of the doubtful points in 
the charter to the judgment of the States G-eneral. On 
their part, the patroons reiterated their claims for dam- 
ages, and demanded an immediate decision upon their 
validity. But the States G-eneral prudently postponed a de- 
1 cision, " in order to enable the parties tJS come to an amica- 
ble settlement;" and here the question ended, so far as the 
formal action of the Dutch government was concerned.t 

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In the mean time, Godyn had died ; and the remain- chaf.viii. 
ing patroons of Swaanendael commenced legal proceedings 
agaiiiat the company for the damages they had sustained p^jjuoj-' 
in the loss of their colony. The Assemhly of the SIS. '^'""'^ 
finding that these continual discords were only injuring 
the interests of all parties, commissioned some of their di-asAugusr. 
rectors " to treat and transact with all the patroons and 
colonists in New Netherland" for the purchase of all their 
rights and 'property. An agreement was accordingly made ay Nov. 
with the South B,iver patroons and the heirs of Godyn, for 
the purchase of " their two colonies, named Swaanendael, 
in New Netherland," for the sum of fifteen thousand six 
hundred guilders. The formal surrender took place early 1635. 
the next year ; and the "West India Company again he- sJnS 
came the legal proprietary of all the territory on both sides endaei 10 ' 
of the Delaware.* compBiiy. 

An unexpected danger now menaced Southern NewArgsii'eda- 
Netherland. After his recall from the government of Vir- me Dfia- 
ginia, Argall seems to have contemplated the estahlish- 
ment of a " new plantation," to the northward of the En- 
glish settlements oh the Chpsapeake It was, perhaps, to 
aid in this design, that John Pory, v,ho had been one of 
the tools of Argall's rapacious administration, and was 
Colonial Secretary of Virginia undei Yeardley, his suc- 
cessor, "made a discovery mto the gieat bay," and as- 1620. 
cended the River Patuxent But Poiy's explorations, oaaha. 
which were nearly contemporaneous with the grant of the pioration. 
New England patent, were confined to the tributary wa- 
ters of the Chesapeake, and to a subsequent journey of 1621. 
sixty miles overland, from Jamestown " to the South Eiv- """'*''>'■ 
er Chowanock." A strange misapprehension has led a 
learned English annalist into the absurd error of confound- 
ing the " South River Chowanock," upon which Edenton 
now stands, with the " South River" of New Netherland, 
which Pory never entered.! 

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CHiLf-virE. After the accession of Charles I., colonial exploration 
■ " ~"~ was pushed with greater diligence, because that monarch 
so„gg^„gn, instructed the governors of "Virginia to procure more exact 
eipfS" information of the geography of the province. Governor 
a? Aiignst. Yeardley, in 1627, and Governor Pott, in 1629, sucoess- 
1639. ively commissioned William Clayljome, their Secretary of 
ciaj-"^" ' State, to trade with the Indians, and explore the regions 
peiuuons!^" north and east of the Chesapeake. A company was soon 
afterward formed in England ; and through the influence 
of Sir William Alexander, the Secretary of State for Soofc- 
1631. land, Charles I., under the privy signet of that kingdom, 
'"' licensed Glayborne and his associates to trade freely "to 
those parts of America for which there is not already a 
patent granted to others for sole trade." To give eff'ect to 
this royal license, Sir John Harvey, the new governor of 
1633. Virginia, issued a colomal commission the next year, by 
°" ■ which Clayborne was authorized to aail and tiaffic " unto 
any English plantation," and alao "unto the adjoining 
plantations of the Dutch, seated upon this territory of 
America." So entirely ignorant was the Virgmia govern- 
or of the geography of " Lord Delaware's Bay," that the 
sepiEinba. following autumn he dispatched a sloop, with seven or 
leniptofiiieeight men, "to see if there was a river there." This was 
ej]SoretiiB the first attempt ever made hy the English to explore 
the Delaware. , Clayborne, however, does not appear to 
have entered that river, or to have visited Manhattan. He 
Emeni of availed himself of his trading licenses only in the neigh- 
borae'a ey.- borhood of tho Chesapeake, after exploring the upper wa- 
ters of which, he limited his ambition to the establishment 
of a post on the Isle of Kent, and another at the mouth of 
the Susquehanna.* 

Meanwhile, the characteristic intolerance of the Angli- 
can hierarchy was preparing noble materials for the foun- 
dation of a new colony on the banks of the Potomac. The 
Puritan ]!^on-conformists were not the most oppressed ob- 
jects of religious persecution in their native land ; nor was 

•I,Diia.Doc.,i.,*l,«,4Si N.S.Col,MSS„tlL,14,15; DBVrtos.llO, 111 ; aii!e,p.9iil; 

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the constancy wMcli led them to the shores of Massachu- chip.viil 
setts without an illustrious parallel. There were other 
subjects of the King of England whose faith in Christian- 
ity was as sincere, and whose opposition to the established 
hierarchy was as conscientious. Those were the Roman mqUvmio 
Catholics, who .suffered even greater severities than the emigraiion 
Puritans, and were the victims of a double persecution, giaod. 
The Church of England struggled against both Romaij 
and Pmitau dissenters ; for the ultimate aim of all the an- 
tagonists was not toleration, but supremacy. Between 
the Papal and the Angliofin hierarchies, Puritanism array- 
ed itself on the side of the Church of England, and con- 
stantly instigated her to new rigors against the sincere be- 
lievers in the venerable faith of Rome. It was thus that 
conscientious Papists had even stronger motives than con- 
scientious Puritans to seek an asylum in the New "World, 
James I. was not, however, as bitter against the Roman 
Catholics as were the majority ofhis subjects. Oneof theGoorgocai- 
last acts of his reign was to elevate to the Irish peerage, of bbul- 
under the title of Baron of Baltimore, Sir G-eorge Calvert, X625. 
who, after several years of faithful service as Secretary of 
State, openly avowing his adherence to the Roman feith, 
yielded to the growing cry against Popevy, and resigned 
his office.* Charles I. was, perhaps, less disposed to show 
favor to the body of the Roman Catholics than his father 
had been. Yet he was magnanimous enough to appreciate 
and reward individual merit, even in a Papist. Calvert, 
who was an early hiend of American colonization, had ob- 
tained the grant of Avalon, on the coast of Newfoundland, 
and had endeavored to establish a settlement there. But 
that sterile and inhospitable region was unfavorable to sue- 1623. 
oess ; and about the time Endicott was settling himself 
at Salem, Lord Baltimore visited Virginia, in the hope of 1628. 
finding some unoccupied territory within that province, on ^^ ^"' 

Hosted by 



chap.vui. which to plant a colony. Protestant feeling, however, was 
.„ too strong in Virginia to allow the unmolested exercise of 
■ the Roman faith ; and Baltimore returned to England, to 
solicit a royal charter for the colonization of the uninhab- 
ited regions north of the Potomac. 

The personal regard of Charles I, easily induced his as- 
1632. sent to an ample patent ; but before the legal forms could 
IS April, i^g completed, Lord Baltimore died. The royal promise, 
however, was faithfnlly executed ; and, two montliM after 
his father's death, Cecilius Calvert, baron of Baltimore, 
Eoya) cuat- received a charter, granting and confirming to him the ter- 
rjmnd. ritory hounded by a line due east from the mouth of the 
Potomac, across the Chesapeake to the ocean, and thence 
along the coast to " that part of the Bay of Delaware on 
the north, which lieth under the fortieth degree of north 
latitude from the equinoctial, where New England is ter- 
minated;" thence, weatwardly, along the fortieth parallel, 
to the " fountain" of the Potomac, and thence along the 
west bank of tlie river to its confluence with the Chesa- 
peake. The territoiy thus granted was erected into a 
province, the name of which, originally intended to be 
" Crescentia," was, by the king's desire, changed to that 
of Maryland, in honor of his queen, Henrietta Maria of 
France,* The new province comprehended within its 
boundaries, not only the whole of the present States of Ma- 
ryland and Delaware, but all that part of Pennsylvania 
lying south of the fortieth parallel, and east of the merid- 
ian of the source of the Potomac. The proprietary him- 
self was invested with the almost regal jurisdiction of the 
ancient bishops of Durham. 
Leonard About two ycars after the charter was sealed, the foun- 
KLns Ilia dations of the colony of Maryland were peacefully laid by 
iLonofMa. Leonard Calvert, a half-hroUier o£ Lord Baltimore. Two 
ships, the Ark and the Dove, conveying nearly two hund- 
red Roman Catholic gentlemen with their indented serv- 
1634. ants, sailed from England by way of the "West Indies, and 
^'^''^- reached the Chesapeake early in 1634. On one of the 

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atreams flowing into the Potomac, Calvert found the In-CHir.vni. 
dian village of Yoacomoco, whioh waa atout "being desert- 
ad ty its inhabitants. Imitating the honesty of the Dutch 
at Manhattan, he purchased the possessory rights of the 
aborigines ; and the colonists at once entered int« oocupa- s7 March 
tion of their -wilderness abode, to which they piously gave 
the name of " Saint Mary's." Comprehensive benevolence snim Ma- 
insured the rapid prosperity of the new colony where re- ei. 
ligious liberty waa to be unrestrained. The conscientious 
Kon- conformists of England at last found a congenial asy- 
lum, under the banner of their countiy, in the New "World ; 
for the Ark and the Dove had conveyed to the shoves of 
the Potomac more liberal-minded fathers of a state than 
those earlier emigrants who were peopling the coasts of 

In the mean time, the charter of Maryland had produced Jeaionsy or 
alarm and excitement among the colonists of Virginia, who \633_ 
caused a remonstrance to be presented to the king against 
the dismemberment of their territory. But the Privy Conn- May, 
ci! decided to leave Lord Baltimore "to his patent, and 
the other parties to the course of law." Clayborne, how- 3 mij. 
ever, who chose to construe his trading license into a com- 
mission to plant colonies, refused to relinquish his preten- 
aiona to Kent Island, or submit to Calvert's authority. A. 
skirmish occurred ; and Clayborne, escaping to Virginia, 1635, 
waa demanded by the Maryland authorities, as a fa giti ve cfo "*'''' 
from justice. But the Virginians, looking on the colonists ^nJ„i^cj. 
of Maryland as intruders within their territory, were dis- 
posed to side with Clayborne. Harvey, however, unwill- 
ing to do any act in apparent opp(Bition to the royal char- 

' Chalmers, W 
Marylond colonis 

fTi "a 


moron, i„ 3471 

!lh, i., 209 ; 






ftiendly, • 

' fnamha 

slUomenl al So 

lilt Mai 

7'8 (Augusi 






cm 6Kb. SDOIBO 


ocDBSod of raviling ibe people of Ma>Mttusr 

tie, 88 "ho 

breibreD, ths me 


ind, "upon 

> advice nllb 

llie mil 

nliSfflu," llie 

order Id CO 

wLtneasea -nn 1 


0" Ml short," and e 

lia!^rf B in Iheii 


Lony ; and 11 

M Dove w 

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.p.viii.tec to Lord Baltimore, in a spirit of oompromise sent Olay- 
~ borne a prisoner ia England. This step was viewed hy 
' the Virginians as a "betrayal of their interests ; and Har- 
^""(fand ' Yey was immediately deposed by the oounoil, and Captain 
^"nd ° ^"^ John "West appointed to act as governor nntil the king's 
28 April, pleasure should be known.* 

"While at Jamestown two years preidously, De Vries had 
explained to Harvey the situation of Fort Nassau ; and his 
account, though it did not prevent the hospitable govern- 
or from intimating that the Dutch should receive no an- 
noyance from Jiim, provoked the covetousnesa of Clay- 
weai'Bde- bome's friends, A foothold on the Delaware, they now 
Delaware, thought, might perhaps compensate them for the loss of 
posts on the Chesapeake ; and West eagerly seized the 
opportunity, which his temporary authority afforded, to 
execute the design. A party of fourteen or fifteen En- 
glishmen was accordingly dispatched from Point Comfort, 
AneoBi. under the command of G-eorge Holmes, to seize the va- 
Fort Nas- cant Dutch fort. The enterprise was promptly eifected 
byiioimoH for the "West India Company had now "nobody in posses 
ofv^ain-^sion" to oppose the invaders. But Thomas Hali, one o 
Holmes's men, deserting his party, brought prompt intel 
ligence of the aggression to Fort Amsterdam.! 

Van Twiller now perceived that Port Massau must be 
reoccupied by the Dutch, "or they would otherwise lose 
The En- it to the English." An armed bark, belonging to the 
lured ani company, was therefore promptly dispatched thither with 
Munhaiiiii. a competent force ; and Hohnes and his party were im- 
mediately dislodged, sent on boEird, and brought as pris- 
oners to Manhattan. 

Their arrival increased the embarrassment of Yaii Twii- 

3, 64 1 Db Vries, 141. After diB- 
Up -wiUi ihe SouUi HlTw pmmonB, Do VrlBs sailed a second Uma 
IB lOtti of July, 1634, to plant a aArmy at Guiana, Having eecam- 
a Virginia, and arrived, on Iha Htb of May, lOSJ, al Point Comlbrl. 
It auclwr " B ftiUe sWp of London, in which was Sir John Harvey, 
£ing of England. Ee wa& new sent to London by Mb conncU uid 
/e ntadQ a new governor, which EEtciwaid tmnod out vt ly Ijadly Ibr 

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ler, who now learned tliat they had been expecting a re-ciup.Yiii, 
enforcement from Virginia. Meanwhile, Do Yries had ~ 
viaited Manhattan again, in the ship "King David," and, , 
after thiee months' delay in repairing his leaky vessel, 
which he had "hauled up on the strand," was ahout to 
•-ail loi the Chesapeake. His opportune presence extri- 
cated the trouhled director from his new dilemma. At 
Yan Twiller'a earnest entreaty, De Vriea delayed his voy- Hoimetand 
age for a week; the prisoners were sent on hoard the scm back lu 
King David with " pack and sack ;" and two days after- s ssn 
ward. Holmes and his invading party were relanded at 
Point Comfort. Here a hark was found lying ready to 
sail for the South River, with a force of twenty men on 
Ixiard, " to second" the enterprise which Holmes had he- 
gun ; hut by the unexpected return of the captured in- 
vaders, " their design was broken up."* Thus ended the 
first actual English aggression on the southern frontier of 
New Netherland ; and the Dutch continued, for several 
years, in undisturbed possession of the South River and 
the Schuylkill. 

The Plymouth people had now been for two years iaprogreEB 
possession of Windsor, in spite of Yan Twiller's prompt giander- 
but ineffectual protest, and subsequent pusillanimous mil- ™nia.' 
itary demonstration. "Whatever scruples might, at first, 
have restrained "Winthrop and Ms council from favoring 
the propositions of "Winslow and Bradford in the summer 
of 1633, the example of New Plymouth soon infected Mas- 
sachusetts Bay.t At the General Cora-t, Hooker urged em- 1634. 
igration to the Connecticut valley. The want of accom- h^J^ 
modation for their cattle at Newtown; "the fruitfiibiess gf |^fo™'' 
and commodiousness of Connecticut, and the danger of SuseTia 
having it possessed by others, Dutch or English;" and ["cu""""' 
" the strong bent of their spirits to remove thither," were 
the arguments he preyed. To these arguments it was 

• Ue Vrles; 130; 143, 143. The inoidenl tDwhicli WinllirDp <i., Iff!, 168), and Mather, 
in llie S'lxOl Book of h\a "Magnalia," allnde, aa haying oci!nrre4"at IheDulcli plaiila- 
llon," happened ID De Vrlea's ^oat on his arrival al New Nelheiland, lat of June, 1639.— 
See tnmeiaUon, in ii.,N. Y. H, S. Coll., ill, 

t Lamlireohtaen, 43 1 ii., N. Y, H. S. Coll., 1., 98 ; Varplanck, In N. A. Rer., Ix., 8fl. 

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objected that, " in point of conacieuoe," the Newtown peo- 
ple ought not to desert their commonwealth, and that, in 
point of civil policy, the court "ought not to give them 
leave to depart." Their emigi'ation would weaken Mas- 
sachusetts; and "the removing of a candlestick" would 
be "a great judgment." Besides, the emigrants would 
he exposed to great peril, both from the Indians and irom 
veta the Dutch, "who made claim to the same river, and had 
sed, already built a fort there ;" and the home govemnient in 
England " would not endure they should sit down, with- 
out a patent, in BJiy place which our king lays claim unto." 
The court was divided in opinion. Three fifths of the dep- 
uties were for granting leave ; hut a majority of the mag- 
istrates refused their assent The two elements in the 
government of the ecclesiastical commonwealth were now 
5Epi. in opposition. "With the aid of a sermon from Cotton, the 
patrician magistrates carried then pomt agam'.t the ple- 
beian deputies ; the Newtown people gave up their proj- 
ect; and, for a time "the teai of then removal to Con- 
necticut was removed."* 

But the question of emigration was soon revived. Two 
Jot. months afterward, ambassadors from the Peqnods came to 
thiiie Boston, and " set their marks" to a treaty, which yielded 
up " all their right at Connecticut" to the Massachusetts 
colony. " To whom (lid that country belong?" was now 
the inquiry. " Like the banlts o,f the Hudson, it had been 
first explored, and even occupied hy the Dutch ; hut should 
a log-hut and a few straggling soldiers seal a teratory 
against other emigrants?" The colonists of Massachu- 
setts did not stop to argue the question of right with the 
authorities of New Netherland, or even wait for the per- 
mission of the English patentees of Connecticut. Nothing 
could long retard tJie rush of Puritan emigration to the 
"New Hesperia" on the hanks of the Fresh E,iver. De- 
tachments of families from "Watertown and Roxhury now 
1635. obtaining leave from the G-eneral Court, " to remove whith- 
^'^^ er they pleased," provided they continued under the gov- 

* Winthroj, i,, 149-149 ; IluSckinson, 1.. 4T ; Danoioft, i,, 365, 366. 

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emment of Massachusetts, journeyed through tjie wilder- CHiP.viii. 
neas, and hegan a settlement at "Wethersfield ; and "the 
Dorchester men," establishing themselves near the Dutch, Emigrau™ 
and just helow the Plymouth trading-house at "Windsor, ^™;^*' 
were promptly reproved, by letters from &ovemor Bradford, ^j^^' 
for their unrighteous and injurious intrusion* Thus the 5^'g^; 
Plymouth colonists on the Connecticut — themselves in- 
truders within the territory of New Nethcrland — soon be- 
gan to quarrel with their Massachusetts brethren for tres- 
passing upon their usurped domain. 

Meanwhile, the jealousy of the High Church party in 
England had been aroused against the dissenting colonists 
in America ; and Charles I. constituted William Laud, 1634. 
archbishop of Canterbury, and eleven other Privy Cown-^^'^''" 
selora, a special commission "for the regulation and gov-pinniauon 
ernment of the Plantations." These eommissioDers weveubiiabeciin 
invested with full power to make laws for tiie colonies, 
hear complaints, inflict punishments, remove and appoint 
governors, regulate ecclesiastical affairs, and revoke char- 
ters which were supposed to be hurtful to the royal pie- 

To this arbitrary body Edward Winslow, who went toiuiy. 
England in the summer of 1634 as the agent of Wewwmaiow 
Plymouth, presented a petition, complaining thiit the m f.oniiml. 
French had annoyed the New England Plantations on the- 
east, and that "the Dutch in the west have also made 
entry upon Connecticut River, within the limits of His 
Majesty's letters patents, where they have raised a fort, 
and threaten to expel your petitioners thenoe, who are als© 
planted on the same river." Winslow, therefore, aslted 
that the commissioners would either procure for the colo- 
nists "peace with those foreign states, or else give special 
warrant unto your petitioners and the English colonies ixp 
right and defend themselves against all foreign enenues." 
These propositions,- however, did not suit the views of the 

; Chalmsrs, 153 ; Hiitclii 

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viii. Plantation Board, Gorges and Mason were opposed to 
Winslow'a petition, "because Gorges hoped, tlu-ough the 
archbishop's influence, to "be sent out as Governor Gen- 
eral of all the English colonies. Laud, too, was anxious 
to exercise hierarchal power in America, and stop the 
growth of dissent. "Winalowwas, therefore, severely ques- 
tioned in the hoard. He ftankly admitted, that "he did 
exercise his gift" in public preaching ; and that, as a mag- 
istrate, " he had sometimes married some," for he consid- 
ered marriage " a civil thing," and had himself been mar- 
ried in HoUand by the magistrates in their State House. 
But, by the statutes of England, such proceedings were 
unlawful ; and the archbishop readily made out his case 
in the compliant tribunal over which he exercised a para- 
mount influence. "Winslow was committed to the Fleet, 
and " lay there seventeen weeks, or thereabouts, before he 
could get to be released."* 
aiousyof Thus the jealousy of the home government refused to 
ivcrn- the Pmitan colonists any authority to interfere with the 
Dutch possessions on the Connecticut. The people of Kew 
England were esteemed "men of refractory humors ;" and 
complaints constantly resounded of their sects and schisms, 
their hostility to the Established Church, and tlieir trea- 
sonable designs against the royal autliority. Emigration 
ecomiier. was therefore restrained ; the lord warden of the Cinque 
Ports was directed to stop "promiscuous and disorderly 
departure out of the realm to America ;" and persons of 
humble station, who might obtain leave to emigrate, were 
required first to take the oaths of allegiance and suprem- 
iwLornnco Laud's watchful intolerance reached even farther. 
LBhop While Amsterdam was liberally- opening her gates to 
strangers of every race and creed, the Primate of aU En- 
1635. gland, by order of the king, was requiring all the Reform- 
unnary. g^ Dutch churches, withiu the province of Canterbury, to 
adopt the English Liturgy .J But the attention of the gov- 

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enimont was chiefly engaged ia checking the emigration chaf.vih 
of disaifected Englishmen to America. A Dutch ship "of 
four hundred tons," hound to New Netherland, was lying 
at Cowes, ready to sail ; and her officers were reported to 
he drawing "as many of his majesty's subjects as they 
can to go with them, hy offering them large conditions." 
To put a. atop to " so prejudicial a course," the Privy Coun- ao Msmh. 
cU dispatched an order to the Earl of Portland, to restrain bii%mb 
British subjects from goiiig in that or any other Butch go » ae 
vessel "to the Hollanders' Plantation in Hudson's River."* as- piama- 
Thtee years before, a Dutch ship, coming from Manhattan, 
had been arrested at Plymouth for illegally trading within 
his majesty's alleged dominions. Now the chief care of 
the Privy Council seems to have been to prevent English 
subjects going in Dutch vessels to what the British govern- 
ment recognized,- in an oifioial state paper, as "the Hol- 
landers' Plantation." 

The New England patent, which Jamea I. had g. 
1620, had hy this time become intolerably odious to Par- 
Hanient, and the council of Plymouth was in disrepute 
with the High Church party. The patentees, according- 
ly, after conveying by deed, to "William, earl of Stirling, m April. 
" part of New England, and an island adjacent, called and wn- 
Long Island," divided the residue of the territory between Lo?d sur- 
Acadia and Virginia into shares, which they distributed, "^' 
in severalty, among themselves; and then, under thefr-iuiiB. 
common seal, surrendered their worthless charter to the England 
king. " Thus was dissolved, by voluntary consent, aris- rcmtered lo 
ing from mere debility, the council of Plymouth, so famous 
in the story of New England t 

At this crisis, John Winthiop the fon of the governor 
of Massachusetts, revisiting England confirmed the ao 
counts, which had already been ent o\er f the lalue 
and importance of Connecticut Loid Say and the other 
grantees of Lord Warwick's comej'iicc m 163^ there- 

* Land. Vet., I., S5 1 N. T. Col. MSS., HI. 

t Land. Soc, 1., IIB ; N. Y. Col. MSS., 
3tQ ; Gdt^b, In iii., Mobs. Hiet. Coll., vl., S 
of the Colonies, i., se ; 11., N. Y. H. S. Coll., 

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CHap.viii, fore took immediate meaauies for the colonization of that 
■■ "region. Saltonstall promptly dispatched a bark with 
FvcBicoifr twenty men, which arrived at Boston in mid-summer, 
J^^j^^°' From there the party proceeded to the Comiecticut, with 
iuBn^h*^^ intention of settling themselves "between the falla 
lojull"'' ^^^ ^^ Plymouth truckiug-house." But Lttdlow and the 
Dorchester men defeated Saltonatall's plans; and their 
selfish conduct soon gave rise to large claims for damages* 
18 July. The younger Winthrop was soon afterward commissioned, 
tmupconi- by Lord "Warwick's grantees, as " governor of the Eiver of 
asgovorn- Connecticut, with the places adjoining thereunto." Early 
e b^iotsr. in the following October, he reached Boston, accompanied 
by his fatlier-in-law, Hugh Peters, lately pastor of the En- 
glish church at Rotterdam, and bringing along with him 
" men and ammunition, and two thousand pounda in mon- 
ey, to begin a fortification at the mouth of tlie river."1" 
M Nov. A few weeks after his arrival at Boston, Winthrop dis- 
i»k?3 p"£ patohed a bark of thirty tons, and about twenty men, with 
aaniouih all needful provisions, to take pc^sessioii of the mouth of 
Lcti™t™'th6 Connecticut, and erect some buildings.? This was 
the first regular English occupation of the territory com- 
prehended vritliin Lord 'Wai'wiok's grant. The officers of 
the Dutch West India Company had purchased this land 
from its Indian occupants three years before, and had af- 
fixed the ai-ms of the States General to a tree, in token of 
their possession of the " Kievit's Hook," and of the river 
TiieDutch above. These arms the English invaders now contemptu- 
iiqwii. ously tore down, " and engraved a ridiculous face in'tlieir 
place ."^ 

Van TwiUer finding that protests were ineffectual to dis- 
lodge the English intruders from the Fresh River, had, 
meanwhile, applied to the "West India Company " for com- 
AaguBt. mission to deal with" them summarily. Winthrop's new 
Stamn'o' party had scarcely reached the mouth of the Connecticut, 
Bn'^ifS.' * before a sloop, which the director had dispatohed from 

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Manhattan to secure the possession of the Dutch, arrived ciup.vht. 
at the Kievit's Hook. But the Enghsh iiranediately got 
" two pieces on shore, and would not sulfer them to land."* Decembei. 
The Dutch being thus repulsed, the English changed 1636. 
the name of Xievit's Hook to " Saybrook," va compliment ai'say-' 
to the leading English proprietors of Connecticut, Lord °'' ' 
Say and Lord Brook. ' A fort Wf^ immediately construct- 
ed at the point, under the superintendence of Lion Gar- Lion Gar- 
diner, an engineer or master workman, who had served 
under the Prince of Orange in Holland, and who had been 
induced by John Davenport and Hugh Peters, of Rotter- 
dam, to enter into the service of tlie English patentees of 
Gormeetieut. After remainmg four years in command of 
the post at Saybrook, Gardiner removed his family to the 1640. 
island which now bears his name, at the eastern extrem- 
ity of Long Island.t 

Though the Massachusetts emigrants had originally 
gone to the Connecticut valley under a stipulation to con- 
tinue in allegiance to the General Court, the tenitory upon 
which they planted themselves was distinctly admitted to 
be " out of the olaun of the Massachusetts patent." A 
new settlement was, however, soon commenced at a place 11336. 
which was actually within the chartered limits of Massa- 
chusetts Bay. Early in 1636, William Pynohon, withwuiiMB 
eight other pei-aons, emigrated from Itoxbury to the upper b^lnB a 
part of the Connecticut River, and built a trading-house ai spnne- 
at " Agawam." The original Indian name of that place 
was immediately changed to " Springfield," after the town 
in England where Pynchon had formerly lived. This new 
settlement brought the English within a few miles of the 
Dutch post at Fort Orange. A large peltry trade, divert- 

* Winlhrop, i., IBB, ITi ; Triunbnll, i.. 81. 

t WinlUmp, f., 174, ITS ; Hubbard, 179 ; Lioii Ganlinet, in Maee. Hlal. Coll., iiiil., 
13Si TtuiDliilU.i.,61, no. DeVrtee, p. 149, spesks of Gardiner, whom he found in eom- 
manilBt Sajrbrook, on Ihe 7Ui of June, 1639, as having married a Dnicli wift al Woer- 
den, in Hdiond, wbere he had " fBrmorly teen an enaineer and baaa-wotknian." The 
Dutcli pbraso "werk-baoa," or " worli-maswr^— ao lamillarlo Ihla day in Naw York— 
geems ta have been quite uninlsllieible to Clio learned editor of WinthrDp,— Saiuge'B nola. 
1., p, 174. Sevsrol Inwrealiug porUculars of G^ardiner's blograjjiiy (whose liapllsniEd 
name was Lion, and nm David, as Trumbull and Savage "fflrml may be found m Thomp- 
aon'a Long Island, 1., SOS, SOfi, and in Mass. Hist, Coll., siiii., iSfl, 

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Chap. VIII. ed from the North River, soon rewarded the enterprise of 
■ ■ ■ Pynchon ; and the good judgment, which originally led 
■ him to occupy so advantageous a spot, has since heen 
amply vindicated in the prosperity of the flourishing city 
of Springfield.* 
Butontof Thus English progress, step hy step, encroached upon 
*ffiSlnta.the territories of the "West India Company, until nearly 
the whole valley of the " Fresh River" was wrested from 
its rightful European proprietors. The annals of coloni- 
zation " can scarcely show the commencement of a settle- 
ment so extremely faulty as that of Connecticut." In a 
^hort time, the " Hope," at Hartford, was all the foothold 
which the Dutch had left tc them in Eastera Kew NetJi- 
erland. From Sagadahoc to Saybrook, the Anglo-Saxon 
race was now without a European rival ; and the advanc- 
ing tide of its population was soon to roll still nearer to 
Manhattan. It was its destiny ultimately to ti'iumph ; 
and numbers and assurance caiTied the day againat few- 
TiTjo Euro- nesM and equity. Yet the true European title, by ao- 
Long lai- tual disoovciy and continuous visitation, to the coasts of 
connecti- Loug Island Sound and the valley of the Connecticut, was 
clearly and undeniably in the Dutch. As far as there 
was any color of English title to the region south of the 
Massachusetts line, that title was vested in the grantees 
of the Earl of "War^wick, or, after the sun-ender of the 
Plymouth charter, in the crown. The Piu:itan colonists 
who first settled themselves on the Connecticut, and en- 
deavored to expel the Hollanders from the territory wliich 
they had carefully explored long before it was seen or 
known by the English, did so without a shadow of title 
from the Plymouth Company, under whom tliey professed 
to claim ; and it wa^ not until two years after the Resto- 
1663. ration of Charles II., that a royal charter gave the people 
of Connecticut the territorial security which they desired 

* ChalmefS, 287; HutcWnaon, I., 95 ; Trunibnll, i,, 66 ; Yonns, Ch. Mass., 383 ; Vor- 
toogh Tan N. N., in «., N. Y.H. S. Coll., ii., K3. This post is marked on Visscher'a and 
Van der Donsk's mops of New NBtliertand as '■ Mr, Pinser'a hanflel-liujs." 

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against those whom they denounced aa their " noxious chhp.vih. 
neighhors, the Dutch."* ' "' 

If the relations of New Netherland with its colonial neigh- uoniefiE' 
hois were not satisfactory, the condition of its home affairs ^'Sjjy/tii- 
was quite as unpromising. After conveying to Point Com- ^'^"^ 
fort the English prisoners captured at Fort Massau, and as- 
certaining that Virginia vfos " not a good place for Holland- 
ers to trade at," Pe Tries returned to Manhattan in the 
following spring. Reaching Sandy Hook toward evening, 
he piloted the King David safely up to Fort Amsterdam, SMaj. 
off which he anchored ahout two o'clock the next morn- r!"'"'^ "o 
ing, without any one on shore being aware of his arrival. 
No sentinels were on post ; no challenge hailed the ship. 
At daybreak the vessel fired a salute of three guns, and 
the sleepy garrison " sprung suddenly out o£ bed, for they 
were not accustomed to have one come upon them so by 
surprise." De Vriea, however, was kindly welcomed byieMaj. 
the director ; and his leaky ship was soon hauled into the ^ip m the 
" Smid's Vleye," where she was careened and repaired.t vieye." 
A few days afterward, Tan Tvriller, accompanied by De as June. 
Tries and Domine Bogardus, went across the river, oppo-vanVTOrst, 
site to Fort Amsterdam, on a visit to Pavonia, where Cor- new sniiBr- 
nelis van Voorst had just arrived as " head commander" at pavonia. 
for Michael Pauw, the patroon. Tan Toorst had come out 
in a small English bark, and had brought along with him 
some " good Bordeaux wine" from the north of England. 
The director, who was always " glad to taste good wine," 
therefore hastened aci-oss the river to greet Pauw's new 
officer. While the party were enjoying themselves. Tan 
Twiller and Bogardus had "some words" with the pa- 
troon's commissary, about a murder which had just been 

* ChalniBia, 398 i Lotwr of General Assembly of Conneolicul to Lord Say and Seal. 
7thotJniiel681,inTrnmlnill. t,, 51S; H, A.Beview,V)ll.,85; Limbrechtsen, 43 1 ii.,N. 
Y. H. S. OiJ!,, 1., fla ; post, p. 695, 704 ; see ulso noie L, Appendix. 

t De Vriea'B Voyages, Hi. Tbis l9 the first menlion of the " Smid's Vleye," or Sniilli'e 
Valley, wWch was tlie old ftmlUar name of (be maiBhy gtonnd between the East Rlysr 
ana Pearl Street, and Pine and Fulloo Streets. When tlie " Maagda PadyB," or Maiden 
Lane, wss exlenaed beyond Pearl Street through this mursll, in Lord Belloinont'g lime, 
a market, bouse was built at the head of the slip. Thie was originolly called the "Vleye 
Market," or market In the swamp. TheBogllsh scon corrupted tho name inW'Ply 

Sss also Judgs Benson's Memoir, p, 1S9, and Monlton'a " New York in IfiJS," p. 53. 

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^HiF.viii. eoraniitted at Pavonia. But they eventually parted good 
fviends ; and as the director was returning to Port Am- 
' sterdam, Van Voorst fired a salute in his honor from a 
swivel which "waa mounted on a pile in front of his house. 
A spark unfortunately flying on the roof, which was 
thatched with reeda, aet it in a hlazc, end in half an hour 
the whole huilding was hurned down. 
Jaiy. Another oharacteriatio incident happened soon afterward 

let's arti- at Manhattan. Some Englishmen, having captured two 
duel, small vessels in tlie West Indies, took them into the South 
River, where they were found by one of the Dutch trad- 
ing sloops, which immediately brought them to Fort Am- 
sterdam. There the Englishmen sold their prizes, and 
shipped their goods on hoard the company's vessel, the 
" Seven Stars," which was loading for Holland. The 
English captain wished to have his goods sent by the ship 
of DeVries, who was willing to convey all his men at the 
same tune to Europe. But the director would not con- 
sent to this arrangement, as it would interfere with the 
company's monopoly, though he compelled De Vries to 
take ten of the Englishmen on hoard his vessel ; " all which 
tiBding by force was very unreasonable." 
B August "When the ships were nearly ready to sail, the constable 
bi6ai°Fort of Foi-t Amsterdam save a parting banquette his returning 
gives a bon- countrymen. A table and benches were aiTangea under 
a tent on one of the angles of the fort overlooking the pla- 
cid bay, and a large company invited. When the feast 
was at its height, the trumpeter began to blow ; and some 
words passed, because the koopman of the shop, Hendrick 
"Cortaep Hudden, and the koopman of the cargoes "scolded Corlaer 
«er." the Trumpeter." As valiant as he was skilled in music, 
Corlaer instantly gave them each "a drubbing;" upon 
which they ran home vowing vengeance, and got their 
swords. But they contented themselves with "manyfoot- 
iah words" at the director's house ; their soldiership evap- 
orated over night ; and in the morning " they feared the 
trumpeter more than they sought him." 

The irregularities in Van Twiller's government, which 

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Le Vries had ao often witnessed at Manhattan, did not, chap.vq], 
however, prevent him from appreciating the advantages 
of a well-organized colony in New Netherland. Not dis- p^ ^/^^J 
couraged by his failure at Swaaneadael five years hefore, ^^vm 
he now determined to establish a settlement nearer to ^ "^'mw'^ 
Foi-t Amsterdam, where he supposed it would, at a!l™|j^'^""' 
events, be more secure from the attacks of the Indians. 
Stat^en Island, which Pauw had already appropriated, 
seemed to offer unusual advantages ; and De Vries re- 
quested the director to enter it for him, as he "wished toisAu^usi. 
return and organize again a colony there." Van Twiller 
readily agreed to do so ; and the prospective patroon, after 
wooding and watering his ship up the river, at the" Grroote- 
val, which lies three miles beyond Menates Island," im-isMigua. 
mediately set sail for Holland.* 

The colonial officers of New Netherland did not neglect Lana* lau- 
the opportunities which they enjoyed of advancing their provincial 
own private interests. Jacob van Curler, the former com- 
missary at Fort Good Hope, now purchased from the In- le June, 
dians a flat of laud called " Castateeuw," on Sewan-hacky 
or Long Island, " between the bay of the North River and 
the East K.iver ;" and Thomas Hall, the English deserter, 
was hired to superintend the plantation. At the same 
time, Andries Hudde, one of the provincial council, in 
partnership with "Wolfert Grerritsen, purchased the mead- 
ows next west to Van Curler's. A month afterward, Van u my. 
Twiller himself secured the level grounds further to tlie 
east. These purchases, which were estimated to hiclude 
nearly fifteen thousand acres, seem to have been made 
without the knowledge or approbation of the Amsterdam 
Chamber. Flourishing settlements soon arose, which, New a™- 
coUectively receiving the name of New Amersfoordt, after or^Fim-'' 
that of the interesting old to\vn in Utrecht, where the il- fcHodcd. 
lustrious Barneveldt was born, were the germ of tlie pres- 
ent town of Flatknds.t 

About the same time, Eoelof Janaen, who had been aa- 

■ De Vrldfl, 145, 146, 

t Am. Roc. G. G., 3J-39; ij., N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii., 33S; O'Call., L, I72i Thompson's 

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CHip.viii, sistant euperintendent of farms at Rensselaerawyek, ob- 
tained from Van Twiller a grant of thirty-one morgans, or 
RMiof and sixty-two acres of land, on Manhattan Island, a little to 
joiihSi^s ^^^ northwest of Fort Amsterdam, This was the original 
?f E^rt Am- '"'^^^y*'^'^^ of the very valuable estate north of WaiTen 
siertain. g^^gg^^ j|^ j_j^g ^jty ^f JJew York, now in the possession of 

the corporation of Trinity church.* 
vaiiDinck- Van Twiller's irregular administration did not, however, 
derefl ton- escape the severe criticism ofaorae of his own suboixlinates; 
land. among whom Van Dincklagen, the schout-fiscal, did not 
hesitate openly to censure hia chief. This conduct was 
looked upon as contumacious ; and Van Dincklagen was 
refused the payment of hia arrears of salary, and ordered 
uiriebLn- to rotum to Holland. "Ulrich Lupoid, a HEmoverian, was 
poimca temporarily appointed in his place. In thus arbitrarily 
cai. displaomg, perhaps, the most learned and accomplished 

man in the province, Van Twiller relieved himself, indeed, 
from the presence of an honest censor, but he eventually 
■ secured his own recall. "Well might De Vries indignantly 
exclaim, as he observed Van Twiller's incapacity, that 
" the company had promoted him from a clerkship to a 
oommandership, to act farces" in NewNetherland.t 
coionifl of The colonic of Uensselaerswyck had meanwhile pros- 
lacrswyck. percd Under the careful superintendence of Arendt van 
Curler ; and the modest hamlet of " Beverswyck" had ex- 
tended itself around the walls of Port Orange. The fer- 
tile soil yielded abundant crops to the laborious farmers ; 
pike and sturgeon, and other ohoioe fish, abounded in the 
river and ereeks ; and deer and wild turkeys overstocked 
the neighboring forests. The emigrants, happy in abun- 
dant prosperity, wrote joyous letters home ; and fresh col- 
onists, in large numbers and of substantial means, came 

" PMge'e CbonocryHeportBjiv,, 1T8; Benson's Memoij, llfli Rensselaerewjcli MSS, ; 
O'Call,,!,, 143; U., 35,581, Boelot Jans on, whose naiiio snrvivea In Ihal orihe"Kiir' 
whlcli empties iDlo Ibe North Blvet, between Hudson and Etid Hook, died soon after Ui[s 
grant Avas passed ; and bis widow married Domine BogerdDa, about Ibe year ISSS, Allsr 
Ihol, Annelje BogarduB's tirm on Monhotlan was called the " Domlne'a Eouwory." In 

sbe died in 16«», 

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out from Holland in the autumn of 1636. Yau Uonsse- CHiP.vni. 
laer now desired to enlarge his extensive domain; and 
the schipper of his vessel was instructed to assist the co- 
lonial officers in accomplishing this purpose. The next 
spring they accordingly purchased the tract called " Pap- is Aprii. 
sikaen," on the east side of the river, extending southward londput- 
from Castle Island to Smack's Island, and running a con-uieeasr 
siderable distance into the interior. "With this addition, ri'er. 
the eolonie of Uensselaerswyck, around the West India 
Company's northernmost fort, now included a territory, on 
both sides of the North River, comprehending a large part 
of the present counties of Albany, Eensselaer, and Co- 

Soon afterward, Yan Twilier purchased from the In-iBjune. 
dians, for his private use, the island which they called lorpnt- 
"Pagganok," lying a little south of Port Amsterdam. gatLiMi or 
This island, which was then estimated to contain a hund- ana. 
red and sixty acres of land, was originally called by the 
Dutch "Nooten," or Nutten Island, "because excellent 
nut-trees grow there." After its purchase by Van Twil- 
ler, it began to be known as "the Grovernor's Island," 
which old familiar name survives to the present day. 
The next month, the director bought two islands in the is July. 
Hell-gate Biver, the largest of which, called Tonkcnas, ieiands m 
contained about two hundred acres, and Minnahonnonck, River, 
the smallest, about one hundred and twenty acres. Van 
Twiller was now one of the largest private land-owners in 
New Motherland ; and the herds of cattle which soon 
stocked his flourishing farms, gave occasion to shrewd sur- 
mises that the director had not hesitated to enrich him- 
self at the expense of the company's interests.t 

Some grants of land were likewise obtained hy unoffi- ceorgo 
cial persons. Among these, Joris or George Rapelje, oneiomsft 
of the original Walloon colonists of Long Island, procured waiii-tm( 

* Renss. MSS. ; O'CbH., i., 124, 3iM i De Vrloa. iS3 ; Meeapolansis's Trad on the Mo- 

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, the formal confirmation of a tract near the Waal-hogt* 
■ A pleasing tradition asserts, that the Indians had relin- 
quished their title to the "Walloons upon the hirth of Tlap- 
elje's daughter Sarah, in the mouth of June, 1625, heoause 
she was the firat white child horn in New Nethetland.t 
Soon afterward, Jonas Bronck became the owner of the 
1 " Eanaque tract," on the " main land" of "West Cheater, 
eaat of and "over againat" what is now Imown as Haer- 

About the same time, the Indian title to the island of 
" Quotenis," near the " iloode Island," in Narragansett Bay, 
was secured for the "West India Company, and a trading- 
ganaeu post was established there, under the superintendence of 
'"' Abraham Pietersen. Mot long afterward, Pietersen obtain- 
ed for the company the possession of another island, lying 
near the Pequod, or Thames River, which, for many years 
Duicjh- after the settlement of Connecticut by the Enghsh, con- 
jiid. tinned to be known as " the Dutchman's Island."^ 

The directors at Amsterdam also succeeded in purchas- 
ing from Michael Pauwhis tendtorial rights as patroon, for 
which thoy paid him twenty-six thousand guilders. By 
psvonia this arrangement, Pavonia and Staten Island became the 
Island, property of the company ; and the annoyance which Pauw's 

independent colony had caused was at length stopped, 11 
FuritadB Up to this time the fur trade had steadily increased ; 
Niiihe> and notwithstanding the loss of their sole traffic on, the 
Connecticut, the directors received returns from their prov- 
ince, during the year 1635, amounting to nearly one hund- 

' Alb. Reo., G. G, ; Valentine's Manual for laao, 545, 546, 

Recoids in 1559; "Saish Jotisen, the firil-bom CirisUan diighlt 

widow at Hans Hansen, bnitttensd with seien cblldren, petitions far a grant of a piece ot 

meadow, in addillon W the iweniy motKene (liiny aores) granted lo lier at tjie WBBl-boEi-' 

peliilon.— Alb, Reo,, xi, IP,), 33S: Monlton. 371, note; anU, p, 15 
t Benson's Memoir, 97 ! Bolton's WoBt Cliestsr, tl., SBO, BS3, 2B 
onok's Kill," now known as " Bronx lUyer," derlvei 

naa Broncli, 

i,, 174. There is an ialan 
1814,m"I)oicli Island." 
Tail Light. 


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red and thirty-five thousand guilders.* Besidea enjoying cmr. vm, 
the monopoly in New Ketherland, the company lia,d open- „ 
ed a profitahle commerce with New England ; and Dutch .jn^j ' 
vessels brought tohacco and salt from the AYest Indies, Enliondr 
and Flanders mares, and oxen, and sheep, from Holland 
to Boston. " They came from the Texel in five weeks 
three days, and lost not one heast or sheep." All these 
commodities bore high prices in Now England, where 
there was now a scarcity of provisions. Potatoes, from iiign prices 
Bermuda, were sold at Boston for two-pence the pound ; siaua"' 
a good cow was worth twenty-five or thirty pounds, and a 
pair of oxen readily fetched forty. The cattle in Connec- 
ticut did not thrive. In Yu-ginia corn rose to twenty ahil- 
IJT^ the bushel. The scarcity in New England and Yir- 
ginia affected the prices of provisions and the value of la- 
bor in New Netherlaud. Before the olos6 of 1637, a 
sohepel, or three pecks of rye, was sold for two guilders, 
or eighty cents ; and a laboring man readily earned two 
guilders a day during harvest t These prices were prob- 
ably caused, in some degiee by the bloodj wii -nliich 
was now raging in Comiecticut 

For the Puritan coloni'^ts of New England had becime 1634, 
embroiled with their aboiigmal neighbois The Pequods ihe^".iii«i 
had failed to surrender the murdereis of stone according"""' 
to their treaty at Boston and hid tendpied mstcid an 
atonement of wampum But M-is^ ichu'.etts m^i ted upon 
avenging blood with blood Soon -itterwaid Tohn Old- 1636. 
ham, the adventurous rveiland explorer ^f the Connecti- oirt*hara'a 
cut, was assassinated by the Block Island Indims who™'*"' 
seem to have become jealous at hia tiadin., with the Pe- 
quods, under their treaty with Maisachusctta The mag- 
istrates and ministers nnmediately as eml led at Boston, as Aupiai. 
and commissioned John Endicott to prot.eed with a force Biidicoii'd 
of ninety men, to Bloc! Ishnd of -which he w is directed 
to take possession, aftei putting to death all the warriors, 
and making prisoners all th w omen and children From 

•DeLaet.Arp., 30. 

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Block Island he was to go to the Pequods, and demand 
the murderers of Stone, and a thousand fathoms of wam- 
pum as damages : if satisfaction were refused, the expe- 
dition was "to ohtain it "by force. " 

Endicott promptly executed his " sanguinaiy orders." 
scitiai- The Blocli; Island savages fled at the approach of the En- 
«d. glish invaders ; andEndicott" burned their wigwams, and 
all their matts, and some corn, and staved seven canoes, 
and departed." Thence he went to Sayhrook, where he 
was re-enforced hy twenty men. In a few days, the expe- 
lePe- dition sailed for tlie Pequod River. After burning all the 
unsda- wigwams, and spoiling the canoes of the Pequods, Eiidi- 
^pt.' cott returned to Boston, having done more than enough to 
exasperate, but nothing to subdue the now implacable en- 
emy of the English. 

The fatal consequences of Endicott's expedition were 

laspera- soon felt by the colonists on the Connecticut. The Pe- 

BCinods. quods, aroused to vengeance, lurlted ahout the new fort 

at Saybrook, and killed several of the garrison. During 

the whole winter, the post was in a state of siege ; and 

1637. Gardiner, the commandant, going with a small pai'ty a 

"'""■ little beyond the range of its guns, was surprised by an 

Indian ambush, and forced to seek safety in a rapid re- 

evengB treat. "VVetherslield, too, felt the bitterness of savage re- 

I'say."' venge. Sequeen, aggrieved by the conduct of the English, 

[^h^ whom he had been the means of attracting thither, insti- 

"m. gated the Pequods, who killed nine of the colonists, and 

carried two maidens away into captivity. 

Apprehension was now felt that the Dutch, " who, by 

their speeches and supplies out of Holland," had excited 

the suspicions of their New England neighbors, would re- 

iaytropk possess themsclves of Saybroolt. Captain John Undei-hili 

^^. was, therefore, promptly sent from Boston to the mouth of 

^' ' the Connecticut, with a re-enforcement of twenty men, "to 

keep the fort." But Van Twiller, instead of attempting 

to expel the harassed English from the " Kievit's Hoeck," 

dispatohod a sloop from Manhattan to the Thames Elver, 

near which the Dutch had now a trading post, with or- 

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ders " to redeem the two Engiish maids "by what means omp.viii. 
soever J though it were with a hreach of their peace with 
the Pequods." Touching at Sayhrook, the Dutch vessel ,^5 nm^^ 
was stopped hy the English, who would not allow her to En^ish"^ 
proceed until her oiRoera stipulated, by " a note under ftX",^" 
their hands," to make the release of the two "Wethersfield ''*''"'"'"■ 
girls "their chief design." On reaching the Thames Eiv- 
er, the Manhattan officers made large offers to the Pequods 
for the ransom of the English captives; "hut nothing 
would be accepted." So tiie Dutch detained six or seven 
of the Peqiaods on board of their sloop ; and with them they 
redeemed the two maidens, who were conveyed to Man- 
hattan, and, not long afterward, safely restored to their 
countrymen at Sayhrook. 

An exterminating war against the Pequods was now i May. 
decreed by the colonists of Hartford, Windsor, and Weth- gush un'no 
ersiield; and Massachusetts and New Plymouth resolved inuw uie ' 
to assist Connecticut. John Mason, who had been bred a 
soldier in the Netherlands, was solemnly intrusted with 
the command ; and, after a night spent in prayer, an En- 
glish force of ninety men, accompanied by Uncas, the chief 
of the Mahicans, and sixty of hia warriors, embarked in 10 May. 
three vessels at Hartford, and dropped down to Saybrook, 
where the party was re-enforced by Underhill with his 
twenty men. The expedition soon reached the Narragan- S3 May. 
sett Bay, where the English were further strengthened byreoonoa 
the chief sachem, Miantonomoh, and two hundred of his boS "ay" 
warriors ; and the combined forces pressed onward to the 
strong-holds of the Pequods, on the Histie River. At dawn sa May, 
of day, the assailants, in two divisions, led by Mason and 
TJnderhill, attacked the fortified village at the anratnit of 
a commanding eminence. The Pequods, taken by sur- 
prise, fought with the euergy of despair ; but their arrows 
and robes of fur availed them httle against the muskets 
and corselets ofthe New England men, now "bereaved of 
pity, and without compassion," No quarter was given ; The Pe- 
no mercy was shown. Six hundred souls, warriors and lage do- 
women, old men and children, perished in the indiscrim- 

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273 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF NKW YORK, carnage, The rising sun shone on the smoking rn- 
ins of the devastated village. A hand of warriors from the 
second Peqnod fort pursued the retreating conquerors ; hut 
the English safely reached their vessels, where they were 
joined hy Captain Daniel Patrick, who had just come on 
from Boston with forty men. The victorious expedition 
returning to Sayhrook, was welcomed hy Gardinev with 
joyous salvos of artillery, 
jono. The fate of the remaining Pequoda was now sealed, 

atashuni- Stoughton soon arrived at Saybrook with re- enforcements 
wemof from Massachusetts; and the flying savages were pur- 
"^ "" ' sued as far westward as "within twenty or thirty miles 
of the Dutch." At a head of land, near what is now 
is.Tuij. Guilford, the English beheaded two sachems; "where- 
upon they called the place Sachem's Head." Near what 
is now Fairfield, a remnant of the devoted tribe was hunt- 
ed into " a most hideous swamp," and many warriors per- 
ished. Two hundred old men, women, and children were 
taken prisoners, reduced to bondage, and divided among 
the conquering European troops ; and not long afterward, 
some of the wretched captives were exported fi-om Bos- 
ton, and sold as slaves in the West Indies, The scalp of 
Sassacus, the Pequod chief, was sent in triumph from 
Connecticut to Massachusetts Bay. Scarcely a sannup, 
a warrior, a squaw, or a child of the Pequod name sur- 
Eiiennin. vived. An aboriginal nation had been almost extermin- 

The tragedy which was thus awfully aoeomplished was 
performed, indeed, within the eastern territories of Wew 
Ketherland, but by other actors than the Dutch. The 
victorious warfare of the New England colonists secured 
for them nearly forty years of comparative peace, and their 
courageous vigor has well received the moat eloquent ap- 
plause. Yet no habitual veneration of ancestral fame 
should justify the unvaried panegyric of all ancestral 

* Winihrop,i.. IS9,19S-S35;1 

ilDTlaii's MeiDorisI, lBS-199 ; : 


[isL CoU., ivtU., 131-lM i Gm 

186-154 ; UndeAill, in M. H. Co 


Bancroft, t., 391-403 ; HildiwH, t 

., siS-nsi. 

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works, or cloak from calm review the full significance of ch.f.viu. 
inconvenient truth. The Pequod war, unrighteously be- 
gun, ruthlessly achievod, was the first serious attempt of 
the white race to extirpate the red race from the northern 
regions of America. Its injurious efieots did not end with 
the subjugation and enslavement of its surviving victims. 
Their coveted land was indeed won. But the seeds of 
enmity were sown for ages ; and it was not long after 
that the Dutch colonists on the North E,iver were obliged 
to witness as murderous scenes aa did the Puritan con- 
querors of Connecticut. 

Meanwhile, Yan. Dincklagen, on returning to Holland, 1636. 
had severely reviewed Van TwiHer's government, in a me-vann^fn'- 
morial to the States General, which was immediately re-nSun". 
ferred to the Amsterdam Chamber, with an intimation 
that they should make prompt satisfaction to their injured 
officer, whose salary was now three years in arrear. The 
schout-fiscal's complaints, however, were not confined to compioins 
the civil authorities of New Netherland. Domine Eogar- vsn 'i'«ii- 
dus was also censured, and to such an extent that, when gunius. 
the report of the accusations reached Manhattan, the Con- 
sistory of the Church felt it their duty to take "ecclesias- 
tical proceedings" against Yan Dincklagen, which, several 
years afterward, they were obliged to defend before the 
Olassis of Amsterdam.* But the answer which the di- 
rectors tardily gave to the peremptory order of the States aj ()ctiii>,.r 
General was a virtual denial of justice. It only produced 
a fresh memorial from the resolute schout-fiscal, who re- 
newed his complaints against the colonial administration 1637. 
of the company, and invoked the interposition of the home Aoton'^r 
government so earnestly, that their High Mightinesses atgovc^n-"'" 

ibDbly never returned by the Amsterdam directors 
loss Is eapcciallj io be regrettsd, as Ibey, do d< 
VanTiviller's odminislrallon. TTie CiKTeHponde 
: pioisDnil Ibr the General Synod ofttie R. n. Ch 
n DincUaB^'s cese j and on the ISth gfjuly, 1 
the Conncll of KewMettierland ftir leave [e reEui 

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CH/ip.vni. length " seriously" urged the College of the XIX. to grant 
him full redress,* 

It was now apparent, even to the Amsterdam Chamher, 
that a change must he made in the government of Kew 
Van Twii- Metherland. The constant reiteration of charges against 
naM. their chief provincial officer damaged the reputation of the 
company at home ; and the testimony of De Tries, on his 
return to Holland, prohably turned against Yan Twiller 
the scale which had heeu kept wavering through the in- 
fluence of the directors with whom he was connected. The 
College of the SIX. resolved to remove him at once, and 
appoint a successor, who, with perhaps more capacity and 
experience, seems to have heen quite as unfit to direct the 
destinies of a state. 
wQiiam "William Kieft was the person selected. An apparently 
wn us di- unfriendly pen has recorded a few indicative anecdotes of 
'*""'' his earlier life. He was born at Amsterdam, where he 
was brought up as a merchant. After doing business 
awhile at Rochelle, he became a bankrupt ; and his por- 
trait, according to the uncompromising rule of those days, 
was affixed to the gallows of tliat city. Some time after 
his failui-e, he was sent to ransom some Christians in Tur- 
key, where, it was alleged, he basely left in bondage sev- 
eral captives, whose fi'iends had placed in his hands large 
sums of money for the purchase of their liberty.! 

To such an agent the West India Company determined 

to intrust the government of their American Province. 

One of the members of the Amsterdam Chamher, Elias 

'i Sept de Baedt, was accordingly sent to the Hague, to solicit 

Kieft com- from the States Greneral a commission for Kieft as Yan 

luirt^'orn. Twiller's successor. The request was promptly granted ; 

and the new director, in presence of the grave I 

took his oath of office.1: 

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Early in the spring of 1638, William Kieft, the fifth cha.-. ik. 
director general of the "West India Company's North Amer- 
ioan Province, arrived at Manhattan, after an unusually jg^^j^^" 
protracted voyage; the "Herring," in vrhioh he sailed ^J;^'*™ 
from Holland, having taken the southerly course, and lin- K^iiitan. 
gored over winter at the Bermudas, for fear of approach- 
ing the coasts of New Kethorland, in the stormy season, 
with inexperienced pilots.* 

Kieft was an active, "inquisitive," rapacious person; inKtetii 
abnost every respect the opposite of Van Twiller. In the ^ admin- 
judgment of his New England contemporaries, he was " a 
more discreet and sober man" than his predecessor. But 
the history of his trauhled administration does not wai'- 
rant us in considering him "a prudent man" or a good 
chief magistrate.t The offieial recoi-ds of New Nether- 
land, which are wanting before, have fortunately been 
preserved, in an almost unbroken series, froni the time of 
Kieft'a inauguration ; and they afford authentic and co- 
pious materials for the historian .t 

The new director organized his council so as to keepsiefi's 
the entire control in his hands. Johannes la Montagne, s Apm.' 
a Huguenot physician, who had emigrated to New Neth- 
erland the year hefore, was appointed a counselor, with 
one vote at the board, while Kieft reserved two votes to 
himself. Comelis van Tienhoven, of Utrecht, who had Becrsmry 
been for several years the company's book-keeper of wages, Bsrai, 

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:. was now made provincial secretary ; and Ulricii Lupoid, 
"whoin Van Twiller had appointed in the plaeo of Dinck- 
lagon, continued for a short time to act as schout-fiacal. 
Kieft's council managed all the general aifairs of the 
province, and was the supreme court of justice. " It wan 
a high crime," said Yan der Donck, a few years after- 
ward, " to appeal from their judgments." This organiza- 
tion, however, was occasionally modified, for "whenever 
any thing extraordinary occurred, the director allowed 
some whom it pleased liim — officers of the company for 
the most part — to be summoned in addition ; hut that sel- 
dom happened,"* 
n Finding that the company's affairs were in a ruinous 
in. condition, the director caused a formal statement of their 
situation to he recorded. Fort Amsterdam was dilapida- 
ted, and" open on every side," except "at the stone point;" 
all the guns were dismounted ; the house in the fort, the 
church, the lodge, and the other buildings "required con- 
siderable repair." Even the place where the magazine 
for merchandise once stood could " with difficulty be dis- 
covered." Almost every vessel, except the yacht " Prince 
William," and another on the stocks, was in the " worst 
condition," Only one of the three wind-mills was in oper- 
ation ; another was out of repair ; the third was burned. 
The five farms of the company were untenanted, and 
thrown into commons ; and all the cattle with which they 
had been stocked had " been disposed of in other hands." 
«i- But if Van Twiller failed to administer tlie affairs of the 
' province satisfactorily, he took care to improve his private 
estate. A few days after his supersedure, he hired from 
L Kieft the company's " farm, number one," at a yearly 
rent of two hundred and fifty guilders, and a sixth part 
of all the produce ; and the inventory of the late clerk- 
director's property exhibited such an ample estate, that 
many could not help contrasting it with the sorry condi- 
tion in which he had left every thing else.t 

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Abuses existed in every department of the public serv- chap. ix. 
ice, which the bustling Kieft attempted to remedy by^ 
proclamations. It was ordered that no person in the com- p„5iamal 
pany's employ should trade in peltries, and that no furs"™\rQ^ 
should be exported without special permission, under pen-Jfo^"^"" 
alty of loss of wages and confiscation of goods. The pla- '■''""'■ 
card forbidding clandestine traffic in New Netherland was 
republished ; and death was threatened against all who 
should sell powder or guns to the Indians. After night- pdii™ rte 
fall, all sailors must remain on board their ships ; hours 
were fixed for all persons to commence and leave oil" work; 
Muhordination and dihgence were enjoined ; and fighting, 
lewdness, rebellion, theft, perjury, calumny, and " all oth- 
er immoralities," solemnly prohibited. No person was to 
retail any liquors, "except those who sold wine at a de- 
cent price and in moderate quantities." And Thursday 
in each week was appointed as the regular day for the 
sessions of the council as a court of civil and criminal ju- 
risdiction. Tobacco, which had now become a staple pro- Tobacco 
duetion of New Netherland, was also subjected to excise ; 
and regulations were published, to check the abuses which la au^i? 
injured " the high name" it had " gained in foreign coun- 

Another proclamation declared, that no attestations or vvrwing 
other public writings should be valid Ijefore a court in 
New Netherland, unless they were written by the colonial 
secretary. This arbitrary regulation was soon objected to 
as oppressive, and as intended to restrain popular righte ; 
but the policy of the measure was afterward defended by 
Secretary Van Tienhoven. " Most of the people living in 
New Netherland," said the sycophantic official, " are coun- 
try or sea-faring men, who summon each other iVequently 
before the court for small matters, while many of them 
can neither read nor write, nor testify intelligibly, nor pro- 
duce written evidence ; and, if some do produce it, it is 
sometimes written by a sailor or a boor, and is often whol- 
ly indistinct and repugnant to the meaning of those who 

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ch*f. !x. had it written or made the statement. Consequentiy, the 
direotor and council could not know the truth of matters, 
' as waa proper, and as justice demanded."* 

If, however, the new director seemed chiefly engrossed 
in reforming the civil administration, he did not neglect 
DomioeBo- the causc of religion. Bogardus, the clergyman at Fort 
lained ai Amsterdam, upon learning the charges which Yan Dinck- 
aiBrdam. lagen, after his return to Holland, had laid before the 
Classis of Amsterdam, petitioned Kieft for leave to return 
to the Fatherland and defend himself. But the director 
isjuiy. and council resolved "to retain the minister here, so that 
the increase of Grod's word may in no manner be prevent- 
ed." The Consistory of the Chnrch, however, earnestly 
defended and' justified their conduct in 1636 ; and Kieft 
himself seems to have supported their prayer, that the 
Classis would "be pleased to look into their case with 
care, and to decide the same against Lubbertus van Dinck- 
lagen, for the protection of the reputation of their es- 
teemed preacher Domine Everardus Bogardus."t 

Li spite of Kieft's proclamations, abuses continued. 
MuUifori- The population of New Netherland not having yet become 
il^bm''""'" generally agricultural, was too much disposed to a lax 
Maniicrtinn. jjjQj.jj]i^y^ owiug partly to the mixed character of the per- 
sons attracted to Manhattan for purposes of trade, and 
partly to the example which the late director had himself 
set. Kieft attempted to introduce a more rigid system of 
police ; and fresh proclamations threatened all evil-doers 
with fines and penalties. The people were forbidden ta 
Passports, leavc Manhattan without passports ; but, in spite of pla- 
cards, they would go when they pleased. Complaints 
were frequently made, that private parties were enriching 
themselves at the company's expense. All persons were, 
!8 Nov, therefore, ordered to restore, without delay, every thing in 
'their possession belonging to the company, unless they 
could " prove that they bought it from the former direct- 
or." And criminal prosecutions, and executions for horni- 

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oide and mutiny, were unhappily too frequent to leave ch*.v, ix. 
the new direot«r much repose from the oarea of his gov- 

Though the colony at 1 
prospering, the oppresaive trading monopoly of the "Weatru 
India Company retarded the agi-icultural settlement of 
other parts of New Netherland. A few "free colonists," 
however, from time to time oame out Iroin Holland, and 
established themselves chiefly in the neighborhood of Man- 
hattan. Pavonia, having now become the property of thePa™nui. 
oompany, Kieft, in the name of the directors, sold some 1 May. 
land at Paulus' Hook, east of Ahasiraus, to Abraham 
Isaaok Planck, who soon established a flourishing farm 
upon his . purchase ; and o^er tracts in that neighborhood 
were leased, before long, to respectable emigrants. Neai' 
"Coriaer's Hook," on Manhattan Island, a plantation was 20 juiy. 
bought by Andries Hudde, the " first commissary of nook. 
wares ;" and La Montague and others began to make 
permanent improvements. In the course of the summer, 1 Auirusi 
Kieft also secured for the company the Indian title to a 
large tract of land' upon Long Island, between the East 
Eriver and the swamps of Mespath, now known as New- Mespatu, 
town ; and active husbandmen soon began to occupy theiSsnd"^ 
fertile regions adjoining the early Waal-bogt.t 

Important events had, meanwhile, occurred on theAtfaitami 
southern frontier of New Nethertand. After the miscar- Kiver. 
tiage of West's scheme in 1635, and the re-occupation of 
Fort Nassau, the Dutch had retained the tranquil posses- 
sion of the South Hiver. Arendt Corsaen, whom Yan 
Twiller had appointed commissary there, was succeeded, 
soon after Kieft's arrival, by Jan Jansen, of Ilpendam, injanJanei 
North Holland ; and Peter Mey was directed to act as as- Mmmlsai 
sistant commissary at Fort Nassau during Jansen's ab- ^' 
sence.t Sir John Harvey, havuig defeated the intrigues 
of his enemies in London, returned to Virginia with a 

STil.,65;iL., S3; 


1., 11., 338 : Alb. Reo., !., 16, 55 ; O'Call., 


Island, w«B caUed VredenflBd, or " Poac 


Haerlmd Rlyei. t HOI. Boo., ^ 


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Chap. IX. iiew royal commission as governor, in which post he rc- 
"~^~ mained until he was succeeded by Sir Francis Wyatt in 
aAptu ' 1639.* Harvey's influence, though weakened by the fao- 
M^iSMy. ti<"i3 which distracted his administration, was still suffi- 
'"''■ oient to restrain the Virginians from further invasion of 
New Ketherland ; and the Maryland colonists, under Lord 
Baltimore's tolerant government, were too bnaily occupied 
in harmonious efforts for peopling the beautiful ahorea of the 
Potomac to think of encroaching upon the adjoining terri- 
tory of the Hollanders. A friendly intercourse waa all that 
they desired ; and Calvert, under the official seal of the 
1638. province, encouraged trade and commerce " with the 
13 Feb. Dutchmen in Hudson's Iliver."t But while English ag- 
greaaion was pausing at the South, freah annoyance from 
an unexpected source visited the Batavian poaaoaaions. 
Colonial Sweden was now to become the competitor of France, 
swoden. and England, and Holland for a foothold, in North Amer- 
ica. The liberal mind of Ghiatavua Adolphus early dia- 
cemed the benefits to his people of colonies and an ex- 
panded commerce ; and William TJsaelinox, the projector 
of the -Dutch Weat India Company, visiting the Baltic, 
1626. quickened the zeal of the sagacious sovereign. The plan 
M luno. which Usselincx proposed was adopted by G-ustavus, and 
swodtsh confirmed by the Diet. Even while the gallant northern 
compioy. monarch was sweeping G-ermany with victorious armies, 
his viewa of American colonization became more enlarged ; 
1632. and at Nuremberg he drew up a recommendation of the 
""'°'°'"^''' undertaking aa "the jewel of Ms kingdom." But the fa- 
auoY. tal field of Liitzen soon afterward deprived Sweden of her 
magnanimous sovereign ; and the grand enterprise he had 
so much at heart was si^pended for several years. i 
(jHMn Oh the demise of Gustavus, the crown descended to his 

daughter Christina, a child of six years of age ; and the 
states intrusted the government, during her minority, to a 
regency, at the head of which was the illuatrioua atatea- 
man Axel, count of Oxenstierna. One of the few great 

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raea of all time, the Swedish chancellor viewed the con- cmr. ix. 
sequenoea of American coionizatioji as " favorable to all 
Christendom, to Europe, and to the whole world." He 1633. 
therefore published the Nuremberg proclamation, which '" '*''"' 
Gustavua had left unsigned ; and the next year, the char- 1634. 
ter which Oxenatiema proposed for the Swedish "West In- 
dia Company, was confirmed hy the deputies of the Ger- 
man circles at Franofort.* 

It was more than three years, however, before the 
scheme was carried info effect ; and when it was at length 
accomplished, it was by the agency of a former officer of 
the Dutch "West India Company. After his recall frompBiciMm. 
New Netherland, Minuit, going to Stockholm, offered tod^n 
the regency the benefit of his colonial experience. The 
counsels of the discarded director won the confidence of 
the sagacious Oxenstierna; and toward the close of 1637, 163T. 
Minuit sailed fi'om Gottenburg, with a commission from 
the infant queen, " signed by eight of the chief lords of 
Sweden," to plant a new colony on the west side of the 
Delaware Bay. The selection of this region waa probably 
owing to Minuit, who, during his directorship of New 
Netherland, had become well acquainted with the situa- 
tion of Swaanendael and the neighboring territories on 
the South River, and who knew that there was now no 
European colony there. A man-of-war, "the Key of Cal-siLnuii 
mar," and a tender, " the Gfriffin," were fitted out, in which somb riv- 
about fifty emigrants wore embarked, some of whom being 
" bandits," were to be employed as galley-slaves in erect- 
ing fortifications. The care of the Swedish government 
added a pious Lutheran clergyman, Reorus Torkillus, and 
supplied the expedition with provisions, ammunition, and 
goods for traffic with the natives.t 

Early in the spring of 1638 — about the time that Kieft 1638. 
anchored at Manhattan — the Swedish expedition put in at^^^^^g j„ 
Jamestown, where it remained about ten days, "tor6fi:6shJJJ^fg'^*"' 
with wood and water." The treasurer of Virginia, learn- 

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i:n,p, i\ ing that it was " bound for Delaware Bay, which is the 

".' confines ol Virginia and New England," there " to make 

a plantation," desired to obtain a copy of Minuit's com- 

misbiun This, however, he declined to furnish, " except 

he might have free trade for tohaoco to carry to Sweden." 

But (xovomor Harvey " excused himself thereof," as it 

waa "contrary to his majesty's instructions;" and Minuit, 

tteDaa"" P^'^s'^ing his voyage, reached the Delaware Bay early in 

HMEBay. April.^ 

Pureuases Running up as far as the " Minqut^' Kill," Minuit pui-- 
''mn™^ chased, for " a kettle and other trifles," from the Sachem 
Kiii" IVIattehoorn, who had his wigwam there, as much land, 
" inokided between six trees," as would serve to build a 
house upon and make a plantation. For this land a deed 
was given, " written in Low Dutch, as no Swede could 
yet interpret the Indian." By this conveyance, the Swedes 
claimed to have obtained all the territory on the west side 
of the river, from Cape Hinlopen to the falls at " Santic- 
kan,"or Trenton, and as far inland "as they might want."t 
visiisdhj The news of the Swedes' arrival quickly reached the 
enm Foti Dutch at Fort Nassau, about fifteen miles further up the 
river ; and persons were sent down to demarid the reasons 
of theil coming. But Minuit represented that he was only 
on a voyage to the West Indies, and would leave as soon 
as he had supplied his ships with wood and water. E-e- 
visiting the Minquas' Kill sorai afterward, the Dutch offi- 
cers found that the Swedes "had done more," and had 
already made a small garden. They inquired " what it 
meant;" and Minuit again excused himself "by various 
reasons and snhterfugea." In a few days, the real mten- 
tions of the Swedes were made apparent. Minuit dis- 
ss Aiirii, patched his tender, the Griffin, up the river to trade ; but 
sends his ghe was Stopped at Fort Nassau, and Pet«r Mey, the as- 
"driver ro sistant commissary, going on board, demanded to see her 

' Murphj'H noles on Verloogli yao N. N., in II., N. Y. H. S. Coll., »., SW ; LetUr 
from Jerome Hawley, Treasurer of Virginia, W Secretarj Windeljenke, iBled sa of May, 
laas. In Lond, Doo,, i., 5T ; N. Y, Col. MSS„ Hi., SO; Hasard, Ann. Penn., K, 43. 

+ Hoi, Doc., viii,, 70 ; Acrolius, in il., «. T. H. a. Coll., I., 100 ; Hadde's Report in 

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eommisaion. This the Swedish officer refused to show, umr. ix. 
avowing that it was their intention to establish a fort on 
the river, and that " hia Q,«een was as justifiable in build- 
ing a fort there as was the company." 

As soon as Kieft received intelligence of this new en- Kteft'a srsi 
croaohment, he ordered Commissary Jansen to go to the » iioiianj. 
Minqwas' Kill, and in case he saw Minuit acting to the 
injury of the Dutch, " immediately to protest against it 
in proper form." The director's first dispatches home con- as Aiini. 
veyed an account of the affair to the Amsterdam Chamber .* 

Notwithstanding the warning fiom Fort Amsterdam, e May. 
Minuit persisted; and the New Netherland government, "=i? 
therefore, sent him a formal protest, in which the title of Minuit. 
the Dutch to the whole of the Delaware was distinctly 
asserted. "I make known," wrote Kieft, "to you, Peter 
Minuit, who call yourself commander in the service of Her 
Royal Majesty of Sweden, that the whole South River in 
New Netherland has been many years in our possession, 
and has been secured by ua with forts above and below, 
apd sealed with our blood, t which also happened during 
your own direction in New Netherland, and is, therefore, 
well known to you. But as you do now make a begin- 
ning of a settlement between our forts, and are building 
a fort there to our prejudice and disadvantage, which we 
shall never endure or tolerate, and as we also are per- 
suaded that it has never been commanded by Her Swedish 
Majesty to build fortresses on our rivers and coasts, or to 
settle people on the adjoining lands, or to trade in peltries, 
or to undertake any other thing to our prejudice ; now, 
therefore, we protest against all the evil consequences of 
such encroachments, and declare that, while we will not 
be answerable for any mkhap, bloodshed, trouble, and dis- 
aster which you may hereafter suffer, we are resolved to 
defend our rights in all such ways as we shall deem proper ."$ 
Minuit, however, was not deterred by proclamations, 

■ HoH>ac„riii.,6D,TO;H8iari,Ann.Penii.,M,47i VortoogliTaiiN.n.,mfiup.,a8S. 
t By lUia 8xp«raalon, Klefl meani Ibe inassa™ of the Dalch at Swaanendsel. during 
MlnuU'B lime. 
t Alb. R«., ii., 7 i Actelins, 409 ; O'CaU., i., !9i ; Haianl'9 Ann. Ponn., 44. 

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p. IX. -which " he did not feel inoiined to answer," A trading- 
~ house and fort weie soon erected on the north hank of the 
J. Minquas' Kill, ahout two miles from its confluence with 
difgn" "'^ ^^ South Kiver, near the spot where WiUnington now 
stands ; the name of the kill was changed to that of 
" Christina Creek ;" and the establishment was called 
■iiie " Fort Christina," in honor of the young queen. To de- 
build "Fort fine its houndariea, posts were erected, on which were 
on i4 Ji'n- carved the royal initials, surmounted by the crown of Swe- 
"'"'' ' ' den. Perfectly acquainted with the Indian trade, Minuit 
soon drew " all the skins towai'd him, by his liberal gifts." 
Twenty-four men. were placed in garrison at Fort Chris- 
tina, which was well supplied with merchandise and pro- 
visions ; and the vessels returned to Sweden, about mid- 
juLy. summer, with the first cargoes from the new colony.* 
Thus the Swedes under Minuit, more fortunate than the 
earlier Dutch colonists under the patroons of Swaanendael, 
became the first permanent European occupants of the 
State of Delaware. 
o.:i"ber. The new director's first dispatches scarcely reached Axa- 
Khip sailed sterdam, before a heavHy-laden Swedish vessel arriving at 
byihe Mcdemhlick, on her return voyage "from the West In- 
company. dics,". was seized by the Chamber at Enekhuysen, for 
having illegally traded within the company's American 
territory. The Swedish minister at the Hague, learning 
the circumstances, immediately demanded her release 
from the States General. It was not the policy of Hol- 
land to offend a power whose victorious generals were 
iifiicaacd hiimbling Denmark and Austria. The flag of Sweden 
sioieflGen- protected the Swedish ship in the ports of the Fatherland, 
as it had already commanded respect in New Netherland ; 

' Hoi. Doc, vlit.. so, 51 ; Ilaiatd, Ann. Penn., 45, 47 ; Holm. B5 ; Acrellus, 17, 307 i 
Hudds's Espotl, 4S9 ; Ferris, ii, 45. Kieft, In wrLling lo the Amalerdam Chamtsr, on 
(he BlHC of jDly, IflSS (Hoi. Doc., Till., IKI), says that Minuit, after building the fun on I3it 
Sontji Hlver, Ad., ^^Ib van daor VBrtracken, mot r.yn twos hyhshbende Bcheepeo," &<i. 
The Dutch word " vertroehen" literally means " deiiarted ,-" and the phrase seems to Im- 

patch on hearaay, and not flum personal observatioa, perhaps eipresaed himself inaoou- 
rately ; for Aorelius, wlio drew his narrative ftonj teliablo sourcea, dlsUootly slatea thai 
Minnit, " during three years," proleoled Fort CluiBlina, where be died [In 16415] ; and 
Ibat " his suceessor waa Peter Hollffindare, a native Swede."— ii., N. Y. H. S. Call., i,, dlO 

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the arrest was promptly removed ; and the liberated vos- ch.p, \ 
sel sailed onward to the Baltic* 

In the mean time, several shareholders of the West In- ^.j,^ g,, 
dia Company had represented the unsatisfaetory condition ^^™"^ 
of their American province to the States General, who in-^oii™r 
structed their deputies to the College of the XIS. to aid[^'j|*''" 
in concerting sueh "effective order" as should attract"*'^'"" 
thither proper emigrants from the Fatherland, " so that 
this state may not be robbed of the aforesaid New Neth- 
etland by the indirect intrigues of auy of the inhabitants 
of this country, nor by the intrusions and invasions of the 
subjects of foreign princes and powers." The report of the m Apn 
deputies was a gloomy picture. The limits of New Neth- 
erland,' according to the special grant in 1614, and the 
charter of the West India Company, were claimed by the 
directors as extending " from Virginia upward ; to wit, 
from Ci?apoa, along the sea-coast, to Terra Nova." Of 
these territories, the Dutch were in possession of the North 
River ; the English reached to the Fresh Uivei-, and their 
right " is that of the strongest." The company could re- 
tain the remaining territory, if it were populated. " From 
the North River men can go into the interior as far as 
they please ;" but colonization was retarded "because the 
directors can not agree among themselves," "Would it 
not then be expedient," asked the deputies, "to place the 
district of New Netherland at the disposal of the States 
G-encral?" ""We have no sueh intention," replied the tub c 
company, " unless we can thereby gain some advantage ; '^""ei 
we hope that it will prove profitable in time, now thatprovti 
some order has been taken about Brazil. The chief ap- 
prehension is about the English ; and we are considering 
the policy of surrendering the Indian trade, or something 

Thus the directors, while obliged to confess their mis- 
management of the fertile province which had now been 
nearly fifteen years under their control, refused to surren- 
der it to the States General. It would have been happy 

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<;hai'. IX. for New Netherland if, inatead of remaining the depend- 
„ ency of a mercantile corporation, it could now have he- 
' come a government colony of the United Provinces. The 
statesmanship of the Hague did not guide the Chamber 
lioacccBSi-at Amsterdam. From the first the company had sought 
agcmeutoi to people its province with its own dependents. This was 
India ?mii. 11x6 oai'dlnal eiTor ; for these persons, returning home, took 
"'"'^' nothing with thera, "except a little in their purses, and a 
bad name for the country," The capital which would 
have heen more wisely employed in bringing over people 
and importing cattle, was expended at Manhattan "in 
building the ship New Netherland at an excessive outlay, 
in erecting three expensive mills, in brick-making, tar- 
bnming, ash-burning, salt-making, and like operations." 
The Charter of Privileges and exemptions, which offered 
such large inducements to patroons, discouraged individual 
enterprise. Private persons who might wish to emigrate 
"dared not attempt it." Though the company had at 
first sent over some emigrants, it had not persevered ; and 
while foreigners were quietly allowed to encroach upon 
the frontiers of New Netherland, the company had not 
encouraged the colonization of the Fresh and South Riv- 
era by its own countrymen. Its mercantile directors 
looked more to their immediate interests, than to the wel- 
fare of the province which their had government threat- 
ened with ruin.* 
Raauii of The searching investigation which the government had 
(Mi™!**"' instituted convinced the company, however, that eiFeetual 
measures must now be adopted to regenerate New Neth- 
erland. After several months' consideration, a draft of 
Now "Ar- new "Articles and Conditions" was accordingly presented, 
iBwid by™^ by the historian John de Laet, for the approbation of the 
^Bcomps- gj.g^^g G-enerai. But it did not meet the exigency. It 
"^^ ■ was prolix and theoretical, instead of precise and practical. 
It was a political constitution — which was not the desid- 
eratum — instead of a simple plan of emigration, which 
was really wanted. It promised no abrogation of the op- 

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i trading monopoly of the company, and proposed cn.p. is. 
no effectual method of colonization. It ■was at onco dis- 
cardcd by the States Greneral as " totally inadmissible." 

There was another important question to be adjusted. 
The diffioulties between the directors and the patroona 
had been partially arranged by the purchase of Swaanen- 
dael and Pavonia. But the patroons now attempted to 
enlarge theii "privileges," and boldly presented to the Tte pa- 
States General a "new plan," in which they demanded maud new 
that they should be allowed to monopolize more teiTitory ; 
have longer time to settle colonists ; be invested with the 
largest feudal powers ; be made entirely independent of 
the control of the company with respect to the internal 
government of their colonies ; enjoy iree-trade throughout 
and around New Netherland ; have a vote in the conn- 
oil of the director ; be supplied with oonvicte from Hol- 
land as servile laborers, and with negro slaves ; and, final- 
ly, that all " private persons" and poor emigrants should 
be forbidden to purchase lands from the Indians, and 
should be required to settle themselves within the colo- 
nies, and under the jurisdiction of the great manorial lords. 
The Island of Manhattan, the precinct of Fort Orange, 
and Swaanendael and Pavonia, should alone remain un- 
der the company's exclusive authority. 

The patroons' grasping demands of new " Privileges 
and Exemptions" were as offensive to the States General AcUon or 
as the diffuse clauses of the company's new " Articles and General. 
Conditions" were unsatisfactory. Both the proposed in- 
struments were immediately sent back to the Amsterdam 
Chamber, with directions to reconsider " the whole busi- 
ness of New Netherland ;" so that such measures might 
be taken by theii High Mightinesses, respecting its colo- 
nization, " as should be found most advisable for the serv- 
ice of the state and for the benefit of the company."* 

The authoritative injunction of the States G-eneral was 
promptly obeyed. The "Privileges" of the patroons were 
reserved for future consideration ; but it was now determ- 

'Hol. Dm., ii„14S,a», EB*. MSi O'CsU., i., 198-300. 

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p. IX. ined that the expeiiment of opening to iree competition 
~" the internal trade of New Netherland bhould te at once 
' attempted The Ambterdatn Chamber accordingly pub- 
w«i liiihed a notification, that all inhabitants of the United 
'■s ""^Provmcea and of triendly countues might treely convey to 
oi^ New Netherland, " in the company's shipo," any cattle 
and merehaiidiie they desired, and might "rpoeive what- 
ever returns thev oi then agents may be able to obl^ain in 
those quarters therefor." All shipments were to be made 
by the company's officer', a duty of ten per cent, was to 
be paid to the company on all merchnnditie sent from Hol- 
land, and a duty of fifteen per cent on ill goods exported 
from New Netherland ; and freight wa« ako to be paid 
for the conveyance of goods and cattle The Director and 
Council of New Ketheiland were to be mstiucted to ac- 
commodate eveiy emigiant according to hib condition 
and means, with as much Hnd is he and h a family can 
properly cultivate " A quit-ient ot a tenth oi all the prod- 
uce was reserved to the company which would assure le- 
gal estates of inheiitance ti the gianteea In subordina- 
tion to the States G-enera! the company and ita officers 
were to maintain police and administer justice in New 
Netherland ; and each colonist or tiader proceeding thith- 
er was to sign a pledge "^oluntaiily to submit to these 
regulations and to the commands of the company, and al- 
low all questions and difteienoes there aiismg to ho de- 
cided by the ordinary course of justice established in that 
Bois of B ^'he more liberal system which the company was thus 
^j"'"'"' c^mpeDed to adopt, though it fell short of the emergency, 
was a step in advance, and gave a rapid impulse to the 
prosperity of New Netherland. Private enterprise and in- 
dustry were now unshackled ; and an anxiety to emigrate 
was soon manifested at Amsterdam, which the directors 
wisely encouraged by oiFering a free passage, and other 
substantia! inducements to respectable farmers.! 

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The proclamation was no sooner published, than plana CHiP. ix. 
of colonizatioa were formed hy persons of capital and in- 
flnence. De Yries, who had arranged with Yan Twillor 35 sepr. ' 
t\^o years before, for lands on Staten Island, now sailed ^^'^u, 
from the Texel with several emigrants, who had agreed ^t"™ 
to go ont with him and commence a colony. Arriving off""*" 
Sandy Hook in mid-winter, the master of the ship, want- 
ing a pilot, and observing the ground covered with snow, 
began to talk of returning to the West Indies, and wait- 
ing there until summer. He had " old false charts," only, 
with hhn. But some of the passengers, "who had Uved 
several years in New Netherland," asked De Yries to pilot 
them in ; for they knew that he had foi-morly " taken his 
own ship in by night." De Vries assenting, conducted aj nee . 
the vessel safely up to Fort Amsterdam, "where there Maunanan 
was great joy, because no ship was expected there at that 
time of the year." After spending a few days at Kieft's 
house, where ho was cordiaJly welcomed, De Yries sent 1639. 
his people to Staten Island, to build some cabins, and be- bhu™ m' 
gin a " colonie."* ami. 

In the course of the following summer, several other 
persons of substantial means came out from Holland, 
bringing along with them emigrants and cattle. Among'SJuM. 
them was Jochem Pieteraen Kuyter, of Darmstadt, whoier»n<i 
had formerly been a commander in the East Indies under Meiyn ar- 
the King of Denmark, Cornelis Melyn, of Antwerp, also Manhaiian 
came to see the country ; which pleased him so well that 
he soon returned to bring his family out to Manhattan. 
Both Kuyter and Melyn afterward rose to prominence in 
their new home.t 

The liberal policy which the "West India Company hadsu-ansere 
no'w adopted not only encouraged the emigration of sub- ncigniior- 
atantial colonists from the Fatherland, but also attracted a'tactei t 
strangers from Yirginia and New England. Conscience eriand. 
had always been unshackled in New Netherland ; and 
now the internal trade and commerce of the province were 
made free to aU. In Massachusetts, where political fran- 

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Chap, IX, oMsea were limited to memtei-s of the Church, " many 
men began to inquire after the southern parts ;" and it 
■ wa^ not hecause the necessaries of life or a healthy cli- 
mate were ■wanting, that that colony was " tlis esteemed 
of many." Besides seeking relief in Virginia and the West 
Indies, the dissatisfied legan to escape from their "insup- 
portable government," to find more congenial homes in 
New Netherland, From Virginia, too, numbers of persons, 
whose terms of service had expired, were attracted to Man- 
hattan, where they introduced improved modes of culti- 
vating tobacco. Cherry and peach trees, which hitherto 
had been seen only near Jamestown, now began to flour- 
^■fppeii's ish around the walls of Fort Amsterdam. Prosperity and 
inc8. progress replaced dilapidation and ruin. Instead of " sev- 
en bouweries and two or ■fliree plantations," full thirty, 
" as well stocked with cattle as any in Europe," were 
soon under cultivation. The numerous applications for 
land promised " full one hundred more ;" and there was a 
prospect that, in two or three years' time, provisions could 
be furnished for fourteen thousand men.* 
isJaDuary. lu visw of the increasing demand for homesteads near 
ditset"'' Fort Amsterdam, Kieft purchased from the chief of the 
Long isi- tribe living near Manhassett, or Schout'a Bay, all the lands 
coDipony. from Rockaway eastward to " Sicktew-hacky," or Fire 
Island Bay ; thence northward to Martin G-erritsen's, or 
Cow Bay, and westward along the East Hiver, "to the 
Vlaeok's Kill ;" and thus secured to the "West India Com- 
pany the Indian title to nearly all the territory now form- 
3 jiugust, ing the county of Q,ueens, A few months afterward, the 
kXS Indian owners of "Kekesick" appeared at Fort Amster- 
cbssiw, dam, and ceded to the company all the territory " which 
lies over against the fiats of the Island of Manliates," ad- 
joining "the great Kill," This purchase is supposed to 
have included a part of the present town of Yonkcrs, in 
the county of West Chester.t 

■Ho(.Doc.,ti„870, 371; iil,,98,99; Alb,aec,, L, 109 ; O'CaR., 1, ,208, 333,418 i Win- 

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Among the prominent men in New England whose at- chap. ix. 
tention was turned toward New Netherland, was Captain 
John Underhill, one of the heroes of the Peqnod war, and capiein ' 
now Governor of Piscataqua, or Dover. Dissatisfied with J^^JpiV 
his ahode, he applied to Kieft for permission to reside with^j^nndg, 
a few families under the protection of the Dutch, provid- p^,^"|^n. 
ed they might enjoy all the privileges of the inhahitants 
of New Ketherland. The director and council promptly 8 sepi. 
granted XJnderhill's request, upon condition that " he and 
his adherents take the oath of allegiance to their High 
Mightinesses the States General, and his highness the 
Prince of Orange."* 

The only obligation required from strangers was an oathohiiguidnH 
of fidelity and allegiance, similar to that which was im-icgeaoffor- 
posed upon Dutch colonists. The liheral maxims of theUcw Katn- 
Fatherland in regard to citizenship were adopted and 
proclaimed in New Wetherland. In no one respect were 
foreigners subjected to greater restraints than natives, or 
excluded from any privilege which Hollanders themselves 
enjoyed. New Amsterdam was to h(j as much a city of the 
world as was old Amsterdam ; and the provincial records 
show how readily the English new-comers bound them- sopiimim. 
selves by oath "to follbw the director, or any one of the 
council, wherever they shall lead ; faithfully to give in- 
stant warning of any treason or other detriment to this 
country that shall come to their knowledge ; and to assist 
to the utmost of their power in defending and protecting 
with their blood and treasure the inhabitants thereof 
against all its enemies, "t 

Numerous grants of land were soon obtained by the orania of 
adopted citizens of New Netherland. Anthony Jansen, eignera. 
of Salee, a respectable French Huguenot, entered two 
hundred acres opposite Coney Island, and began the set- 

' Alb. Ilec., ii., M. UndeclillL, honerer, did not coine to N'ew Nelbeiland until Iflia, 
(he next year entered tlie diUUacy service of UisBulcb.— Ses Winthn^, I,, ?70,$9I, !Cfl, 

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i*r. IX, tlement of Gravesend. Thomas Belcher soon afterward 

took up ft tract at " Marechkaweiok," in what is now Brook- 

■ lyn. \.n\ fieorgi^ Hohnes the leader of the expedition 

No»- against Fort Nassau m 1635 who had heen carried back 

to Virginia returning to Majihattan, in conjunction with 

Thomas Hall his fornipr companion, obtained a grant of 

"iiei land, and built a hou'ie UPii "Deutel Bay," a beautiful 

secluded nook on the Eas-t River * 
.eft's do- While eveiy thing wao now beginning to wear an air 
inistra- of progress anl impio'sement around Manhattan, the act- 
ive director employed himfelt diligently in reforming the 
colonial admini'itiation Di oipline was enforced among 
the soldiers and the company's mechanics and laborers 
oblige I to regulate then woil ing hours by the ringing of 
the bell. Jacob van Curler and David Provoost were ap- 
pointed inspectors of the new staple, tobacco. Oloff Ste- 
veusen van Cortlandt, who had come out with Kieft from 
HoUand as a soldier in the service of the company, was 
3^7- promoted to be commissary of the shop, A change was 
also made in the office of sohout-fiscal, but not by ICieft's 
agency. This important post was now conferred, hy the 
iomsiis Amstetdara Chftmher, upon Cornelia van der Huygens. 
'"^iM ^^^ Dincklagen, whose representations had so materially 
ciimii-fis- contributed to the changes introduced into the administra- 
tion of New Netherland, was neither reinstated nor re- 
Biniy. ceived into the company's favor. Upon the arrival of 
Van der Huygens at Manhattan, XJlrich Lupoid, who had 
acted as schout-fiscal for three years, was immediately ap- 
pointed commissary of wares by Kieft, who frequently in- 
vited his presence at the colonial council hoard.t 


, the supposed roseni- 

g probably sujjgesled 









17. Van Cor 


left Ibe company'B eei- 








tiles in lUe i 


ay be ftmhd in 

. O'Call. 



and in Bolioo's West 

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The emanoiipatioii of the intemal trade of the province, chap. rx. 
however, soon began to produce irregularities ; and a new 
proclamation vf arned all persons, of whatever rank or con- j,, ^^^jj 
dition, against seUing guns or ammunition to the Indians. Hmagalnsi 
A similar edict prohibited any person from sailing to Fortjf^^*' 
Orange, the South River, or Fort Hope, without a permit 
from the director general, and from returning without a 
passport from the company's commissary. But Kieft's in- 
discretion hurried him into the adoption of another meas- 
ure, which produced, before long, the most disastrous re- 
sults. Under the plea that the company was burdened 
with heavy expenses for its fortifications and garrisons in 
New Netherland, the director arbitrarily resolved to " de- is Sept. 
mand some tribute" of maize, furs, or sewan from the">i-eBW 
neighboring Indians, "whom we thus far have defended "'f on mo 
against their enemies," and threatened, in case of their 
refusal, to employ proper measures "to remove their re- 

Meanwhile, the colonists of New England had been rap- i-i 
idly narrowing the eastern frontier of Kew Ketherland. c 
The exterminating war against the Pequods had revealed ti=ut. 
a territory hitherto unknown to the English ; and Stonghton 
and TJnderhill, returning in triumph to Boston, extolled the 1637. 
beauty of the fertile coasts between Saybrook and Fairfield. 
" The place whither God's providence carried us, that is, 
to Q,uillipeage Biver, and so beyond to the Dutch," wrote i4 aueuei. 
Stonghton to "Winthrop, " is abundantly before" Massachu- 
setts Bay. " The Dutchwill seize it if the English do not," 
he urged, " and it is too good for any but friends." Just 
then Davenport, the former Non-conformist clergyman at 
Rotterdam, and Eaton and Hopkins, "two merchants of 
London, men of fair estate and of great esteem for religion, 
and wisdom in outward affairs," arrived at Boston, and 
were besought to settle themselves in Massachusetts. But 
they could not be satisfied to " choose such a condition," 1638. 
and determined to remove to the "pai-ts about Q,uilli- 
pieok." Sailing from Boston, the English colonists soon so Morcn. 

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CBiP, IX, reached the place which Block had first named the 

" Roodenhergj" or Red Hills. The Dutch title was, how- 

iDtSH. eyer^ disregarded ; and Davenport, under the shadow lof a 

^itmm spreading oak, laid the foundations of New Haven. A 

Now Ha- simple "plantation covenant" hound the colonists to he 

jSApru. "ordered by the rules which the Scriptures held forth to 

them ;" land was purchased from the Indian sachems ; 

1639. ^^^ ^^ vigorous settlement throve apace. In a year, its 

ss ociobet. population exceeded two hundred ; and Theophilus Eaton 

was chosen governor by electors, whose qualification was 

church membership.* 

"With a boldness fostered by the consciousness of supe- 
rior numbers, English emigrants now aimed at possessing 
"all the land" as far westward as the Hudson River.t 
Juno. At the mouth of the Housatonie, the village of Stratford 
already contained more than fifty houses. Enterprising 
Norwaik. emigrants were also beginning to build at Norwalk and 
Stamford ; and even at Cfreenwich two houses were al- 
puriekand ready erected. One of these was occupied by Captain 
Green- Daniel Patrick, "who had married a Dutch wife from the 
Hague." Patrick, who had been in command of a portion 
of the troops sent from Massachusetts during the Pequod 
war, had ample opportunities of observing the country in 
the neighborhood of the Dutch. Becommg dissatisfied 
with "Watertown, he resolved to seek a more congenial 
home ; and in company with Robert Feake, who had mar- 
ried the daughter-in-law of "Winthrop, he removed to Con- 
necticut, and commenced the settlement of Grreenwich.J 
Foitat At the mouth of the Connecticut "a strong fort" was 

"' """' now completed hy Gardiner, the governor of Saybrook. 
Qmmiii of Hartford was already a little town, with over one hundred 
houses and a fine church. The Dutch, however, contin- 
ued in possession of the flat lands around "the Hope," 
where G-ysbert op Dyck was now commissary, with a gar- 

' Wlnlhrop, i., 338, 400, 405 ; Hulch. Cdl., m ; Trumbull, i., 9M6, 104 1 itnte, p. M. 
De Vrles, 149, sqjb, Ihat on Ibe 6lh of June, 163a, ha anrtlored xia olgW al Ne«i Haven, 
where ho found '■ atponi throe hundrofl honses hnitt, and a handsome clkurth." 

t Mathor'a Megnalia, i., 6. 

t DoVrloB.lSl; W!nlhrop,i..69,74; ii., 151; Trumhull, 1., llSi CCall.. i., 308, Ths 

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rison of fourteen or fifteen soldiers. At tlieir first coming, chap. ix. 
the English conducted themselves discreetly ; but increas- ~ 
ing in numbers, they boldly began to plow up the re- xser^e- ' 
aeived lands around the Dutch redoubt. Op Dyck en- g™(^"j,y'* 
deavored to resist; but the English cudgeled some of the t'^"'"'''' 
garrison who attempted to stop their proceedings, and 
Haynes, the newly- elected governor of Connecticut, justi- 
fied his countrymen. The Dutch, he said, had been many 9 juob. 
years in possession, and had done nothing to improve the 
land, which "was lying idle" around their house. "Itcrounasof 
would be a aiu to leave uncultivated so valuable a land, juBLiaoa- 
which could produce such excellent corn." Thus the 
Hartford people vindicated their conduct. They " gave 
out that they were Israelites, and that the Dutch in New 
Netherland, and the English in Virginia, were Egyp- 

The next year witnessed still bolder aggression. The 1640. 
right of the Dutch to any of the land around their little aggr""™* 
fort was openly denied. In vain Commissary Op Dyok HjJt'fo^. 
pleaded Dutch discovery before English knowledge of the 
river, and Dutch possession undev a title from the Indian 
owners, anterior to EngUsh purchase and settlement, 
"Show your right," said Hopkins, who had succeeded ssApni. 
Haynes as governor, " and we are ready to exhihit ours," 
Evert Duyokingk, one of the garrison, while sowing grain, 
was struck "a hole in his head with a sticke, soe that the as April, 
blood ran downe very strongly." Ingenuity was taxed to 
devise modes of won'ying the Hollanders ; and to fortify the 
English claim of title, Sequasson, the son of the sachem vrho 
had assented to Van Curler's original purchase, was brought la July, 
into court, to testify " that he never sold any ground to the 
Dutch, neither was at anytime conquered by the Pequods, 
nor paid any tribute to them." Kieft's repeated j 
brought no alleviation of annoyance ; for no re-e 
ments came from Manhattan to vindicate the rights of the 
West India Company. Disgusted vrith a post where he 
was so constantly insulted. Op Dyck resigned his office, as octoi>oi 

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caxp. IX. and Jan Hendiicksen Uoesen succeeded him as commis- 
eary at the Hope* 

The progress of English encroachment along the shores 
of the Soiind natmally awakened the anxiety of the New 
Netherland government. Excepting Bionck and his les- 
sees, there were as yet scarcely any Dutch colonists east 
19 April, of the Haerlem TLiver. In order to " maintain the char- 
ubases iho ter and privileges" of the "West India Company, Kieft dis- 
tween Nor- patched Secretary Van Tienhoven, early in the spring of 
ibeNonn 1640, with instructions to purchase the "Archipelago," or 
group of islands at the mouth of the Norwalk Eiver, to- 
gether with all the adjoining territory on the main land, 
" and to erect thereon the standard and arras of the High 
and Mighty Lords States General ; to take the savages 
under our protection ; and to prevent effectually any other 
nation encroaching on our limits," These directions were 
executed ; and tie "West India Company thus ohtained the 
Indian title to all the lands between Norwalk and the 
North River, comprehending much of the present county 
of "West Chester. + 

Patrick and.Feake, who had heen quietly settled for 
f^ April, some time at Petuquapaen, or Greenwich, now purchased, 
from one of the neighboring sachems, his title to that re- 
gion, Kieft, however, who had already secm-ed a formal 
IS ociober. cession from the savages, soon afterward protested against 
PatiickandPatrick's intrusion, and warned him and his associates 
Butoit that they would he ejected, unless they recognized the 
to the sovereignty of the Dutch. But Patrick, though he imme- 
diately declared that he would do nothing " that should 
be in the least against the rights of the States General,'' 
continued in adverse possession at Greenwich for two 
years longer, hefore he formally acknowledged the juris- 
diction of the autixoritiea of New Netherland.J 

ix., 193-197 1 All). Km., ii„ ICH j Hajarfl, ii., Bfl3, 864 ; H. Y. H. S, Coll., 
)1. Bee, CDnn,, 51, 51 ; mte, p. 835, noffi. 
»., 7B. 147 i Da Last, tUL ; Haxud, 11., 313 ; O'Call., i., 81S ; SolUm's 

i;N. Y.H.S. Coll,, i., 374, ^; 

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Up to this time, tlie Dutch settlements on Long Island chip, ix. 
had been confined to the neighborhood of the present city " "J™ 
of Brooklyn. By purchases from the Indians, the WestE„gn,of 
India Company had already become the proprietary of jSti^nJ^Hla, 
Mespath, or Newtown, and of the regions eastward as far MtJiif" * 
as Cow Bay, and southward to the Atlantic coast. Kieft 
now bought from "the great chief Pcnhawitz," the headwMay. 
of the tribe of Canarsee Indians, who claimed the territo- 
ry forming the- present county of Kings, and a part of the 
town of Jamaica, his hereditary rights to lands on Long 
Island. Thus all the Indian title to that part of the isl- 
and westward of Oyster Bay, comprehending the present 
counties of Kings and Queens, became vested, by pur- 
chase, in the West India Company, The territory east 
of Oyster Bay, now forming the county of Suffolk, how- 
ever, remained in the hands of its aboriginal lords. But 
the Dutch, who were the first Europeans that occupied 
any part of Long Inland, always considered it the " crown 
of New Netherland," whence they obtained their supplies 
of wampum ; and the possession which they had formally 
asserted, by affixing to a tree the arms of the States Gen- 
eral, they were determined to maintain,* 

A new encroachment now threatened this " crown" it- 
self. Under his grant ftom the council of Plymouth in 
1635, Lord Stirling soon afterward gave a power of attorn- 1637, 
ey to James Farrett, to dispose of any part of his prop- §o *?'"■ 
erty upon Long Island or its neighborhood. Fairett ao- James Fa^ 
covdingly visited New England; and, having selected fonoNewEn- 
his own private use Shelter Island and Uobins' Island, in Lord siit- 
Peconick Bay, extinguished the Indian title by a formal oesm- 
purchase.t Previously to Facrett's arrival, however. Lion 
Gardiner, the commandant at Sayhrook, had purchased of 1639, 
" the ancient inhabitants" the island near Montauk Point, nBr"pu^ ' 
"called by the Indians Manchonack; by the English, thedinSiS" 
Isle of "Wight." This valuable, purchase was soon after- 

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Chip. IX. -ward confirmed by Farrett, ■wIid, in the name of Lord 
Stirling, granted to G-ardincr and hia heirs the full posses- 
10 Mareii! ^^'^^ "^ ^^ island, and the power " to make, execute, and 
put in practice such laws for church and civil government 
as are according to God, the king's, and the practice of 
the country." G-ardiner immediately removed from Say- 
brook, and fixed his residence on the island, which has 
1641. since been known by his name. The next year his daugh- 
^' ter Elizabeth was born at " Gardiner's Island ;" and thus 
was commenced the first permanent English settlement 
within the present limite of the State of New York.* 
Had Lord Stirling's agent limited his grants to the east- 
1640 ^^^ portion of Long Island, no difficulties would probably 
n April, have occuiTed with the Dutch. A month after the con- 
thoriiea firmatiou of Gaidincr's purchase, however, Farrett, on be- 
peopiBto half of Lord Stirling, made an agreement with Lieuten- 
Miveson ant Daniel Howe, Edward Howell, Job Sayre, and other 
and. inhabitants of Lynn, in Massachusetts, by which they 
were authorized to settle themselves upon any lands on 
Long Island that they might purchase from the native 
Indians. Soon afterward, Farrett visited Manhattan in 
person ; and, in the name of Lord Stirling, boldly laid 
Farteitar- claim to the whole of Long Island. But he was instant- 
Manhauan. ly arrested hy Kieft, by whom "his pretension was not 
much regarded ; and so he departed without accomplish- 
ing any thing, having influenced only a few simple peo- 
Msy. The Lynn emierants arriving at Manhassett, at the 

The Lynn j a a r 

eroieraiiis head of Cow Bay, found the Dutch arms erected upon a 
Bay. tree ; and Howe, the leader of the expedition, pulled them 
10 May. down. But the Sachem Penhawite, who had just before 
ceded all his rights to the Dutch, promptly informed Kieft 
that some "foreign strollers" had arrived at Schout's Bay, 
where they were felling trees and building houses, and 
"had even hewn down the arms of their High Mighti- 

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nesses," , Commissary Tan Curler waa sent to asoertain 
the facta; and the sachem's story was be tiue 
The arms of the States Geneial had been, torn down, am] 
in their place had been drawn " an unhandsome face " 

Kieft'a " high displeasure" was instantly aioused, andn^aj;. 
Van Tienhoven, the provincial secretary, was piomptly toi»n scm 
dispatched with the under-schout, a sergeant, and twentj tnBimrui- 
meii, to break up the settlement, arrest the trespasser*, 
and bring them to Fort Amsterdam. It was a whole day 
before the expedition reached the Schout's Bay. When is May. 
Van Tienhoven arrived at the English settlement, he 
found one house ah'eady built, another in progress, and 
" eight men, one woman, and a babe ;" for Howe and the 
rest ot h)s party, anticipating the danger which threaten- 
ed them, had aheady prudently retired. The trespassers the En- 
stated that they had been authorized to settle themselves paaaots 
theie by "a Scotchman named Farrett, the agent of Lord MsEHaiian. 
Stilling," who had left for New Haven, after the Dutch 
arms had been thrown down. Sayre and five more of the 
party weie immediately arrested and conveyed to Fort 
Amsterdam, whbre they were examined by the director le May. 
and oonncil, Satisfied that they had been instigated by 
othpis, Kieft liberated them from arrest, three days after- 19 May. 
ward, upon their signing an agreement to " leave the ter- 
ritory.of their High Mightinesses." 

Thus ended the attempt to plant an English colony 
within the present county of Q,ueens. Kieft immediately Kien 
addressed a letter, "in Latin," to Govemor Dudley atoovemor 
Boston, complaining of " the English usurpations," both Eoston. 
at Connecticut and on Long Island, and of the insult of- 
fered to the Dutch arms at Schout's Bay by the Lynn 
trespassers. Dudley returned an answer, also in Latin, Dudleys 
professing the desire to maintain a neighborly correspond- 
ence ; and that as to the Connecticut people, " they were 
not under our government, and for those at Long Island, 
they went voluntarily from us,"* 

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iHjp. IX, The ejection of the trespassers iiom Manhassett led, 
however, tci the immediate settlement of the town of South- 
MiKmoiit ampton, within the present county of Suffolk. Finding 
mpi™^ *hat the New Netherland authorities, while they utterly 
derided Lord Stirling's claim, were chiefly anxious to 
maintain their possession of tlie western extremity of 
Long Island, Farrett now determined to gain a permanent 
foothold at the east, near Lion Gardiner's settlement. He 
Lfjune. therefore released to Howe, Sayre, and Howell, and their 
associates, " all patent right of all those lands lying and 
heing hounded /between Peaconeoli and the easternmost 
point of Long Island, with the whole hreadth of the said 
island from sea to sea." The consideration stated hy Far- 
rett was " harge hire, hesides they heing drove off by the 
Dutch from the place where they were hy me planted," 
and a sum of money, " all amounting unto four hundred 
pounds sterling."* Under this release, Howe and his as- 
sociates came to Southampton, and obtained a conveyance 
13 Dec. of the Indian title in the following winter. The new plant- 
ation extended eastward from Canoe Place, on Shinneoock 
Bay, nearly to Sag Harbor, opposite Shelter Island, " com- 
1641. monly known by the name of Mr. Farrett's Island." The 
»-*prti- gj.gj^ town meeting was held early the next spring; and 
regular records were then commenced, which exist in good 
preservation, t 
1640. The adjoining town of Southold, on the north side of 
Peconick Bay, was settled nearly at the same time. Its 
first colonists were natives of England, who accompanied 
n^'eh- their minister, John Youngs, from Hingham, in Norfolk, 
"™' and first came to New Haven. From there they crf«sed 
over to "Yenneoock," near Greenport, and secured the 
Indian title to the land. The conveyance was taken m 
the name of New Haven, which for some years exer- 
cised a limited control over the settlement. A church 

IS Ihal TrranbulVs nc- 


19, isa. Savage, In a now TO Wimhrop, 

11.. p. 5, jus 

OBnt IB " nol very satisRiolory ;" and adds, 


* Loni. Doo,. i., 60, 63 ; N. Y. Col. MSS^, 


i„ 326-388 

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was " gathered anew ;" and the English colonists at South- ciap, ix, 
old, like their neighl)ora at Southampton, quietly pursued 
fcheir own way, without any opposition from the govern- ^i OdobeV 
ment at Fort Amsterdam.* 

Though an air of progress and improvement was al- Tardy sgri- 
ready manifest in the neighhorhood of Manhattan and coioniiii- 
Fort Orange, the unadjusted difficulties between the com-NEaiPt- 
pany and the patroons hindered the prosperity of the rest 
of Nflw Netherland, Even the plantation which De Vriea 
had established at Staten Island languished for want of 
proper colonists, for whom he had depended upon his part- 
ners at Amsterdam ; and finding " a beautiful situation" 
of full sixty acres of natural meadow-land on the river lo Feb, 
side, about five miles above Port Amsterdam, he went 
there to hve, partly " for the pleasure of it," and partly as 
there was hay enough for two hundred head of cattle, 
"which was a great article there." Well, however, as 
the patroou was acquainted with the southern and eastern 
coasts of New Netherland, he had never yet gone up the 
North River. His enterprising nature now led him to voyage of 
visit Port Orange, to "see the country there;" and hiswFonOr- 
oiroumstantial Journal — the only Itnown narrative of any 
Dutch navigator, except those given by De Laet and Pur- 
chas — ^haa left us an interesting record of the North River 
in the year 1640. 

Sailing from Fort Amsterdam in his own sloop, De Tries is April. 
arrived in the evening at " Tapaon," where he found aTappao. 
beautiful valley under the mountains, of about five hund- 
red acres in extent, and through which ran a fine stream, 
offering attractive mill-seats. Delighted with the spot, 
which, moreover, was so near Fort Amsterdam, he pur- 
chased it from the Indians. From Tappan he crossed over 
to 'Weckquaesgeek,+ where he observed the beautiful un- quMsgceii 

' Tramlinll, i., 119 ; Thompson, i., 374, 391. 

t Van Tlenbmen, In 1660, deactitiea Ibis region, wikh is now tlia lown of Green- 
burg, in Weal ChcBtet oonnty, sa a ilne land Itir cuUiTolion, and well walered. " It is 

Ion iiupposeE these atteams lo he, the one which runs threuEh Sing Sing, and Iha Byram 

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Chip. IX. dulating country full of evergreens, whence the ship-liuild- 
ers at Manhattan were accustomed "to procure ereen 
1640, . „ F s 


seApiii. "While passing Haveratraw, a creek was noticed, where 
straw. there was a waterfall, which " made such a noise that it 

could he heard from the river," At noon the sloop entered 
The High- the majestic Highlands, " ■which are prodigiously high 

stony mountains," where the river, at its narrowmost, was 

"not over five or six hundred paces wide." About sun- 
Dana-ka- set, reaching the " Dans-kamer," where there was a party 

of riotous savages, who only threatened trouble, the sloop's 

company " stood well on their guard."* 

57 April. The next day they came to the " Esoopes," where " a 

creek emptied, and the Indians had some cleared corn- 
catskiii. land." In the evening they reached "the Catskill," 
where there was some open land, upon which the Indians 
were planting corn. Up to this place the river banks were 
"all stony and hilly," and were judged to be "unfit for 

58 April, dwellings." At the " Beeren Island" many Indians were 
and. found fishing, and the beautiful meadows which skirted 

the river's banks were noticed aa very " good for cultiva- 
Braiidt tion." Toward evening the sloop arrived at Brandt Peel- 
isiand.^ en's, or Castle Island, " which lies a little below Fort Or- 
ange." Inviting De Vries to his house, Peelen astonished 
his guest by telling him that, for ten successive years, he 
had raised beautiful wheat there without ever summer- 
fallowing the land.t 
ao April. "While De Vries was enjoying Peelen's hospitality, a sud- 
freSei. den freshet inundated the island, which was ordinarily 
seven or eight feet above the tides. The flood lasted three 
days, during which the colonists were obliged to desert 
their houses, and betake themselves to the woods, where 

8 slatement is 




i.,169,wh0 8B 

Fas' luleraMy good. Then 





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they " pitched tents and kindled great fires." The waters chaf. 
even ran into Fort Orange. This freshet was probahly the "7" 
highest that had occurred on the Korth River since the 
great flood, which in 1617 swept away tlie first Fort 

The experience which De Vries had gained as a pa- Pronriewrs 
troon of Swaanendael did not incline him to look very laerawyok, 
favorably upon the proprietors of Rensselaerswyok ; who, 
" being commissaries of New Netherland," had taken good 
care of themselves, while the "naked fort" Orange was the 
"West India Company's sole possession. The patroons had 
all " the farms around, and the traffic, and every peasant 
was a trader." 

Yet the colonists lived amid nature's richest profusion. Abanaam 
In the foreste, by the water-side, and on the lalandb, grew pmdLcis of 
a rank abundance of nuts and plums ; the hills weie cov- 
ered with thickets of blackberries ; on the flat lands, near 
the rivers, wild sti'awberries came np so plentifully, that 
the people went there to ■' lie down and eat them," Vines 
covered with grapes, " as good and sweet as in Holland," 
clambered over the loftiest trees. Deer abounded in the 
forests, in harvest-time and autumn, " as fat as any Hol- 
land deer can be." Enormous wild turkeys, and myriads 
of partridges, pheasants, and pigeons, roosted in the neigh- 
boring woods. Sometimes the turkeys and deer came 
down to the houses and hog-pens of the colonists to feed ; 
and a stag was frequently sold by the Indians for " a loaf 
of bread, or a knife, or even for a tohacoo-pipe." The riv- 
er produced the finest fish ; and there was a " great plenty 
of sturgeon," which at that time the " Christians did not 
make use of, but the Indians eat them greedily." Flax 
and hemp grew spontaneously ; peltries and hides were 
brought in great quantities by the savages, and sold for 
trifles ; " the land was very well provisioned with all the 
necessaries of life," European manufactured goods, cloths, 
woolens, and linens were alone scarce and dear.* 

The colonie of K,ensselaerswyck was the only successful popuLation 

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chap. IX. patroonship under tlie charter of 1629 ; and the marvel- 
ous crops of corn which Peelen raised on his fertile island 
■ were for many years the wonder of New Netherland. Con- 
stant emigration from Holland rapidly increased its popu- 
lation ; and comfortable farm-houses, many of them huilt 
Devera- at the patroou's expense, arose at various points. Bevers- 
"'° ' wyok was already a village. Had the colonists contented 
themselves with agriculture, instead of seeking to "become 
traders as well, the prosperity of the frontier settlement of 
the province would have been assured. 
juriBdic- Arendt van Curler continued to act as the commissary 
painmia!'^ of the colonlc and the representative of the patroon. His 
jurisdiction included all the territory on both sides of the 
North Uiver, between Beeren Island and the mouth of the 
Port Of Mohawk, except the precinct of Fort Orange. This post, 
which was the property of the "West India Company when 
the first purchases in its neighborhood were made by Van 
Rensselaer, was always occupied by a small garrison, com- 
manded by officers under the immediate direction of the 
provincial authorities at Manhattan.* 
jndiciai According to the Charter of Privileges, the patroon was 
KTp" " invested with the ' ' chief command and lower jurisdiction" 
within his colonie. In person, ot by deputy, he might ad- 
minister justice, and prononnce and execute sentences for 
all degrees of crime. He had the power of life and death. 
He could decide civil suits. The right of appeal to the 
director and council at Manhattan was, indeed, nominally 
reserved to the colonists ; but the right was virtually an- 
nulled by the obligation under which all the colonists upon 
coioniaiin- the manor were obliged to come, not to appeal from the judg- 
donce and ments of the manorial tribunals. The civil law, the ordi- 
rnent. nances of the Province of Holland and of the United Neth- 
erlands, and the edicts of the West India Company, and 
of the director and council at Manhattan, were the legal 
code of New Netherland. The same code obtained when 

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duly published within the coionie ; and tlie colonists, in ch>p. ix. 
addition, were suhjected to such laws and regulations as 
the patroon or his local officers might establish. Theoret- 
ically, the patroon was always present in his court baron. 
Practically, the government of the colony was adminis- 
tered by a court composed of two commissaries and two 
Mchepens, assisted by the colonial secretary and the schout. 
The laws and Customs of the coionie partook largely of the Feuc\,ii 
spirit of feudalism. The terms of the leases under which m^otlni ' 
the farms were held required a return of all produce ; and nms. 
of this produce the patroon had the pre-emptive right. 
An annual ground-rent waa levied on each house erected. 
"When property changed hands, the patroon was privileged 
to have the first offer ; and if he declined to purchase, he 
was entitled to a certain proportion of the consideration 
money received. He was the legal heir of all intestates. 
"Without his leave, none could fish or hunt within the 
manor. At the patroon's mills alone could the colonists 
grind their corn. 

The greater part of the colonists were fai'iners and their cunditmu 
servants, who had been sent out from Holland at the pa- msis. 
troon's expense, For these farmers lands were set apart, 
houses erected, and stock and i^icultnral implements pre- 
vided. Besides these substantial encouragements, small 
advances of money and supplies of clothing were frequent- 
ly furnished to the emigrant on his leaving Holland. 
These advances the colonist was to repay after his arrival 
with a large interest. The capital of'the patroon was free- 
ly and liberally expended ; and the emigrant began his 
frontier toil vrith more ample resources and with gi-eater 
facilities than the first tenants of a wilderness generally 
enjoy. Yet the scheme of feudal colonization was not a 
happy one, either for emigrant or patroon. Apart fromRoauiiso 
the political evils which it entailed, it necessarily intro- m usnssi 
dueed a system of accounts which encouraged deceit and 
tempted to dishonesty. The payments of the colonists be- 
gan to fall in arrear ; the patroon's revenue suffered ; and 
he fek himself obliged, before long, to instruct hia colonial 

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X. oificers that there was "no latitude to be given to the 
"" consoienees or discretion of tlie boors, but the law to be 
' stringently enforced."* 

s Anxious to see the interior of the country, De Tries 
f, went tlirough the forests with several Indiana to visit the 
Mohawk. The Falls of the Cohooes seemed to him " as 
high as a church ;"t the waters, as tliey ran over, were 
" as clear as crystal, and as fresh as raUlt." Within the 
sound of their roar lived " Broer Cornells, "J at that time 
>- the frontier colonist of New Netherland. The Mohawks 
were noticed as a brave people, who had " brought the 
other tribes under contribution." They had enormous ca- 
noes, hollowed out of trees, and easily conveymg eighteen 
or twenty men. Their arms were bows and arrows, and 
stone axes and hammers, until they got guns from the 
Dut«h. " But he was a rascal who first sold them, and 
showed their uae ; for they said that it was the Devil, and 
did not dare to touch them. There used to be but one In- 
dian who went about with a gun, whom they called Kal- 
y- After a six weeks' sojourn, De Vries took leave of the 
laiD commander at Fort Oi'ange, and sailing rapidly down the 
' river, anchored, in the evening, at Esopus, " where a creek 
empties, and there is some corn land where some Indians 
^y- Uve."ll Setting sail at dawn of tlie next day, he observed 
at the Dans-kamer " many Indians a &hing ;" and pass- 
ing onward through the Highlands without any adven- 

*Hol. I)05..T., 364, SeO. 11., N. Y, H. S. Coll., ii.,330,a34; Itenas. MBS.; ttCalLil, 

3a0-3ii6, 443 1 MoultoB, 391 j BBiTiBtd'B Sketch, H8-iai. 
+ With less accnricy Iban Do Vrtos, Vnn der Donck Bsvoral years altorwaM " guesa- 

eil"ibesel^nsUi])BiiDBhnndnidBriilIlfty ortwobnndreaibatUgh.—lksEli, vBiiN. N., 

p, 9. Megapolensls (Hazard, !., BIS), on ttlB Mber hanii, esnollj nojnoldeB with De Vriea. 

TheM 18 a rsmarkaWe Bioiilartty— almost on Identity— In pans of the doscrlpUona by 
da's ITBCt WHB written in 1D44, and publlalted In 1G51. 
imol until 1855, BBveral yoara anal hia return to Holland, 
idoptsd much of MegapolcnsiB's war):, in regnrd lo atTaira 
a his tmn lesa polislied Inngugge. Tliia would account 

lis ion 

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tuie, he anchored over night at Tappon. The next mom- cmr-m- 
ing, a strong ebb tide and a fresh gale from the north- 
west carried the sioop, in three hours, safely to Fort Am- j^ ^^^^ ' 
sterdam. In the judgment of De Vries, the mountain- 
bordered stream was " little fitted to he peopled ;" for he 
had seen only "here and there a little corn-land, which 
the Indians had prepared by removing the stones." Yet 
his mariner's eye observed with admiration that "the 
tide runs np the whole river to Fort Orange ;" and per- 
haps, even at that early day, there were not wanting those 
who foresaw the swelling commerce which now rolls be- 
tween its cultivated hanics.* 

Up to this time, the int«rcourse between the Dutch and H<Ja«onc 
the Indians had been, upon the whole, friendly; and with """i"""- 
the opening of the fur trade, a large prosperity promised 
to visit New Wetherland. But freedom soon ran uito 
abuses ; and the temptation of gain led to injurious ex- 
cess. The colonists soon began to neglect agriculture for 
the quicker profits of traffic with the savages. To push 
their trade to the best advantage, the coloniste separated 
themselves from each other, and settled their abodes "far 
in the interior of the country," Presently they began to 
allure the savages to their houses " by excessive familiar- 
ity and treating." This soon hmught them into contempt sasoiiaix 
with the Indians, who, not being always used with i^i^" ?J'" '^'^ 
partiality, naturally became jealoiis, Some of the sava- 
ges, too, were occasionally employed as domestic servants 
by the Dutch. This unwise conduct only produced evil. 
The Indians frequently stole more than the amount of 
their wages ; and, running away, they acquainted their 
tribes with the habits, mode of life, and exact numerical 
strength of the colonists. The knowledge thus gained was 
used, before long, with fatal effect against the Europeans, 
whose presence now began to inconvenience the aborig- 
ines. For the colonists, in their avidity to procure pel- Dimcuui™ 
tries, neglected their cattle, which, straying away without savasas. 
herdsmen, injured the unfenoed corn-fields of the savages. 

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Chap. IX. Finding this tlie cause of much complaint, Kieft issued a 
proclamation, requiring all the inhahitanta whose land ad- 
joined that of the Indians to inclose their farms, so as to 
sHaj. prevent trespasses ttpon the red men. The evil, how- 
ever, continued ; and the Indians avenged themselves by 
"killing the cattle, and even the horses," of the Dutch.* 
Ti^ira- The most unhappy result of all was the supplying of 
yiedwiui the savages with new weapons of oiFense. The Iroquois 
warriors, from the day they first recoiled before the arque- 
buses of Champlain, dreaded the superiority of the Euro- 
peans. At first they considered a gun " the Devil," and 
would not touch it. But the moment they became ac- 
customed to their use, they were eager to possess the fire- 
arms of Europe. No merchandise was so valuable to 
them. "Por a musket they would willingly give twenty 
heaver skins. For a pound of powder they were glad to 
barter the value of ten or twelve guilders. Knowing the 
impolicy of arming the savages, the "West India Company, 
in wise sympathy with the English government, had de- 
clared contraband the trade in fire-arms ; and had even 
forbidden the supply of munitions of war to the Kew Neth- 
erland Indians, under penalty of death. But the lust of 
large gains quickly overcame prudence. The extraordi- 
nary profits of the traffic early became generally known ; 
and the colonists of Rensselaei-swyck and " free traders" 
from Holland soon bartered away to the Mohawks enough 
guns, and powder, and bullets for four hundred warriors. 
In the neighborhood of Manhattan, where a more rigid po- 
lice was maintained, the supply of arms was prevented. 
t:-.= river This, however, only excited the hatred of the river tribes 
fi>r,ijed. against the Dutch : for the Iroquois, in fuU consciousness 
of their renovated power, now not only carried open war 
into their enemies' country along the Saint Lawrence and 
the Great Lakes, but, more haughtily than ever, exacted 
the tribute which they claimed from the subjugated tribes 
between the Mohawk and the sea.t 

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While the river Indiana were brooding over what they chap. u. 
thought the unjust partiality of the Dutch toward the Ir- ~ZT7Z~ 
oquois, a new provocation was added to the existing an- .j^^ ,„. ' 
noyanee. Kieft, alleging " express orders" from Hoi- m^jJ^^ 
land, unwisely determined to exact the contribution of ^^ja^. 
com, furs, aiid wampum from the savages in the neigh- ^"°"^''- 
horhood of Fort Amsterdam, which he had resolved upon 
the previous autumn. The directors of the Amsterdam 
Chamber afterward positively denied that they had ever 
authorized the measure, or even knew that the contribu- 
tion had been exacted.* But the mischief was already 

The river Indians were now totally estranged. "TheKicniiniic- 
HoUanders," said the irritated savages, "are Materiotty — mp'wre. 
men of blood : though they may be 'lomethmg on the wa- 
ter, they are nothing on the land they have no great aa- 
ohom or chief." Perceiving the tempei of the Indians in Tiie Dutci 
his neighborhood, Kieft, in apprehensun of a sudden at- nrm ihcm- 
tack, oi'dered all the residents oi Manhattan to provide lo noy. 
themselves with arms ; and, at the firing of three guns, to 
repair, under their respective officers, " to the place ap- 
pointed," properly equipped for service.t 

But without waiting to be attacked, the imprudent di- 
rector soon found an opportunity to become the aggressor. 
It happened that some persons in the oompany's service, me Rati- 
on their way to the South River, landed at Staten Island edwimei. 
for wood and water ; and, on re-emharking, stole some siHicn isi- 
swine belonging to De Tries and to the company, which 
had been left there in charge of a negro. The hlame was 
thrown on the innocent B,aritan Indians, who Uved about 
twenty miles inland. These savages were also accused 
of haying attacked the yacht Yrede, which had been sent 
among them to trade for furs. No lives were lost, though' 
the Indians made off with the trading party's canoe.t 
Kieft rashly resolved to punish the alleged offenders 

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X, with admonitory severity. Van Tienhoven, the provincial 
~ secretary, wi^ commissioned to lead a party of fifty sol- 
' diera and twenty sailora to attack the Indians and destroy 
™ their corn, unless they should make prompt reparation, 
^ "When he reached his destination, Van Tienhoven demand- 
ed satisfaotion ; but his men, knowing the director's tem- 
per, wished to kih and plunder at once. This Van Tien- 
hoven refused to permit ; hut at last, vexed with their im- 
portunity, he left the party, protesting against their dis- 
obedience. Several of the Indians were killed ; their crops 
were destroyed ; and " such tyranny was perpetrated" by 
the company's servants, that there was now little hope of 
regaining the friendship of the savages.* 

Thus was laid the foundation of a bloody war, which, 
before long, desolated New Netherland, ^\lio3e piovmoial 
government had now lead to the Raritans iJie leshoni 
which four yeais befoie, Massachusetts had read to the 
Block Island Indians Ceteimined to pursue hia policy 
of lev\ ing contributions on the n\ei tribes, Kieft boon aft- 
ibcr.erwaid sent sloops up to Tappan, but the savages de- 
Im murred against the novel tribute. " They wondered how 
'^the sachem at the fort dared to exact such things from 
them." "He must be a very shabby fellow; he had 
come to live in their land when they had not invited him, 
and now came to deprive them of their corn for nothing. "t 
IV- They refused to pay the contribution, because the soldiers 
in Fort Amsterdam were no protection to the savages, who 
should not be called upon for their support ; because they 
had allowed the Dutch to live peaceably in their country, 
and had never demanded recompense ; because when the 
Hollanders, " having lost a ship there, had built a new one, 
they had supplied them with victuals and all other neces- 
saries, and had taken care of them for two winters, until 
the ship was finished," and therefore the Dutch were 
under obligations to them ; because they had paid full 
price for every thing they had purchased, and there was, 

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tlieiefore, no reason why tliey should supply the Holland- ch«p. ix. 
ers now " with maize for nothing ;" and, finally, said the 
savages,, hecause, " if we have ceded to you the country 
you are living in, we yet remain masters of what we have 
retained for ourselves."* 

In the mean time, the States General had instructed is Marcu. 
their deputies to the College of the XII. to aid in recon- pony's dif- 
ciling the differences hetween the patroons and the com- ntramw;. 
pany, and devise some plan by which the colonization of 
the province might he promoted, and its inhabitants put 
" in the heat condition." The company accordingly agreed 
upon a new charter of " Freedoms and Exemptions" for 
all pafcroons, masters, and private persons, which was sent lo My. 
to the Hague, and promptly approved. 

The new charter amended materially the obnoxious in- Now ch»r- 
strument of 1629. " All good inhabitants of the Wether- trmms, 
lands" were now allowed to select lands and form colo- 
nies, which, however, were to be reduced in size. Instead 
of four Dutch miles, they were limited to one mile along 
the shore of a hay or navigable river, and two miles into 
the country. A' free right of way by land and water was 
reserved to all ; and, in case of dispute, the director gen- 
eral of New Wetherland was to decide. The feudal privi- 
leges of erecting towns and appointing their officers; the 
high, middle, and lower jurisdiction; and the exclusive 
right of hunting, fishing, fowling, and grinding com, were 
continued to the patroons as an estate of inheritance, with 
; to females as well as males. On every such 
3 of ownership, the company was to receive a pair 
of iron gauntlets and twenty guilders, within one year. 

Besides the patroons, another class of proprietors wasneadHoi 
now established. Whoever should convey to New Neth- 
erland five grown persons besides himself, was to be rec- 
ognized as a " master or colonist;" and could occupy two 
hundred acres of land, with the privilege of hunting and 
fishing. If settlements of such colonists should increase 
in numbers, towns and villages might be formed, to which 

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i:hap. IX. mtmieipal governments were pi-omised. The magistrate,-:! 
in such towns were to be selected by the director and 
council, " ffom a triple nomination of the best iiualified in 
the said towns and villages." From these courts, and 
irom tire courts of the patroons, an appeal might lie to tlie 
director and council at Manhattan. The company guar- 
anteed protection, in case of wai, to all the colonists ; but 
each adult male emigrant was bound to provide himself, 
before he left Holland, with a proper musket, ov a hanger 
and side arms, 
oomrner- The Commercial privileges, which the iixst charter had 
"ogesox- restricted to the patroons, were now extended to all " free 
coloniata," and to all the stockholders in the company. 
Nevertheless, the company adhered to a system of onerous 
impcffits, for its own benefit ; and required a duty of ten per 
cent, on all goods shipped to New Netherland, and of five 
per cent, on all return cargoes, excepting pelti'iea, which 
were to pay ten per cent, to the director at Manhattan be- 
fore they could be exported. All shipments from New 
Netherland were to be landed at the company's ware- 
houses in Holland. The prohibition of manufactures 
within the province was, however, abolished. The com- 
pany renewed its pledge to send over "as many blacks 
as possible ;" and disclaiming any interference with the 
" high, middle, and lower jurisdiction" of the patroons, re- 
served to itself supreme and sovereign authority over New 
Netherland, promising to appoint and support competent 
officers "for the protection of the good, and the punish- 
ment of the wicked." The provincial director and coun- 
cil were to decide alt questions respecting the rights of the 
company, and all complaints, whether by foreigners or in- 
habitants of the province ; to act as an Orphan's and Sur- 
rogate'a Court ; to judge in criminal and religious affairs, 
Dntth' ^""^ generally to administer law and justice. No other 
^Hj*"" rehgion " save that then taught and exercised by author- 
ihSofoie ^^y' ^^ ^"^^ Reformed Church in the United Provinces," 
ptoviiica, yf^g i^ ])g puljlioly sanctioned in New Netherland, where 

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the company bound itself to maintain proper preachers, ckap. ix. 
schoolmasters, and comforters of the sick.* "''""■" 

New Netherland soon felt a fresh impulse to her pi'os-pf,, ; 
perity. De Vries now " took hold" in earnest of his pur- ijon"'''" 
chase, the previous spring, fcom the Indians at Tappan, 
and hegan a colonie at his new estate, which he named 
" Vriesendael," It was beautifully situated along the i^J'^'^^^ ^^ 
river side, sheltered by high hills ; and the fertile valley, ^^f^^" 
through which wound a stream, affording handsome mill 
seats, yielded hay enough, spontaneously, for two hund- 
red head of cattle. Buildings were soon erected, and 
Triesendael became, for several years, the home of its en- 
ergetic owner.t 

Early the next year, another colonie was estahhshed, 1641 
"within an hour's walk" of Vriesendael, by Myndert Myn- HorBrE'coL. 
derteen van der Horst, of Utrecht, The new plantation ex- ™Mn- 
tended from "Achter Cul,"t or Newark Bay, north toward^" ' 
Tappan, and included the valley of the Haokinsack E,iver. 
The head-quarters of the settlement were about five or sis 
hundred paces from the village of the Hacliinsack Indians, 
where Van der Horst's people immediately commenced the 
erection of a post, to be garrisoned by a few soldiers.! 

Cornells Melyn now returned to New Netherland, with so August 
his family and servants, to begin a colonie on Staten Isl- Meijn mi 
and, an order for which he had procured in Holland from and. 
the directors of the Amsterdam Chamber. De Vries, who 
was already in possession of a part of that island, felt ag- 
grieved at this interference ; hut Kieft, who had himself 
jnst established a small distillery and a buckskin manu- 
factory there, soon obtained the patroon's consent to Me- 
lyn's establishing a plantation near the Narrows, provided 
" his rights should not be prejudiced." The Staten Island 
Indians soon afterward committing acts of hostility, the 

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p. IX. director and council ordered a small redoubt to be built on 
~ one of the headlands ; and the soldiers stationed there were 
' ordered to make a signal bv raising a flag, to warn tlie 

ffj™,^„, officers at Fort Amsterdam whenever any vessels arrived 


m the Sower bay. In the course of the following sum- 
mer, Kieft issued a formal patent, granting to Melyn the 
privileges of a patroon over all Staten Island, excepting 
De Vrics's reserved "bouwerij."* 

Municipal affairs engaged much of the attention of the 
'r" bustling director. Fresh regulations were published for 
= the beth r observance of Sunday ; and the tapping of beer 
duiing Divine service, and after ten o'clock at night, was 
inciai furbidden The currency of the province, too, was re- 
•"'•' formed The coins of Europe were seldom seen in New 
Netherland, Payments were almost universally made in 
sewan or vrampum ; and for many years the Sunday con- 
tributions in the churches continued to be paid in this na- 
tive currency, of which tiiat of Long Island and Manhat- 
tan was always esteemed the best. Of this " good splen- 
did sewan, usually called Manhattan's sewan," fom' beads 
were reckoned equal to one stiver. By degrees, however, 
inferior wampum, loose and unstrung, began to take the 
place of the better currency ; and even, in the judgment 
of the director, to threaten "the rain of the country." An 
iprij. order in council, therefore, directed that the loose beads 
npum should pass at the rate of six for a stiver. The only rea- 
son why the "loose sewan" was not entirely prohibited 
was, "because there was no coin in circulation, and the 
laborers, boors, and other common people having no other 
money, would be great losers." To encourage the grow- 
ing tendency toward agricultural pursuits, two annual 
rHBBiab- fairs, the one for cattle and the other for hogs, were soon 
^m- afterward established at Manhattan.! 

Had the government of New Netherland been in the 
hands of a " prudent" director, its prosperity would, per- 

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haps, have now teen permanently established. But pru- chif. 
dence was not an element in Kieft's character. His levy" 
of contributions had already alienated the savages around ^^^^ 
Manhattan ; and the cruelties inflicted upon the Raritans 5^^"" 
had aroused a feeling of revenge, which only waited a fit- 
ting moment for its display. 

'rhat moment came. "While they cajoled the director The lun- 
by peaceful messages, the E,aritans suddenly attacked De ?f^J .J""^^! 
Vries's unprotected plantation on Staten Island. Four of "^W^™' 
his planters were killed, and his dwelling and tobacoo ■J«n=- 
house burned. Thus the feeble colony was smothered at 
its birth, through K.ieft's blind folly in '* visiting upon the 
Indians the wrongs which his own people had done."* 

Folly breeds folly. The director no sooner heard how 
the Baritans !iad avenged their wrongs, than he resolved 
upon their extermm-itirn ' The sa\ages of Rautan daily Kien ^en 
grow bolder" — so began the pioclamBtion, in which Kipftiiieonenii- 
offered a bounty of ten fathom? ot wampum toi the head * Jmy. 
of every one of that tiihe For each head of the actml 
murderers, twenty fathoms were pronnied t 

Incited by the ofieied bountici, some oi the Rivei In- 
dians attacked the Raiitans In the autumn, a ohiet ol skot 
the Tankitekes, li Haveiotiaw tribe, named Pacham, provoked, 
"who was great v^ith the governor at the fort," came m 
triumph to Manhattan, with a dead man's hand hanging 
on a stick, This he presented to Kieft as the hand of the 
chief who had killed the Dutch on Staten Island. " I 
have taken revenge for the sake of the Swannekens," said 
Paohara, " for I love them as my best friends."1: 

Meanwhile, the island of Manhattan had become the 
scene of a "bloody retribution. Revenge never dies in the 
breast of the Indian. It may slumber for years, but it is 
never appeased until the "just atonement" which Indian 
law demands is fully paid. The young "Weckquaesgeel; 
savage, whose uncle had been murdered near "the Kolck," 
during the building of Port Amsterdam, wais now grown 

* De Vries, 163 ; AM). Rec, ii., ISS i Wintllrop, ii„ 33. t Alb. Rec, 11., 158, im 

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ch.p. IX. to man's estate, and upon liim Indian usage imposed the 

duty of avenging liis kinsman's unatoned death. The 

loll. "y^eQjjq^a^esgeeks were in the constant hahit of visiting 
Manhattan ; and their beaten trail passed near the Deutel 
Bay, on the East River, where Claea Smits, a liarmless 
Dutehraan, had tuilt a small house, and was carrying on 
A D«ub- the trade of a wheel-wright. The nephew of the murder- 
iiorai ii ' ed savage, coming to the wheel- wright's humhle dwelling. 
Hay stopped to hart«r some beaver akina for duffels. While 
"^ ' the unsuspecting mechanic was stooping over the great 
chest ui which he kept his goods, the savage, seizing an 
axe, killed him by a blow on the neck. The murderer 
quickly plundered his victim's lonely abode, and escaped 
with his booty. 
■I'he Week- Kioft promptly sent to "Weckquaesgeek to demand satis- 
juXjTiie faction. But the murderer replied, that while the fort 
was building, he, and his uncle, and another Indian, bring- 
ing some beaver skins to trade, were attacked by some 
Dutchmen, near the " Fresh "Water," who killed his un- 
cle, and stole his peltries. " This happened while I was 
a small hoy," said the savage, " and I vowed to revenge 
it upon the Dutch when I grew up ; I saw no better 
soAngoBi. chance than with thia Claea the wheel-wright." The sa- 
chem of the tribe refused to deliver up the criminal ; who, 
he said, had but avenged, after the manner of his race, the 
murder of his kinsman by the Dutch, more than twenty 
years before. Some soldiers were then sent out from the 
fort to arrest the assassin ; but they returned disappointed.* 
Kicfi'sanx- The director burned to ti'eat the ffeokquaesgeeks as he 
™°' had treated the E,aritans, and commence open hostilities. 
Yet he feared to exasperate the people, who charged him 
with seeking a war in order to make " a wrong reckoning 
with the company," and who now began to reproach him 
for .personal cowardice. It was all veiy well, they said, 
for him, "who could secure his own life in a good fort, 
out of which he had not slept a single night in all the 

' De Tries, IH; onie.p. 169, aSSi Hoi, Doo„ii„87Si v., S14i Journal van N, N., in 

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yoara he liatl been here." Kieft perceiving that he would chap, ix, 
have to bear the whole responsibility of the proposed war, 
reluctantly sought the counsel of the community.* 

All the masters and heads of families at Manhattan and 
its neighborhood were accordingly summoned to meet atasAugiiM 
Fort Amsterdam, " to resolve there on something of the 
first necessity ."t On the appointed day, Kieft submitted as alsh^.. 
these questions to the fii'st popular meeting ever held in fiwi mun 
New Netherland, " Is it not ji^t that the murder lately eommoimi- 
committedby a savage upon Claes Smits be avenged and provim^,,. 
punished ; and in case the Indians will not surrender the 
murderer at our requisition, is it not just to desti'oy the 
whole village to which he beSoi^? In what manner, 
and when ought this to be executed ? By whom can this 
be effected ?" 

The assembly promptly chose " Twelve Select Men" to " fiveiv^ 
consider the propositions submitted by the director. These i^inted, 
persons were Jacques Eentyn, Maryn Adriaensen, Jan Jau- 
sen Dam, Hendrick Jansen, David Pietersen de Vries, 
Jacob Stoffelsen, Abrara Molenaar, Frederik Luhberteen, 
Jochem Pietersan (Kuyter), Gerrit Dircksen, George Itap- 
elje, and Ahram Planoit. Of these first representatives 
of the people of New Netherland, De Vries was chosen 
president. The " Twelve Men" were all Hollanders, or 
emigrants from Holland.t 

The popular representatives did not delay their answers ao AngnM, 
to Kieft's questions. While they agreed that the murder ihbtwoiv, 
of Smita should be avenged, they thought that " God and 
the opportunity" ought to be taken into consideration; 

* De Vries, 165, t Alb. Roc, tt,, !30. 

1 Hoi. Doo., v., 337-339 ; Alb. Bee, il„ 136, 137 ; il., N. Y. II. S. Coll.,i„ WT, K8. Bo 
Vries, 165, aaya ihai Kleft caosefl the eleollon of the Twelve Men "to Bid liiniin iranag- 
ing the afltoff o( the country j" hut Van dar Donck, In his " Verloogh," wrltlcn sl|iil 
jeaiB afterward, BlBtmB lUat lliey "had In jndieial inallerfl neither vole nor advlc*, huf 

pawB,"— ii,,N.Y,H,S. Coll,, ii,, 300. Of ilvese" Twelve Men," Benlyn was one of Van 
TwUler-a council ; Adriaensen oame out as a colonist to Renaselaerswyck In 1631 ; Dam 

was one of Van Twiner's eommissuies, and had married the widow of Van Voorst, of 

eame out in 16S9 i Kapelje was one of the orieinal Walloon seltlera at tlie Waal-bost i 
Plancli, or Verplanck, was aftrmer at Panliis' IToecli ; of Molenaar and Dircksen the reo- 
«dE say little ; of He Vriesmneh. 

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chif. ix. and that the dii-ector should make the necessary prepara- 

tionsj and especially procure a sufficient numter of coats 

' of mail " for the soldiers, as well as for the freemen, who 
are willing to pay their share in these expenses." Trade 
and intercourse with the savages should, nevertheless, 
he temporarily maintained, and no hostile measure be at- 
tempted by any one, " of whatever state or condition," es 
cept against the murderer himself, until the hunting set 
son. Then it would be proper to send out two partie; 
the one to land near the "Archipelago," or Norwalk Isl- 
ands, and the other at Weokquaesgeeli, " to surprise them 
from both sides." As the director was commander of the 
soldiery as well as governor, he " ought to lead the van ;" 
while the community offered their persons "to follow his 
steps and obey his commands." Yet they humanely add- 
ed, "we deem it adviaable that the director send further, 
once, twice, yea, for the third time, a shallop, to demand 
the surrender of the murderer in a friendly manner, to 
punish him according to his deserts."* 
Bu vrics's To these official answers of the Twelve Hen Be Vries, 
i;ounMi3. who keenly felt his double losses at Swaanendael and 
Staten Island, adde(i his own opinion. The Dutch were 
all scattereil about the country, and their cattle running 
wild in the woods. " It would not he advisable to attack 
the Indians until, we had more people, like the English, 
who had built towns and villages." Besides, the directors 
of the Amsterdam Chamber were resolutely opposed to 
war ; for when applied to for pemiission to commence 
hostilities against the South River Indians, who had de- 
stroyed Swaanendael,' they had replied, "you must keep 
at peace with the savages. But Kieft " did not wish to 
listen, "t 
Kietturgiis At length the hunting season came; and Kieft, impa- 
tient to attack the Weokquaesgeeks, was even more anx- 
ious to secure the concurrence of the Twelve Men. To ac- 
1 Nov. complish his favorite design, he now asked them, separate- 
ly, for their opinions on the question of immediate hostil- 

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ities. Had he convened them in a "body, he suspected, and caip. ix. 
with reason, that the popular delegates would hardly con- '"!"^'Vr' 
tent theniselves with answering hia queries ; they would 
very prohably turn their attention to the condition of the 
provincial government. But the impatient director was 
again foiled. The separate opinions of a majority of the rue 
Twelve Men were for procrastination. The savages were m™ op- 
still too much on their guard : it was better, at ail events, liioa. 
to await the arrival of the next vessel from the Father- 
land. De Vrie,^, the president, was decidedly opposed to 
hostilities with the Indians under any circumstances.* 
For a time longer war was averted. 

The Swedes had, meanwhile, continued in quiet pos-TUe 
session of Fort Christijia, on the South River, The first ma somh 
year after their settlement they prospered abundantly, and 
did " about thirty thousand florins' injury" to the trade of 
the Hollanders. During the second whiter of their resi- 
dence, however, receiving no succors from home, they 
were reduced to great exteeraities, and so much discour- 1640. 
aged, that the next spring they resolved " to break wp, and **""' 
oome to Manhattan."! But unexpected relief was at hand. 
The fame of the pleasant valley of the South Uiver, 
which had now reached Scandinavia, began also to spread 
through the United Pi-ovinces ; and several prominent Hol- 
landers, in apparent dwegard of the claims of their own 
West India Company, undertook to send out emigi-ants 
there, unijer the authority of the Swedish government. A 
letter, signed by Osenstierna and his colleagues, was ac-ai,ianuaiT 
oordingly obtained by Tan der Horst and others, of Utrecht, ish govem- 
deelaring that they were permitted "to establish them-Mmtase 
selves on the north side of the South River, and there tofiflmiioi- 
found a colony ;" and a passport was also issued in favor sontix rit- 
of the ship Fredenburg, commanded by Jacob Powelson, 
who was about departing from Holland with colonists for 
New Sweden. Yan der Horst, however, upon further con- 
sideration, apparently preferring to avail himself of the 

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CHie. IS. new charter for patroona, did not accept the Swedish grant, 
which was, therefore, transferred to Henry Hookhammer. 
iiociihnm- ^^ authorized him and his associates to send out vessek, 
gr™t oattle, and colonists from Holland under the royal protec- 
tion, and to take up aa much land' on both sides of the 
South River as should be necessary for then- purposes, pro- 
vided it be " at least four to five German miles from Fort 
Chiiatina." The exercise of the Reformed religion of Hol- 
land was guaranteed, and the support of ministers and 
30 Jonoory. schoolmasters enjoined. Joost de Bogaerdt was appoint- 
Hasriicom-ed spedal commandant of the new colony, at an annual 
salary from the Swedish government of five hundred flor- 
ins, or two hundred rbc dollars, " to be remitted to his 
hanker in Holland" by the Swedish resident at the Hague.* 
April. Powelson reached the Delaware early in the spring. His 

Swedes en- arrival gladdened the desponding Swedes, who had de- 
termined to abandon Fort Christina the next day. The 
new coloniste from Holland were soon settled a few miles 
south of the fort, under the superintendence of De Bo- 
gaerdt. Traffic with the Indians was now prosecuted 
with vigor, and the Dutch West India Company's trade 
on the South Kiver was " entirely ruined." In the follow- 
II October, ing autumn, Kieft wrote from Manhattan to the Amster- 
dam Chamber, informing them of the " re-enforcement of 
people" which the Swedes had received the previous spring, 
"otherwise it had been arranged for themto come here;" 
but stating his intention to treat them "vrith every po- 
liteness, although they commenced, with many hostilities, 
forcibly to build, attack our fort, trading, and threatening 
to take our boats."! 
PetETHoi- The same autumn, Peter HollGsndare arrived from G-ot- 
tenburg, at Fort Christina, as deputy governor of New 
Sweden, bringing a number of fresh colonists and the 
Mqunca promised supplies. Mounce Kling, who had formerly act- 
ed as deputy to Minuit, followed soon afterward with two 
ve^els. The Swedes now purchased additional lands 

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from the Indians ; and, in token of tJie sovereignty of chip. [k. 
tlieii queen, set up "the arms, and crown of Sweedland." 
The next year, it is said, that Peter Minuit died at hisn^^jn^f' 
post, and was buried at Fort Christina, which he had"'"""' 
"protected during three years." On his death, Hollisn- 
dare, the deputy governor, succeeded to the command, 
" who, after one year and a half, returned to Sweden, and 
ohtained a military post there."* 

The enterprising men of Connecticut were now hoping n™ ho- 
to ohtain a foothold on the Delaware, which, hitherto, had p^™ a 
been occupied exclusively by the Dutch and the Swedes, oi. me 
Sometime during the year 1640, Captain Nathaniel Turn- er. 
er, as the agent of New Haven, is said to have made a 
large purchase of lands " on both sides of Delaware Bay 
or River." In the following spring, a "hark or ketch" Lambenoi. 
was fitted out at New Haven hy G-eorge Lamberton, aweipsm- 
prinoipal merchant there, and dispatched to the Delaware, 
under the command of Robert Cogswell, When the ves- 
sel reached Manhattan, Kieffc learning her destination, and 
warned by his experience with the Hartford people, in- 
stantly protested against the enterprise ; and notified the s Apm. 
New England adventurers not to "build nor plant upon MannatisT 
the South River, lying within the lunits of New Nether- 
land, nor on the lands extending along there," unless they 
would agree to settle themselves under, the States Gen- 
eral and the West India Company, and swear allegiance 
to them. But upon Co^well's assurance that they did 
not intend to intrude upon any territory over which the 
States (Jeneral had authority ; and that if they found no 
land free from claims, they would either peaceably return, 
or else settle themselves in allegiance to the Dutoh gov- 
ernment, the New Haven bark was allowed to proceed.! pSS* 

Aided hy a refugee Pequod sachem, the New Haven 
adventurers succeeded in purchasing from the Indians 
" what land they desired" on both sides of the South Riv- 

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ouip. IX, er. Trading-houses were immediately commenced at the 

Yaikens' Kill, near Salem in New Jersey, and also "on 

siiite^nia *^^ Schuylkill," where about twenty English families set- 
KiuS'ihe *'^ themselves. The same summer, the General Court 
mjubusl ^^ ^^"^ Haven resolved that the plantations in Delaware 
Bay should be considered " in comhination with this 
town ;" and Turner was formally authorized to go there, 
" for his own advantage and the public good, in settling 
the affairs thereof"* 
veiMioija While adventurers from New Haven were thus intrud- 
theHtti- ing within southern New Netherland, the English colo- 
isA^ii. "'nista at Hartford were pertinaciously vexing the Dutch, 
and endeavoring, by petty annoyances around Fort Good 
Hope, to drive them out of the valley of the Connecticut. 
" Will ye three resist the whole English village ?" cried 
the assailants, as the Holland plowmen sturdily endeav- 
ored to maintain their rights. An appeal to Governor 
Hopkins brought no redress. "Upon receiving intelligence 
ojuns. of these new provocations, Kieft ordered a force of fifty 
oe^B^men to he dispatched, in two yachts, to Fort Good Hope, 
under the command of La Montagno. " But," wrote Win- 
throp, ." it pleased the Lord to disappoint the purpose" of 
the Dutch ; for the Staten Island Indians just then sud- 
denly attacking De Vries's plantation, the New Nether- 
land authorities "were forced to keep their soldiers at 
The Han- home to defend themselves." The Hartford people, how- 
lecet uieir evcr, thought it prudent to lay a statement of their case 
Massachu- bcforc the government of Massachusetts, " foi advice about 
•a June, the difference between them and the Dutch " Belling- 
ham, by direction of the General Couit, accoidingly "re- 
^Bfiy. turned answer, without determining of either 'iide, but 
advising to a moderate way, as the yielding lome more 
land to the Dutch house — for they had left them but thirty 
acres."t Thus Massachusetts quietly n piovcd the cupid- 
ity of Connecticut. 


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In the mean time, events had occurred in England c 
which were to have a material influence upon the rival " 
European colonies ia America. Soon after the meeting 
of the " Long Parliament," among the memhers of which^^g^^"^. 
Vfere many zealous friends of New England, the Puritan *"'"''■ 
emigrants were urged to "send over some" to solicit fa- 
vors for them in that body, to which the king had now 
loft "great liberty." At first, the suggestion was declined. 
But the next year, news of the fall of the Earl of Straf- 1641. 
ford, and of Archbishop Laud, their "great enemy," reach- ^^''""• 
ing Massachusetts, tire General Court thought fit " to send 
some chosen men into England, to congratulate the hap- 
py success there," and "to be ready to make use of any 
opportunity God should offer, for the good of the country 
here." The persons chosen for this service were theBrtegaws 
" fiery" Hugh Peters, pastor of the church in Salem, MaasaohB- 
Thomas "Welde, pastor of the church in K.oxbury, and 
William Hibbins, of Boston. The younger "Winthrop also 
aceompariied the commissioners, who presently sailed forsAugnsi. 
England hy way of Newfoundland.* 

The Hartford people now determined to arrange, if pos-HopkiM 
Bible, their controversy with the Dutch. Edward Hop- Hannird. 
kins, who had. just been succeeded by John Haynes as 
governor, being about to visit London, the General Couvtasopi. 
desired him "to arbitrate or issue the difference betwixt 
ttie Dutch and us, as occasion shall be offered when he is 
in England. "t As Peters was well acquainted with some 
of the leading members of the "West India Company, it 
was thought that advantage might be taken of that cir- 
cumstance to " pacify" the directors, and arrange, if pos- 
sible, the questions in dispute between New Netherland 
and New England.^ "Winthrop and Haynes, as governors 
of Massachusetts and Connecticut, accordingly signed a 
joint letter authorizing Peters, " if occasion permit him to 
go to the Netherlands, to treat with the West India Com- 
pany there concerning a peaceable neighborhood between" 

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cii«p. IX. the New England and Hew Netherland colonisfa. A ae- 
lies of "propositions," the scope of which was to induce 
loocioDM. the Amsterdam directors to define the limits between the 
^S™" Dutch and English territory; "abstain from molesting" 
HiK""" the English on the Conneeticut ; and " see in the inhah- 
^panj'" itants of New England, who numher about forty thousand 
souls, a people who covet peace in thoir ways, the plant- 
ing of the Gospel above all things, and not to cause trouble 
or injury in any manner whatever to the company," was 
also sent out to Peters.* 

The New England agents, on reaching London, found 
many warm friends of the Puritan colonies. Among these, 
Dr. L»w- was Dr. Lawrence Wright, of the Charter House, an " hon- 
Wfiebt, of ored friend" of Hopkins.t Wright was also a familiar 
correspondent of Sir William Boswell, the English minu- 
ter at the Hague ; to whom he immediately sent a memo- 
1642. rial which Hopkins had drawn up, on the subject of the 
s^mu^ English settlements in Connecticut. In a few days, Bos- 
BQ«?eu'8 ,f/Q\\ replied to Wright, lamenting that the unsettled state 
Wrishi. of English domestic politics had diminished his own in- 
fluence with the Dutch government ; but suggesting that 
the parties in London who had drawn the memorial 
should procure from Parliament, or, " at least, from the 
House of Commons," some declaration, " whereby it may 
appear that they take notice and care of our people and 
plantations in those parts." Formal instructions on the 
subject should also be sent him from the council ; and 
" persona of quality" should acquaint the Dutch ambassa- 
dor in London with the state of the case. But, above ail, 
Boswell urged that, in the mean time, the English in Con- 
necticut should "not forbear to put forward their planta- 
tions, and crowd on — crowding the Dutch out of those 
places where they have occupied."^ 

pacify Ihe WeK India Company," 
laiimfiina Oase ofBsrtford." 
.1. Rsc Conn,, App., p. 545, 563. 

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, 1642. 



The spirit of popular freedom which the Dutch colo- c 
niats brought with them to New Netherland had already" 
made itself feltty the provincial government. Under thspj 
pressure of publio sentiment, Kieft, though intrasted with ^^ „|^ 
almost dictatorial authority, had been compelled to sum- JUIifi^uaa 
mon the people into council, and yield his personal wishes 
to the judgment of their representatives. The war which 
the director was anxious to begin, had been postponed by 
the votes of the Twelve Men. But Kieft did not abandon 
his design ; the moment winter had fairly set in, he con- 
voked again the popular delegates. 

The Twelve Men met accordingly. The murderer oimiavm- 
Smits had not been delivered up; and the Indians wereTwetvB 
now on their hunting oxcuraions. It was, therefore, agi^eed comoiiefi. 
that an expedition should be prepared at once to attack 
the "Weokquaesgeelis. The director should head it in per- 
son, and the commissariat of the company should provide 
ammunition and necessary provisions. Such of the expe- 
dition as might be wounded while on service shcmld be 
nursed, and their families maintained at the expense of 
the company, which had promised to "protect and do- 
fend" all the colonists.* Upon these conditions the Twelve abbchi u 
Men assented to the hostile measures which Kieft so urg- p^j«^" 
ently pressed. Their assent was unwillingly given; ita^inMi 
was conditional, specific, and Umited; it was obtained qusw- 
on!y after repeated solicitations had failed to procure the 
surrender of an identified murderer ; it had no ultimate 

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.gn to exterminate an aboriginal race, that strangers 
"might turn the red man's pleasant hunting grounds into 
' fields of waving corn. 
t^naiai But the popular representatives were not content to lim- 
^«Jv8 it their action to the registry of a proposed decree of their 
director. The time had now come for the people to talte 
the initiative. For many generations, the towns and vil- 
lages of the Fatherland had heen accustomed to the gov- 
ernment of magistrates elected by their fellow-citizens. 
Domineering arrogance was restrained, and honest ambi- 
tion encouraged, by the system of rotation in office, under 
which the burghers of Holland annually invested new 
candidates with municipal dignities. The self-relying 
men, who had won their country from the sea, and their 
liberties from the relaxing grasp of feudal prerogative, 
knew that they could govern themselves ; and they did 
govern themselves.* 

Why should the system, under which Holland had pros- 
pered and grown great, not be transplanted into New 
Netherland ? It was tme, indeed, that the circumstances 
of the Fatherland differed somewhat from those of itd prov- 
ince. The supreme government at the Hague had unwise- 
ly committed the management of New Netherland to a 
commercial corporation, whose enormous monopoly, at the 
same time, comprehended intevesta in comparison with 
which even the affairs of an embryo empire were too often 
esteemed insignificant. But if the Fatherland sometimes 
forgot its transatlantic province, the emigrants from Hol- 
DeBitoiho land did not, in their wilderness home, forget the country 
orthe Fa. of their birth, nor her local names, her religion, her laws, 
and her freedom. When they first emigrated, they volun- 
tarily pledged themselves to submit to the government of 
the West India Company. For many years they did pa- 
tiently submit to that government; and though experi- 

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ence had prompted many to long for those franchises chjp. x 
which they had enjoyed in Holland, no oppoitunity for in- 
troducing any political reforms had yet occurred. 

The grievance which they felt moat oppr^sively was orgmnis- 
the organization of the Council of New Netherland. This, Pravmcioi 
in effect, was the director alone; for La Montagne, thechisfgtiev- 
oniy nominal counselor, had hut one vote, while Kieft re- 
served two votes to himself. It often happened, however, 
that the director found it necessary to have the assistance 
of other persona ; and on these occasions, instead of call- 
ing upon such of the colonists as were the most compe- 
tent and wortSiy, he invariably chose some of the inferior 
agents of the company ; " common people," who were de- 
pendent immediately upon himself for their daily emolu- 
ments. This naturally excited criticism and distrust; 
and the dkcontent of the community was now officially 
expressed in a memorial to the director. The Twelve Men 
demanded that the colonial council should he reorganized, si smanty 
and the number of its members increased, so that there Twei™ 
should be at least five ; for, argued the popular represent- mand r* 
atives, "in the Fatherland the council of even a small 

village consists of five or seven schepens." To save " the 
land fcom oppression," four persons, elected by the com- 
monalty, should have seats in the colonial council. Two 
of these four counselors should annually be replaced by 
two others, to be chosen from the Twelve Men selected by 
the people. The company's " common men" should no 
longer have seats in the council. Judicial proceedings 
should he had only before a full board. The mihtia of the 
province should be mustered annually, and every male, 
capable of bearing arms, should be required to attend with 
a good gun ; the company to furnish each man with half 
a pound of powder for the occasion. Every freeman should 
be allowed to visit vessels arriving from abroad, " as the 
custom is in Holland." All the colonists should enjoy 
the right freely to go to and trade with the neighbor- 
ing places belonging to friends and allies, always paying 
the company's duties and imposts. To these demands, 

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Chap. X. coiiceived in an enlarged and liberal spirit, the Twelve 
Men added two others, dictated by a short-sighted impol- 
■ icy. As some kinds of cattle imported from Holland had 
fallen in value, in consequence of the sale of English stock 
within New Netherland, they asked that, in future, En- 
glish traders should be allowed to introduce oxen and poul- 
try only, and should be forbidden to sell cows or goate. 
And, to prevent the currency of the proYince being ex- 
ported, they solicited that its nominal value should be 
Kifii'awn- Kieft's jealousy was aroused by the demands of the pop- 
ular delegates ; but he saw the imprudence of refusing 
any concessions. He replied, that lie had already written 
to Holland, and expected, by the first ships, "some per- 
sons of quality," and " a complete council." The " com- 
mon men" had been called upon because the council was 
so small ; but the commonalty might now choose four per- 
sons " to help in maintaining justice for them." Two of 
these persons should he changed every year ; they should 
be called into council " when need required," and certain 
times in the year should also be appointed for them to as- 
semble together "upon public affairs," and advise upon 
specific propositions — " thus far their authority should ex- 
tend." "With respect to the Twelve Men, added the di- 
rector, " I am not aware that they have received from the 
commonalty larger powers than simply to give their ad- 
vice respectii^ the murder of the late Claes Smite." An 
aimual muster of the militia should be required ; but as 
the company was bound to provide ammunition only in 
cases of emergency, he could not furnish powder merely 
for practice. The freemen could not be allowed to visit 
vessels arriving from abroad ; it would be contrary to the 
company's instructions, and " would lead to disorder," es- 
pecially as several prizes were soon expected in port. The 
inhabitants might, however, freely trade with neighboring 
friendly colonies, upon condition of paying the company's 
recognitions, and abstaining from trade with the enemy. 
The English should be prohibited, in future, from selling 

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cows and steep within New Wetherland ; and the value cm 
of the provincial currency should be raised. 

Thus ended the first attempt to ingraft upon New Neth- ^ 
erland the franchises of the Fatherland. The demand of ^g^^j"^' 
the commonalty was the spontaneous act of the emigrants ou™"""" 
from Holland, who composed the Twelve Select Men of 
the Province. It was prompted hy no desire to imitate 
any other form of government than that to which they had 
been accustomed in their Fatherland. 

But Kieft was no friend to popular reform. He had 
secured the assent of the representatives of the people to 
the hostilities which he longed to commence against the 
savages. In return, a reluctant promise of very limited 
concessions had heen extorted, which, if he ever intended 
to do it, the event proved he never did fulfill. He there- Kiafi dia. 
fore'determined to save himself from further embarrass- "Tw^^ve 
ment by dissolving the Twelve Men. A proclamation was is fbd. 
presently issued, thanking them for their advice in respect 
to the war against the savages, which would be adopted, 
"with Grod's help and in fitting time;" and forbidding 
the calling of any assemblies or meetings of the people 
without an express order of the director, as they " tand to 
dangerous consequences, and to the great injury both of 
die country and of our authority."* 

The director did not delay the execution of his cherish- March. 
ed design, which the people had now formally sanctioned, fui aipedi- 
Barly the next month, an expedition of eighty men wasiha wetu- 
dispatched against the "Weckquaesgeeks, with orders togeekB, 
punish that tribe with fire and sword. Kieft did not head 
the forces in person, but intrusted the command to Ensign 
Hendrick van Dyck, who had now been about two years 
in garrison service at Fort Amsterdam. A guide, who pro- 
fessed a full knowledge of the country, accompanied the 
expedition, which pressed on vigorously towai'd the ene- 
my's village. Crossing the Haerlem Uiver, Van Dyek ar- 
rived in the evening at Armenperal,t where he halted his 

* Hoi. Doc, iU., 1T5-180, SU. 315 ; O'Call., i., 344^49 ; Boc. HIM. N. Y., Iv., B. 

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r. X. command. The men were eager to push on hefore the 
~7~savages should be warned of their coming. But more tJian 
' an hour was lost by delay ; night set in dark and cloud- 
ed ; and the guide missed his way. Van Dyok, in the 
midst of embarrassment, losing his temper, ordered a re- 
treat ; and the expedition, which Kieft had dispatched to 
lay waste the wigwams of the West Chester savages, re- 
turned to Fort Amsterdam in all the mortification of fail- 

Yet a fortunate result followed. The Indians, alarmed 
at the danger to which the trail of the white men showed 
y them they had been exposed, sent to aslc for peace. Van 
Tienhoven, the provincial secretary, was fcherefore diapatch- 
>nj ed to "West Chester, and a treaty was made with the Weok- 
quaesgeeks, on the Bronx River, at the hoiise of the pion- 
eer colonist, Jonas Bronck. The Indiana bound them- 
selves to surrender the murderer of Smits ; but they never 
fulfilled their promise.* 
ii= The treaty with the "Weokquaesgeeks had scarcely been 

;oii- concluded before rumors began to spread that the Connec- 
'■ ticut savages were meditating a bloody vengeance against 
the European colonists. Uncas, the chief of the Mohe- 
gans, who was in high favor with the English for his as- 
sistance in exterminating the Pequods, sought to discredit 
his rival Miantonomoh, the chief of tJie Narragan setts ; 
and accused him of combining with the sachems on tJie 
Connecticut, to destroy the colonists throughout New En- 
gland. Anxiety and alarm prevailed ; Hartford and New 
Haven concerted measures of defense; and a constant vig- 
ilance was thought indispensable to the security of the 
English plantations.! 
sfttif?. Under these oircumstanoes, Captain Patrick and his 
inwicti friends, who had now been established about two years at' 
>uicii. Greenwich, determined to submit themselves to the gov- 
ernment of New Netherland. They declared that they 

Vries, 16i 

i jQiirn»i™N.N.;Hol.rot 

fle. 371 . Alb. ]le 

1., as ! Dao. 

il. Doc, iil., 



■-.Ve, 79, 80-61;- 

, 121 ; Huld 

lmBi.n,l.,10B.100; Hubbard's 


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could no longer remain usurpers against ilie "lawful cnip. x. 
rights" of the Dutch, on account "both of the strifes of 
the English, the danger consequent thereon, and these 
treacherous and viilainous Indians, of whom we have seen 
sorrowful examples enough." Patrick, therefore^ went tosipta. 
Fort Amsterdam, and, for himself and his associates at 
Greenwich, swore allegiance to the States Genera!, the 
West India Company, and the Dutch colonial authorities, 
upon condition of being protected against their enemies 
as much as possible, and of enjoying the same privileges 
" that all patroons of New Wetherland have obtained agree- 
ably to the Freedoms."* 

The Puritan colonists, who, in their new home in Amer- RBiigiuua 
ica, were exulting over the fall of Laud, had, meanwhile, or Mi,asa- 
been reading a significant lesson to the world. In their 
turn, the founders of Massachusetts became persecutors ; 
and, so far from recognizing the grand principle of the 
freedom of every one's conscience, required the submission 
of all to their peculiar ecoloSiastical system. " The arm 
of the civil government," says Judge Story, " was constant- 
ly employed in support of the denunciations of the Church ; 
and, without its forms, the Inquisition existed in substance, 
with a full share of its terrors and its violence."! 

A shining mark was soon offered. Among the earliest 
who followed Winthrop to Massachusetts was Roger "Will- Hi^or 
iams, " a young minister, godly, zealous, having many 
precious parts." Revolving the nature of intolerance, his 
capacious mind found a sole remedy for it in " the sanc- 
tity of conscience." " The civil magistrate should restrain 
crime, hut never control opinion." The mind of Williams, 
however, was in advance of the spirit of his neighbors. 
Hia ideas of "intellectual liberty" shocked the religions 
despotism of Massachusetts ;• and the General Court sen- 1635, 
tenced him to depart out of their jurisdiction within six ^^^' 
weeks, "all the ministers, save one, approving the S6n-a'^,^j^ 
tenoe."t Flying to the South, the exile wandered through 

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ciiiF, X, the forests, in mid-winter, for fourteen weeks, until at last 
lie found a refuge in tlie wigwam of the chief of Pokano- 
jaiiuary.' ^^^'- ^"^^ ^^^^ Summer, the father of Ehode Island laid 
FoundB ^^^ foundations of Providence ; desiring, he said, "it might 
tore' ^® ^ shelter for persons distressed for conscience."* 

The banishment of Williama was soon followed hy oth- 
Anne er persecutions in Massachusetts. Anne Hutchinson, for 
son. maintaining "the paramount authority of private judg- 
ment," was denounced as " weakening the hands and 
hearts of the people toward the ministers," and as being 

1637. " like Roger "Williams, or worse," She was, therefore, ex- 
Novcmbsr. Communicated, and, with several of her friends, banished, 
^^^^- as "unfit for the society" of their fellow-citizens. The ex- 
iles instinctively followed the footsteps of Williams. His 

1638. influence aided them in obtaining from the chief of the 
s4MBrcii. ;tjarragansetts the cession of the island of Adquidnecke, 
ithoocisi- which, from its "reddish appearance," its early Dutch 
ti. ' discoverers had named the "Uoode," or Red Island. A 

1641. form of government, resting on " the principle of intellect- 
Match, ^g^i [iberty," was soon established; and the first Demo- 
cratic Constitution of Uhode Island nobly ordained that 
" none be accounted a delinquent for doctrine ;" and de- 
clared that " liberty of conscience was perpetuated. "t 
Proposed The samc spirit which had driven Williams and Hutch- 
uons'm™ inson from Massachusetts soon brought to Manhattan " a 
se^to ' number of Englishmen" from Lynn and Ipswich, to " so- 
oriMid." licit leave to settle" among the Dutch, and to treat with 
the director for a patent for lands on Long Island. Kieft 
readily agreed to grant them all the franchises which the 
fi June, charter of 1640 allowed. Upon condition of their taking 
oVib* ' an oath of allegiance to the States General and the West 
iindaiBov- India Company, they were to have the free exercise of re- 
ligion, a magistracy nominated by themselves and approved 
by the director, the right to erect towns, lands free of rent 
for ten years, and " an unshackled conimerce, in conform- 
ity to the privileges of New Netherland,"^ 

* Bradford ; WiBlhrop, i„ m ; BbcIihs, i., 54 ; Bontroft, i., 3M, SW, 319. 

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These- " very fair terms" delighted the English appi' 
cants. The General Court of Massachusetts, however, o; 
fended at the thought of their " strengthening the Dutch, q^o^' 
our douhtful neighbors," and at their being willing to re- oan*? o™ 
oeive from tliem a title for lands which the Ifing hado^ii^"^! 
granted to Lord Stirling; but, above all, at their " binding '"'"'""*' 
themselves by an oath of fealty," sought to dissuade them 
from their purpose. The arguments of the court prevail- 
ed, and the discontented colonists "were convinced, and 
promised to desist."* 

Early the next year, Francis Doughty, a dissenting 1642. 
clergyman, while preaching at Cohasset, was dragged outKiughfj 
of the assembly for venturing to assert that " Abraham'smmVino 
children ■ should have been baptized." Accompanied ijy ">* ^'"'=''- 
Uiohard Smith, and several other hberal-minded men, 
Doughty oame to Manhattan, to secure a happy home. 
He betook himself to the protection of the Dutch, " that 
he might, in conformity with the Dutch Reformation, 
have freedom of conscience, which, contrary to his expec- 
tation, he missed in New England." Kieft received thessMnrcu. 
strangers kindly, and immediately granted to Doughty Mespaih,in 
and his associates "an absolute ground-brief" for more 
than thirteen thousand acres of land at Mespath, or New- 
town, on Long Island. The patent guaranteed to them 
the freedom of religion, and all the political franchises 
which had before been offered to the people of Lynn and 
Ipswich, " according to the immunities granted and to he 
granted to the colonists of this province, without any ex- 

In the autumn of the same year, John Throgmorton, Jonn 
whom Hugh Peters had judged "worthy of the same per- wn una his 
secution that drove WiUiams to Providence," came to Man- uo ihera- 
hattan to solicit a residence under the jurisdiction of thoThrog-a 
States General. Kieft readily listened to Throgmorton'a a oMoter. 
request; and granted him permission to settle himself, 
" with thirty-five English families," within twelve miles 

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Chap. X. of Fort imatorJim "to le&idc there in pL,ace, and enjoy 
the same pii\ileg6& as our othei auhject?, and be favored 
' with the tree e'^eicise of then lehgion "^ The refugees 
selected tor theu home the lands on the East Uiver, now 
known aa "We&l Chester, which the Dutch appropriately 
vredeiand. named " Vrodcland," or the " Land of Peace ;" and the 
next summer, Throgmorton obtained a patent for a por- 
tion of the territory where he and his companions had 
found an asylum.t 
Anns Even Rhode Island seemed hardly as desirable an abode 

lon'rel"' as New Netherland, Becommg dissatisfied with her first 
™Neih- retreat, and fearing that the implacable vengeance of Mas- 
sachusetts would reach her even there, the widowed Anne 
Hutchinson, in the summer of 1642, removed, with Col- 
iina, her son-in-law — " a young scholar full of zeal" — and 
all her family, beyond New Haven, into the Dutch terri- 
tojy, and chose for her residence the point now known aa 
Pelham Neck, near New E.ochelIe, a few miles eastward 
swiiemant of Throgmorton's settlement. The apot was soon called 
iiomk,""'" Annie's Hoeck;" and a small stream, which separates it 
from the town of East Cheater, still preserves in its name, 
" Hutchinson's E-iver," the memory of the remarkable 
woman who there found her last home.J 
Motives to These large emigrations to New Netherland, where five 
emi^-' English colonies were soon established, did not fail to at- 
NowEn™ tract the notice of the Puritan authorities. The " unset- 
tied frame of spirit" of many was attributed to the sudden 
fall of Sand and cattle, and the scarcity of foreign commod- 
ities; and there was " much disputation" in Massachusetts 
" about liberty of removing for outward advantages-''^ 
There were doubtless some who emigrated merely to en- 
large their estates. But there were many others, whose 
only motive for the change was the religious intolerance 




14S, Hi, las. The point i 
s grant, and, no doubt, dsti- 

,i.,S!l; Benson's Msm- 
,ow known B9"Throg'. 


imhrop, iU 3, 39. 



;3i Bolton, i,B14,51S. 

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of their own countrymen. They left New England to seek, ckaf, x. 
in New Netherland, " freedom to worship God." ~~~ 

Besides the numerous strangers whose '* insupportahle ,j^^ „„„■ 
government" drove them to seek permanent homes in the^^'^^"^^^ 
Dutch Province, there flocked from Virginia and New En- H^jf^'J^*'' 
gland many fugitive servants, " who too often carry their f,^",^^"' 
passports with them under the soles of their shoes." 
Their conduct at Manhattan was soon found to occasion 
mischief and complaiiit. Kieft, therefore, issued a proo- la April, 
lamation forbidding the inhabitants to harhor any stran- reguia- 
gers, or give them more than one meal or a single night's 
lodging, without notifying the director, and furnishing him 
witti the names of the new-comers.* 

The constant intercourse at this time between. New 
England and Virginia brought many transient visitors to 
Manhattan. On their way to and from Long Island Sound 
and Sandy Hook, the coasting vessels always stopped at 
Fort Amsterdam; and the increasing number of his guests 
occasioned great inconvenience to the director, who fre- 
quently could afford them but "slender entertainment." 
Kieft, therefore, built " a fine hotel of stone" at the com- Kiefi 
pany's expense, where travellers "might now go andBtonehowi 
lodge." This hotel, or "Harberg," was conveniently sit-iem, 
uated on the river aide, a little east of Fort Amsterdam, 
near what is at present known as " Coenties Slip."t 

The old church had now become dilapidated ; and De a ne>v 
Vries, dining with Kieft, told him it was a shame thafcithe poBca. 
English, when they visited Manhattan, "saw only a mean 
barn in which we preached," " The iirst thing they built 
in New England, after their dwelling-houses, was a fine 
church ; we should do the like," urged De Vries ; " we 
have fine oak wood, good mountain stone, and excellent 
lime, which we burn from oyster-shells — much better than 
our lime in Holland." " "Who shall oversee the work V 
asked Kieft, whose anxiety " to leave a great name after 
him" was the more earnest, as a church was then in 

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p. X. contomplatioii at Rensselaerswyok. "There are friends 
~~ enough of the Ueformed religion," answered De Vries, 
■ who immediately subscribed one hundred guilders, upon 
condition that the director should head the list, . Jochem 
Pietetsen Kuyter, " a devout professor of the Reformed re- 
ligion," and Jan Jansen Dam, who lived "close by the 
b5i fort," were immediately appointed, with De Vries and 
oil. Kieft, church masters to superintend the building ; toward 
the cost of which the director agreed to advance " some 
thousand guilders" on the company's account. For great- 
er security " against all sudden attacks of Hie Indians," 
the church was ordered to be erected within the fort. 
This decision, however, was not satisfactory; for as it 
was to be built chiefly by public subscription, the people 
thought that it should he placed where it would be gen- 
erally convenient. Besides, the fort was small enough 
already, and a church within it would be "a fifth wheel 
to a wagon." It would intercept, too, the southeast wind, 
and prevent the working of the grist-mill hard by. But 
Kieft insisted, and all objections were overruled.* 

It only remained to secure the necessary subscriptions. 
Fortunately, it happened that the daughter of Domine Bo- 
gardus was married just then ; and Kieft thought the wed- 
ding-feast a good opportunity to excite the generosity of 
icrtp- the guests. So, " after the fourth or fifth round of drink- 
"i. ing," he showed a liberal example himself, and let the 
other wedding guests subscribe what they would toward 
the church fund. All the company, with light heads and 
glad hearts, vied with each other in " subscribing richly." 
Some of them, when they went home, "well repented it;" 
but " nothing availed to excuse."+ 
,. A. contract was made with John and Hichard Ogden, of 

Stamford, for the mason-work of a stone church seventy- 
two feet long, fifty wide, and sixteen high, at a cost of 
twenty-five hundred guilders, and a gratuity of one hund- 
red more if the work should be satisfactory. The walb 

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were soon built ; and the roof was .raised and covered by ca\f. > 
English carpenters with oak shingles, which, by exposure" 
to the weather, soon " looked like slate." The honor and ^j 
the ownership of the work were both commemorated by a ^"rdK "' 
square stone inserted in the front wall, bearing the am- 
biguous inscription, " Anno Domini, 1642, "William Kieft, 
Director Ci-eneral, hath the Commonalty caused to build 
this Temple."* 

The Pravincial government before long felt some in- 
convenience from "the large number of Englishmen" who 
daily came to reside in New Netherland. Though Kieft 
himself was "roughly acquainted with the English lan- 
guage," his subordinate officers were not; and the En- 
glish strangers knowing the language of the province as 
little as the Dutch did of tliat of the new-comers, it was 
found nece^ary to have an official interpreter. One of otar^' 
the exiles from New England, G-eorge Baxter, was ao- pomredEn- 
cordingly appointed " English secretary," at an annual sal- lorj, 
ary of two hundred and fifty guilder3.t 

The party which Lamberton liad sent, the previous AUkitB m 
summer, from New Haven to the South River, having, in luver, 
violation of their pledge, established themselves upon 
Dutch territory, " without any commission of a potentate," 
Kieft, on finding how he had been cajoled, determined 
" to drive these English thence in the best manner pcesi- 
ble," The yachts E-eal and Saint Martin were therefore aa May. 
dispatched to Jansen, the commissary at Port Nassau, u™'^^" 
who was instructed to visit the intruders, and "compelLmMsn- 
them to depart direotiy m peace." Their personal prop- 

N. V. H. 


aea ; Braoacn Baedt, M. h app 

eura, Vron 

. tl,e Bre 

edsn EaMt 

mdo«a unlil I 

643. WhenUie 

fort was 

5d in 1790, i 

to m^ka 

eiQiTMl Hiraae 

I on (he 1 

ths "Bowling GrEen,"lhs 



iblsli. The 


g paragra^ ftom 


: MsffozauP tbr 1730, tecotds the ci 

: ^'Jnue 

33. On Monday 


a square 

Kons WBB tiranS 

among the luiD 


in (he tort), 




. Kieft D 

r. Gt. Heeft de Gemi 


m.'" TBiBalm. 



oed Dutch chaicta 

in GardBn Stre 

at, where It rema 

load until 

bom ware ds^lteyed 

bap, less.— ii.. 

N. Y. H. S. CoU, 


M™., 103 

; Doc. Hi 


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Chap. X. erty was not to Lo injured ; "but the commissary was to 
■ ■■^"■"remain master," and, above all, "maintain the reputa- 
■ tion of their High Mightinesses, and the noble direotors 
of the "West India Company." 
■rue En. Janaen executed his orders promptly. The settlement 
™nu' " on the Schuylkill waa broken up at once. That on the 
' Varkens' Kill, or Salem Creek, was next visited, and, with 
the hearty co-operation of the Swedes, who had agreed 
with Kieft " to keep out the English," the intruders were 
expelled. The trespassers were conveyed to Fort Arnster- 
53 August, dam, and from there sent back to New Haven. Lam- 
(ODipeued herton, however, persisting in trading at the South River, 
uManhai- was soon afterward arrested at Manhattan, on his return to 
New Haven, and compelled to give an account of his pel- 
tries, and pay duties on his cargo. The New Haven peo- 
pie protested, and threatened retaliation. But Kieft fur- 
nished the Dutch who had occasion to visit the " E-ed 
Hills" with passports, in which he boldly avowed his own 
responsibihty for all that had happened. The damages 
which the English sustained at the South Eiver were es- 
timated at one thousand pounds ; but though they com- 
plained bitterly, they never obtained redress.* 
DiflicuiiLas The dithoulties between the Dutch gaiTison at tlie Hope 
and the English at Hartford continued unabated. Eve- 
ry vexation that ingenuity could contrive was practiced 
against the Hollanders, who, on the other hand, were 
charged with enticing away and sheltering the servante 
of the English colonists ; with helping prisoners in jail to 
escape ; and with purchasing and retaining goods stolen 
3 April, from the English. Under these circumstances, Kieft, find- 
bida inter- ing that his protosts were of no effect, had recourse to re- 
Hsnibrd. taliatory measures ; and all trade and commercial inter- 
course with the Hartford people, in the neighborhood of 
the Dutch post, was formally prohibited .t 

Alb, Rat., ii„ 162, le 

A, m. ISS; Acrelius; i 

„ N. Y. H. S 

;aU,. i., l!S4;Hnziira, 

61.83; Fmfa, SB, 

imbuu, t., m, m. 


i„ N. Y, H. 1 

i. CDll.,ST6iTnint 

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It was not long "before the Hartford authorities folt the cuip. 
inconvenience of their position. The G-enoral Court, there- 
fore, ordererl that the magistratea "shall have liberty to,ni„j,' 
agitate the business betwixt us and the Dutch, and, if 
they think meet, to treat with the governor concerning 
the same,"* Under this authority, Whiting, a magistrate, cciegai 
and Hill, a deputy of Hartford, came to Manhattan, to ar- ford vis 
range with the director for the purchase of the "West In- juiy. 
dia Company's lands around the Hope. Kieft, after ex-sjiuj. 
plaining in detail the antiquity of the Dutch title, offered 
to lease " the field at Hartford" to the English, for an an- 
nual rent of a tenth part of the produce, as long as they 
should occupy it. The delegates, on their return, sub- Tho di 
niitted these conditions to the General Court. But notions,' 
abatement of annoyance followed. The coveted field was 
again despitefully plowed up by the Hai'tford people, who 
even prevented "cattle that belonged not to them" from 
being driven toward New Netherland.t 

There was a strong, though not, perhaps, an lionorabic 
motive for this system of petty annoyance. Hopkins had 
now returned from London, bringing with him Boswell'a 
letter to Wright. The recommendation of the British min- Pouty 
ister at the Hague, " Crowd on — crowd the Dutch out,"iheHo 
was now to be the system by which New Ketherland was, 
by degrees, to be dismembered of her territory, and grad- 
ually separated from Holland. The General Court direct- so sop 
ed that " a letter be returned to the Dutch, in answer to 
their letter brought by Mr. Whiting ;" and also that let- 
ters should be written to Dudley and Bellingham, the for- 
mer governors of Massachusetts, " concerning what the 
Dutch governor reporteth that they have wrote to him 
about our differences." Dudley, in 1640, had written to 
Kieft in conciliatory terms ; and Bellingham, the next 
year, had advised moderation on both sides ;t but the Hart- 
ford authorities now seemed apprehensive that Y 

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uii»p. X. setts had committed herself to more liberal views tlian 

those which suited the policy of Connecticut, 
yuriun ■ The agents in England, in the mean time, had not been 
^nSd! insuooessful. Though Peters failed in his undertaking to 
"pacify" the Dutch "West India Company, tlie New En- 
gland delegates, acting on. Boswell'e advice, succeeded in 
inducing " persons of quality" to communicate with the 
representative of the States General at London. Lord 
Say, as one of Lord Warwick's original grantees, was 
S3 July, warmly interested ; and, in the course of the summer, he 
addressed a letter to Joachimi, tlie Netherlands' ambassa- 
dor, in which he strenuously advocated tlie cause of the 
Connecticut colonists, and severely censured the Dutch. 
Lonjsay'a Thcy, he Said, had protested and threatened, and used 
riuiciiam-'" haughty arguments" against the English; yet, though 
there were only five or six Netherlanders residing on the 
river, " where there are more than two thousand EngUsh," 
no violent proceedings had been taken against Hie Dutch, 
who, it was asserted, had been treated "with all civility." 
The Pequod Indians, of whom tlie Hollanders claimed to 
have purcliased a portion of the land, " had no other than a 
usurped title." The " weakness" of the Dutch title was 
inferred, because "the English having addressed sundry 
letters to theii- governor, William Kieft," he had refused 
to accept theh proposal to refer the settlement of the ques- 
tion to impartial arbitrators. The Dutch should be or- 
dered to demean themselves peaceably, and be content 
with their own limite, " or to leave the river." This last 
suggestion would " tend most to their master's profit," as 
the returns from their post never had, and never would re- 
pay expenses. "Moreover," added Lord Say, "they 
there in an ungodly way, in no wise beseeming tlie Gos- 
pel of Christ. Their residence tliere will never produce 
any other effect than expense to their masters and trouble 
Thraaia to the English." Other influential persons in London, 
omch." ° moved by the representations of the New England agents, 
openly threatened that, before the end of the year, the 
Hollanders should bo utterly expelled from the valley of 

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the Connecticut. JoacMmi therefore sent Lord Say'a com- cutr. x. 
munioation to the States General; and, in sulisequent 
dispatches, explained the iiTitated feeling which existed j, jmj,. ' 
among the fi'iends of the Puritan colonists, and urged the Jy^ga^*'" 
king should be asked to command his New England suh- " '^°"''^^'- 
jects not to molest the Dntoh, who had possession of New 
Netherland before the English ever came there. "For 
such commands must proceed from his majesty ; and it 
might be taken ill that redress should he sought from the 
House of Parliament, whose orders would probably not be 
received in those far-distant quarters." The Dutch am- 
bassador at London, however, little knew the temper of 
the men of New England. 

Charles set up his standard at Nottingham, and theaaAiiguM. 
civil war began. Parliament was supreme at London, ofibe""fi 
but the king was still sovereign in the rural districts. 
The sympathies of the Puritan colonists in Aiuerica were 
■with the Puritan House of Commons. The States Gen- 
eral promptly referred Joachimi's dispatches to the West as ocmter, 
India Company ; but though the ambassador was instruct- 
ed to represent that it need not be apprehended that his 
countrymen in New Netherland could ever " prevail" 
against their sti'onger neighbors, the threats of the Lon- 
don friends of New England were entirely disregarded at 
the Hague.* The distracted kingdom caused no present 
anxiety to foreign powers. 

Interesting events were now occurring at Rensselaers- 1641. 
wyck, Adriaen van der Donck, of Breda, in North Bra- J^J'^™ 
bant, a man of intelligence and learning, having taken a^^"^'^.^,, 
lease from the pati-oon of the westerly half of Castle Isl- ™l°'f,e. 
and, known as " 'Welysburg," adjoining the fertile ferm '"^'^"^''-^ 
of Brandt Peelen, was appointed schout-fiscal of the co!o- 
nie, and arrived at Manhattan in the autumn of 1641. 
As the colonists had shown a disposition "to pass by the 
carpenters and other of the patroon's laborers," and to 
employ whom they pleased, Van der Donck was specially 
instructed to repress this spirit of independence, and pros- is jmy, 

* lIoL Boc, iL, a;a-3l)7 ; O'Call., i., 555-257 ; Ailiemo, ii,, 832 ; Linnartl, X., 152. 

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342 HISTORY or the state of new YORK. 

Chap. X. 6cute the offenders before the colonial court. He was also 
"charged to procure the enactment of " stricter statutes or 
' ordinances, and to punish the delinquents by penalties and 
fines, according to law."* 

The want of a permanent clergyman, and the need of 
a proper church edifice, had now for some time been 
felt in the colonic ; and, early the next year, the patroon 
took meaauies to place his colonists in as good a condi- 
tion in these respects as the inhabitants of Manhattan. 
6 March. Ho therefore made an agreement with the Reverend 
Megapoton- Doctor Johannes Megapolensia, a learned clergyman be- 
ciergymon longlug to the Classis of Alckmaer, to send him out to 
nie. ' Rensselaerswyck, "for the edifying improvement of the 
inhabitants and Indians." The patroon bound himself to 
convey the Domine and his family to Kew Netherland free 
of expense, provide him with a proper residence, and assure 
him, for six years, an annual salary of one thousand giidd- 
eis, with a promise of an addition of two hundred guilders 
annually for the three following years, " should the patroon 
be satisfied with his service." On the other hand, Megapo- 
lensis agreed " to befriend and serve the patroon in all things 
wherein he could do so without interfering with or imped- 
ing his duties." As the Classis of Amsterdam was the ec- 
clesiastical superior of all the Dutch colonial clergy, it was 
necessary to obtain its assent to the arrangement; and 
iBMEirch. the Domine accordingly appeared before the committtje 
of that body, " ad res exteras," and explained his views 
in wishing to settle himself in New Netherland. A few 
asMarch. days afterward, the classis attested a formal "call" for 
Megapolenais to preach the Gospel and govern the Church 
at Renssclaerswyck, "in conformity wth the G-overn- 
ment. Confession, and Catechism of the Ketherland 
churches, and the Synodal acts of Dordrecht." The Am- 
sterdam Chamber, however, as the political superior of 
New Netherland, claimed the right of approving this in- 
strument. The patroon, on the other hand, at first de- 
murred to what he thought a curtaUraent of his feudal 

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righte ; but, after several months' delay, he agreed that CHir. x. 
the directors should affix their act of approbation, under 
protest that the righte of both parties should remain un- jj^^ (,], ^^^ 
prejudiced. The Amsterdam Chamber accordingly ap- f^^^,''^. 
proved the call. Domino Megapolensis was furnished ^^ '^'""^ 
with a detailed memorandum, respecting the settlement^'"'"'' 
of the colonists, and the arrangement of the new church 
and parsonage ; a plan for all Uie buildings was provided; 
and a small theological library was supplied at the pa- 
troon's expense. The transportation of the colonists to 
Fort Orange was to be arranged under the advice of Kieft, 
to whom the patroon sent a present of a aaddle and mili- 
tary equipments, "as the noble director hath heretofore 
had much trouble with my people and goods." A num- 
ber of respectable emigiants embarked with Megapolensis Atri^ea m 
and his family in the bhip Houttuyn, which, after a pros- 
perous voyage, arrived m August. 

At this period it was not uncommon for ships to lie a Tue ne« 
fortnight at Manhattan before intelligence of their arrival at jfenssa- 
was received at Bensselaerswyek. Prompt measures, how- 
ever, were taken to convey up the river the new emi- 
grants, who, upon reaching their destination, were reg- n Aogmi, 
istered by Arendt van Curler, the commissary. To con- 
centrate the inhabitants as much as possible, and thus 
avoid danger of their lives from the Indians, " as sorrow- 
ful experience hath demonstrated around Manhattan," the 
patroon required that all the colonists, except tlie farmers 
and tobacco-planters, should live near each other, so as to 
form a " Kerck-buurte," or church neighborhood, This 
was to be settled near the Beaver's Creek ; where a ferry 
was at once established for the acconraiodation of the col- 
onists across the river at Greenbush. The patroon's di- 
rections were followed, and Yan Curler notified all the col- 
onists to " regulate themselves accordingly," 

The church, however, was not built until the following 
year ; but the houses which were to suiiound it were 
planned ; the dwelling of Maryn Adriaensen, one of the 
1 who was about to remove to Manhattan, was 

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Chap. X. bought foi' a parsonage ; and the first clergyman at Rena- 
selaerswyok began to execute the duties of his holy office. 
Mcgapoieii. ^^^ colonists leveied and esteemed their faithful monitor, 
wsSicai whose influence was soon exerted in restraining immoral- 
labws. HiQs, which the license of a frontier life had hitherto al- 
lowed to pass unrehuked. The counsels of the Domine 
were received with respect hy Commissary Van (Hurler, 
who always asked his opinion upon public affairs before 
he " concluded to undertake any thing."* 

Soon after tlie arrival of Domine Megapoiensis at E.ens- 
selaerswyck, an occasion arose to test the characteristic 
proEieBaof henevolence of the Dutch. Champlain had eai'ly planned 
in csnada. the schome of extending the empire of France over North 
Americaj hy means of religious missions ; and his saga- 
cious conception was zealously seconded by the heroic and 
self-denying emissaries of the Church. Just before the 
1635. Father of New Prance was huried upon the field of his 
noble toils, and a year before Massachusetts made provi- 
sion for what afterward became Harvard University, a mis- 
sionary college was founded at Quebec. A few years aft- 
1641. erwai^d, the festival of tJie Assumption was solemnly oel- 
iSAuguei. el^rated on the island of Montreal, before vast crowds of 
savages and Frenchmen. " There," said Father Le Jeune, 
" shall the Mohawk and the feebler Algonquin make their 
home ; the wolf shall dwell witJi tlie lamb, and a little 
child shall lead them." 

From the time Champlain first penetrated the v; 'ey of 
vitmaot Onondaga in 1615, the Fi'ench had seen the advantage. of 
"possessing a post on the territory of Western New York. 
The settlements of the Dutch were as yet confined to the 
valleys of the Mohawk and of the Noi-th River. The 
views of the French in Canada did not, however, oonffict 
with those of the Hollanders in New Netherland, France 
desired to control the great "West ; Holland looked more to 
tiie possession of the sea-coast. " Could we but gain the 
mast«iy," argued the missionaries of Canada, "of the 
shore of Ontario, on the side nearest the abode of the Iro- 

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qiiois, we could ascend hy the Saint Lawrence without ch.l'. x. 
danger, and pass free beyond Niagara." "~ 

But the hereditary enmity between the Iroquois Con- ' ' 
federates and the Hurons and Aigonquins of Canada 
thwarted the plans of the French missionarioa. The nav- 
igation of Lake Ontario was closed against their enter- 
prise ; and a French canoe had never yet been launched 
upon Lake Erie. The Dutch traders at Eensselaerswyck 
had now supplied the Ijoquois warriors with the fire-arms 
of Europe ; and the proud Konoshioni burned to be su- 
preme. In the autumn of 1641, two Jesuit Fathers, sepis.iiMt 
Charles Uaynibault and Isaac Jogues, pushing onward 
from the Huron mission station, coi^ted, in their birch- 
bark CHjioe, along the Manitoulin Islands, and, stemming 
the swift current of the Saint Mary'a, reached the Sault, i omu^t 
where they found two thousand Chippewas assembled, 
expecting their aiTival, TLeturning to Q,uehec, Jogues 
prepared, the next year, to repeat his visit. But as he liU'-l. 
was ascending the Saint Lawrence with an escort of Hu- caprarrr 
rons, the party was surprised by a band of Mohawks ly- jo"gi.™ 
ing in ambuscade. A part of the expedition was captur- 
ed ; and Jogues and his fellow-prisoners were conducted 
through the country of the Iroquois to the valley of the la *"£"► 
Mohawk. Horrible savage cruelties were infljcted upon 
the captives. From viUt^ to village their tortures were 
renewed ; but the faithful missionaries, as they ran the 
gauntleilE consoled themselves with visions of heavenly 

Intelligence that three Frenchmen were prisoners among tm? nm 
the Iroquois soon reached Fort Orange ; and, prompted by ango ai- 
a noble humanity, Commissary Van Curler, in company mnsom 
with Labbatie and Jansen, two of the colonists, went on 
horseback to the Mohawk country to attempt their rescue. 
The Dutch visitors were received with "great joy," and 
the presents which they brought were thankfully accept- 
ed by the warriors at the thi^ee castles. Before each cas- 
tle they were obliged to halt a quarter of an hour, until 
the Mohawks had sainted them "with divers musket- 

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CH.r. X. shots." Indians were sent out to shoot, and brought them 
~""m excelient turkeys. On the eve of tlie Nativity of the Yir- 
Tsspi ' gi^' ^"O Curler reached the village where Jogues was de- 
^^ji^'^f tained. Inviting the chiefa to assemhle together, he press- 
Motwu-kB. gij them to release the French prisoners, " one of whom 
was a Jesuit, a very learned scholar." But the Mohawk 
sachems refused. ""We shall show you every friendship 
in our power," said the chiefs, "hut on this suhject we 
shall he silent." Days were spent in vain attempts to 
procure the release of the captives ; six hundred guilders 
worth of goods, "to which all the colony would contrib- 
ute," were offered as their ransom, and inexorably re- 
fused. In the end. Van Curler " persuaded them so far, 
that they promised not to kill them, and to convey them 
back to their country." As the party set out on their re- 
turn to Fort Orange, the French captives ran after them, 
beseeching the Dutch to rescue them out of the hands of 
the barbarians. An escort often or twelve arnied savages 
conducted the embassy home, through " the most beauti- 
ful land on the Mohawk River that eye ever saw." But 
the Hollanders had scarcely left, before the "clamorous 
braves" insisted upon blood ; and Ren6 Goupil, a "donn6," 
lasepL or novice, who had accompanied Jogues,' was struck dead 
with a tomahawk, invoking the name of Jesus as he fell. 
jupics' Lift The life of the Father was, however, spared. Carving the 
emblem of his faith upon a majestic tree, tlie devoted Jes- 
uit, during the following winter, held lonely communion 
with his God. For a time he was unmolested ; hut the 
Mohawks at length finding him at prayer, " attaclted him 
most violently, saying that they hated the cross ; that it 
was a sign unknown to them and their friends, the neigh- 
boring Europeans" at Fort Orange.* 
1643, In the annals of New Wetherland, 1643 was, emphat- 
ically, " the year of blood," While New England was 
filled with alarm at the suspicion of a general rising of 

• Relation 

, 1640-41, 50, ; 


; jDgues's Lellsrs o 

gust, 1643, ir 

er'g " Socieloa Jean 

,"*«,. 5Hl-531i.Megap., 


.338; CharleToic,!. 

., S34-a50iHeosB. MSS.. 


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the Indians, and "benighted travellers could not halloo in CH^r. x 

the woods without cauaina; fear that savages were tor- 

turing their European captives, the neighhoring Dutch FB^gbnd-' 

province partook of the universal panic. Miantonomoh, ^5^^" 
" the great sachem of Sloup's Bay," was reported to have ™ "j* 
come with one hundred men to the neighborhood of Green- 5|n^ry. 
wioh, and to have passed through all the villages of the 
Indians, soliciting them to a general war against the En- 
glish and the Dutch. The wildest stories were circulated 
among the fireside gossips at Manhattan. The outlaying 
Indians were accused of setting fire to the powder of the 
Dutch, wherever they could find it, and of attempting to 
poison and hewitch the director* Anxiety and terror al- 
ready pervaded the defenseless hamlets around Port Am- 
sterdam, when an event occurred which precipitated open 
hostilities, and nearly annihilated the rising hopes of the 
"West India Company. 

De Vries, while rambling, gun on shoulder, toward "Van 
der Horst's new colony at Hackinsaok, which was "but 
an hour's walk" from Yriesendael, met an Indian " who 
was very drunk." Coming up to the patioon, he " stroked 
him over the arms" in token of friendship " You are a 
good chief," said the Indian, "^^hen we visit you, you 
give ua milk to drink, for nothma; But I have just come 
from Haokinsaolt, where they sold me brandy, half mixed 
with water, and then stole my heaver-skm coat." The a Dgtoh- 
aavage vowed a bloody revenge. He would go home for dew a by u 
his how and arrows, and then shoot one of the " roguish usewu- 
Swannekens" who had stolen his things. De Vries en- 
deavored to soothe him; and, on reaching Hackinaaek, 
warned Van der Horst's people against the danger of treat- 
ing the: wild natives as they had the one ]i6 had just met. 
Scarcely had he returned to his own house, before some 
of the chiefs of the Hackinsacks and of the Ueckawancks, 
in his neighborhood, came to Vriesendael. The revenge- 
ful savage had kept his vow. "Watching his opportunity, 
he had shot one of the Dutch colonists, Garret Janson van 

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ck*p, X. Voorst, as he was quietly thatching the roof of one of Van 
der Horst'a houses. The chiefs had hastened to seek coun- 
sel of De Tries. They dared not go to Fort Amsterdam, 
for fear Kicft would keep tiiem prisoners ; but they were 
willing to pay two hundred fathoms of wampum to tJie 
widow of the murdered man, " and that should purchase 

TheBiv- their peace."* They offered the full expiation which In- 

biwd dian justice demanded — a blood-atonement of money ; and 
the custom, so universal among the red men of America, 
was in singular acoordance with the usage of classic 

At length, persuaded by De Vries, who answered for 
their safe return, the chiefs accompanied him to Fort Am- 
sterdam. Explaining to Kieft the unhappy occurrence at 
Hackinsack, they repeated their offer of a "just atone- 

Kieft,ie- mont." The director inexorably demanded the murderer. 

murderer. Imitating the example of Massachusetts in the case of 
the Pequods, he would be content with nothing bat blood. 
But the chiefs could not bind themselves to surrender the 
criminal. He had gone " two days' journey off, among 
the Tankitekes ;" and, besides, he was the son of a chief. 
Again they propcraed an expiatory offering of wampum to 
appease the widow's grief. " "Why do you sell brandy to 
our young men?" said the chiefs. " They are not used 
to it — it makes them crazy. Even your own people, who 
are accustomed to strong liquors, sometimes become drunk, 
and fight with knives. Sell no more strong drink to the 
Indians, if you would a-void mischief." "With this, they 
took leave of the director, and returned to Vriesendael ; 
and Kieft soon afterward sent a peremptory message to 
Pacham, the crafty ohief of the Tankitelces, to surrender 
the refugee.^ 

But before Pacham obeyed the mandate, more serious 

PopB, lUod, ii 
1 Dfl Vtlea, 166 ; Hoi. Doc, iii., 108 ; Doo. Hlsl. N. Y,,iY., 10; Alb, Rec, 

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events occurred. In tlie depth of winter, a party of eighty CHnp. k. 
or ninety Mohawk wairiorB, " each with a musket on his 
shoulder," came down from the neighborhood of Fort Or- pebrusTj' 
ange, to collect tribute from the "Weckquaesgeeks and Ji'j^JJ'^. 
Tappana. The river tribes quailed before the formidable '^^gj*!^,, 
Iroquois. No resistance was offered by the more numer- '*'""'■ 
oua but subjugated Algonquins ; seventy of whom were 
killed, and many women and children made prisoners. 
Half-famished parties fled from "West Chester to Manhat- tiis triou- 
lan, where they were kindly entertained. In then- despair, ng;a s™^ 
four or five hundred of the cowering tributaries flocked to ^eseo- 
Vriesendael, to beg assistance and protection. The pa- ^"'^^ 
troon told them, however, that the Fort Orange Indiana 
were " friends of the Dutch," who could not interfere in 
their wars. Finding his house full of savages, and only 
five men besides himself to defend it, De Vries went, in a 
canoe, through the floating ice, down to Fort Amster- 
dam, to ask Kieft t a 1 1 m with some soldiers. The 
director, howeve 1 d n to spare. The next day, ai Feb. 
" troops of sava 1 hal come down from Vriesen- 

dael, encamped n a th oyster banks" at Pavonia, 
among the Ha k a k wh were " full a thousand 
Mtrong." Some of them, crussmg the river to Manhattan, 
took refuge at " Oorlaer's Bouwery," where a few E-ocka- 
waj Indians from Long Island, with their chief, Nainde 
Nummerus, had aheady built theh wigwams.* 

In this conjuncture, public opinion at Manhattan was Puijiic^iin 
divided in regard to the policy to be observed toward the bait™, 
savages. Now that they were fugitives from the dreaded 
Iroquois, and felt grateful for the temporary protection 
which they had received from the Dutch, the river In- 
dians could easily be won to a sincere friendship, tliought 
De Vries and a majority of the community. But there 
were other spirits — active, unquiet, panting for war, who, 
though few, were aided by the influence of Van Tienhoven, 
the astute provincial secretary. As Kieft was dining, at 
Shrovetide, at the house of Jan Jansen Dam, one of theaapoo. 

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c».p. X " Twelve Men," the host, with Adr jaenaeii and Planck, two 


'of bis former colleagues, assuming to speak in the name of 
.tlie commonalty, presented a petition to the director, nrg- 
■ ing instant hostilities against the unsuspecting savages, 
"Van Tienlioven, who had drafted the petition, well knew 
the temper of his chief The Indians, it was argued, had 
not yet made any atonement for their murders, nor had 
the assassins of Smita and Van Voorst been delivered up. 
While innocent blood was unavenged, the national char- 
acter of the Dutch must suffer. God had now delivered 
their enemies into their hands ; " We pray you," urged 
the petitioners, " let us attack them ; to this end we offer 
our persons, and we propose that a party of freemen and 
another of soldiers be dispatched against thera at different 

The sanguinary director was delighted with the pros- 
pect of war ; and, " in a significant toast," announced the 
approaching hostilities. Just one year before, Kieft had 
dissolved the board of " Twelve Men," and had forbidden 
any pubhc meetings without his express permission. He 
bad, moreover, distinctly denied that the Twelve Men had 
any other function tlian simply to give their advice re- 
specting the murder of Smits. But now that a self-con- 
stituted committee, falsely claiming to represent the Twelve 
Men elected by the commonalty, counseled violence, the 
director rashly resolved to make the savages " wipe their 
chops." They had unanimously refused to pay ttie con- 
tribution he had imposed ; and, seeing himself deprived 
of this sotirce of revenue, " of which he was very greedy," 
Kieft was charged with now devising other means "to 
satisfy hia insatiable avaricious soul."t 

Van Tienhoven and Corporal Hans Steen were, there- 
fore, promptly dispatched to Pavonia to reconnoitre the 
position of the savages. But Doraine Bogardus, who was 
uivited to the council, warned Kieft against his rashness. 
La Montagne begged him to wait for the arrival of the 

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next ship from tke Fatliorland, and predicted that he was ciu 
building a bridge over which, before long, "war wordd'TI 
stalk through the whole country." Do Yries protested jj|j,f, 
that no warlike steps could be taken without the assent ^^^"^ 
of the commonalty ; and that the advice Kieft had re- '"^■ 
ceived was not that of the Twelve Men, of whom he was 
the president. The destruction of the colonies at Swaan 
endael and at Staten Island, and the bootle s expedition 
agaiufit the Earitana, were held up as warning exam] lea 
The Dutch colonists in the open country, it is ged 
were all unprepared, and the Indians would eal the 
vengeance on the unprotected iarmers. It wa^ all n an 
Taking De "Vriea with him into the great hall which he 
had just completed at the side of his house, Kieft showed 
him " all his soldiers ready reviewed," to pass over the 
river to Pavonia. " Let this work alone," again urged 
De Tries ; " you want to break the Indiana' mouths, but 
you will also murder our own people."* 

Ah remonstrance was idle. The director doggedly re- ah 
plied, " The order has gone forth ; it can not he recalled." vui 
Van Tienhoven had reconnoitered tire position of the sav- 
ages at Pavonia, and his "false report" had confirmed 
Kieft's resolution. Orders were issued to Sergeant Rodolf 
to lead a troop of soldiers to Pavonia, and " drive away 
and destroy" the savages who were " skulking" behind 
the bouwery of Jan Evertsen Bout. A similar commission 25 
directed Adriaensen, with a force of volunteers, to attack 
"a party of savages skulking behind Corlaer's Hoeck," 
and " act with them in every such manner as they shall 
deem proper." " The commonalty solicit," was the false 
pretense by which Kieft endeavored to screen himself from 
any unhappy consequences of his bloody purposes ; which 
his impious oi'ders declared were undertaken " in the full 
confidence that God will crown our resolutions with suc- 

f. Y.n.8:(;oii.,i.,W8i 1 

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c.H.-. K. During the night between the twentj fitth and tv, entj 
" sixth of February, the tragedy which Kiett and his coad- 

' jutors hEid been meditating, -was terribly accompliahed 
Crossing over to Pavonia, Itodolf cautioiialy led his iorce 
of eighty soldiers to the encampment ot the ibfngee Tap- 
pans, near the bouweries of Bout and "Wouterssen About 
midnight, while the savages were quietly sleeping m fan- 
cied security from their Mohawk suh]ugi,tor^, Uie mui- 
derons attack commenced. The noise of mu'^kota min- 
gled with the shrieka of the terrified Indians Neither age 
nor sex were spared. Warrior and squaw, ^afhem and 
child, mother and babe, were alike massacred. Daybreak 
scarcely ended the furious slaughter. Mangled victims, 
seeking safety in the thickets, were driven into the river; 
and parents, rushing to save their children whom the sol- 
diery had thrown into the stream, were driven back into 
the waters, and drowned before the eyes of their unrelent- 
MaBanorest ing murderers. Eighty savages perished at Pavonia. "I 
sat up that night," said De Yries, " by the kitchen fire at 
the director's. About midnight, hearing loud shrieks, I 
ran up to the ramparts of the foi-t, LooJting toward Pa- 
vonia, I saw nothing but shooting, and heard nothing but 
the shrieks of Indians murdered in their sleep." A few 
minutes afterward, an Indian and a squaw, who lived 
near Vriesendael, and who had escaped irom Pavonia in a 
small skiff, came to the Ititchen fire, whither De Vriea had 
returned with an acliing heart. " The Fort Orange In- 
dians have fallen on us," said the terrified savages, " and 
we have come to hide ourselves in the fort." " It ia no 
time to hide yourselves in the fort — no Indians have done 
this deed. It is the work of the Swannekens — the Dutch," 
answered the humane De Tries, as he led the undeceived 
fugitives to the gate, "where stood no sentinel," and 
Aiiwji on watched them until they were hidden in the woods. In 
u coriaec'B the mean time, Adriaenaen and his party had surprised 
the "Weckquaeageek fugitives at Corlaer's Hook, and mur- 
dered forty of them in their sleep. The carnage of that 
awful night equaled in remorseless cruelty the atrooitiea, 

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six years tefore, at the fort on the Miatic ; in the number t 
of victims alone were the murderoas exploits of the New" 
Wether\and Dutch against the North River savagt 
shocking to humanity, than the ruthless achievements of 
the New England Puritans against the devoted trihe of 
the Pequods. 

Morning at length came, and the victorious parties re- m Feb. 
turned to Fort Amsterdam with thirty prisoners and the ihe ™id:en 
heads of several of their victims. The "E.oman achieve- stetdam, 
ment" of the conquerors was acknowledged hy largesses 
tfl the soldiery, who were welcomed hack hy Kieft per- 
sonally, with " shaking of the hands and congratulations." 
The example of the exulting director was infectious. Even 
women joined in the triumph, and insulted the bloody tro- 
phies. Cupidity, too, foilowed the track of carnage. A 
small party of Dutch and English colonists went over to 
Pavonia to pillage the deserted encampment. In vain the 
soldiers left there on guard warned them to return. They 
persisted ; and Dirck Straatmaker and his wife were killed 
hy some outlaying Indians, whose vrigwams they attempt- 
ed to plunder. The English, " who had one gun amongst 
them," narrowly escaped a similar fate.* 

The success of the expeditions against the refugee sav- 
ages, at Pavonia and Corker's Hoeok provoked emulation. 
"Wolfertsen, and some of his neighbors at New Amersfoort, 
signed a petition to the director for permission to attack w Feii. 
the Mareohkawiecks, who resided between them andisiendiu- 
Breuekelen. But Kieft, yielding to the advice of Bogar- "ckeii. 
dus and others of his council, refused his assent. The 
Marechkawiecks had never done any thing unfriendly to 
the Dutch, and were " hard to conquer ;" to attaolc them 
now would only be to add them to the number of already 
exasperated foes ; it would lead to a destructive war, and 
bring ruin on the aggressors. Nevertheless, if these In- 
dians showed signs of hcffltility, the director authorized 
every colonist to defend himself as best he might. 

us ; O'Cnll., i., SM ; Doc Ulal. N. Y,, i 

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ckjlp. X. Kieft's proviso was tinfortunate. The red man's corn 
was coveted ; and some movements of the Marechkawieoka 
" were conveniently construed into those signs of hostility 
for which the arahiguous decree had provided. A secret 
foraging expedition was presently set on foot, and two 
wagon-loada of grain were plundered from the unsus- 
pecting savages; who, in vainly endeavoring to protect- 
their property, lost three lives in the skirmish which fol- 
Theeaf- It Only needed this scandalous outrage to fill the meas- 
eawvenge- ure of Indian endurance. . Up to this time, the Long Isl- 
and savages had been among the warmest friends of the 
Dutch. Now they had heen attacked and plundered hy 
the strangers whom they had welcomed, and to whom they 
had done no wrong, Conmion cause was at once made 
with the North River Indians, who humed with frenzied 
hate and revenge, when they found that the midnight 
massacres at Pavonia and Manhattan were not the work 
of the Mohawks, hut of the Dutch. From swamps and 
thickets the mysterious enemy made his sudden onset. 
The farmer was murdered in the open field ; women and 
children, granted their lives, were swept off into a long 
captivity ; houses and houweries, haystacks and grain, 
cattle and crops, were all destroyed. From the shores of 
the Raritan to the valley of the Housatonic, not a single 
plantation was safe. Eleven trihes of Indians rose in open 
war; and New Netherland now read the awful lesson 
which Connecticut had learned six years hefore. Such 
of the colonists as escaped with their lives, fled from their 
desolated homes to seek refuge in Fort Amsterdam. In 
Despair of their despair, they threatened to return to the Fatherland, 
iiibib""' or remove to Ilensselaersvryck, " which experienced no 
trouhle." Fearing a general depopulation, Kicft was 
I Match, obliged to take all the colonists into the pay of the com- 
pany, to servo as soldiers for two months. At this con- 
juncture, Roger Williams, who, " not having liberty of 
taking ship" in Massachusetts, " was forced to repair unto 

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the Dutch," arrived at Manhattan, on hia way to Europe. ch«. 
"Before we weighed anchor," wrote ilie liberal-niinded 
founder of Rhode Island, eleven years afterward, " mine 
eyes saw the flames at their towns, and the flights and 
hurries of men, women, and children, the present removal 
of all that could for Holland."* 

Even Vriesendael did not escape the general calamity, vrie^ai 
The outhouses, and crops, and cattle on the plantation 
were destroyed. The terrified colonists escaped into the 
manor house, in which De Vries had prudently construct- 
ed loop-holes for musketry. "While all were standing on 
their guard, the same Indian whom the patroon had hu- 
manely conducted out of Fort Amsterdam on the" night of 
tlie massacre at Pavonia, coming up to the besiegers, re- 
lated the occurrence, and told them that De Vries was "a 
good chief." The grateful savages at once cried out to De 
Vries's people that, if they had not already destroyed the 
cattle, they would not do so now ; they would let the lit- 
tle brewery stand, although they "longed for the copper 
kettle, to make harhs for their arrows." The siege was 
instantly raised, and the relenting red men departed. 
Hastening down to Manhattan, De Tries indignantly de- 
manded of Kieft, " Has it not happened, just as I said, that 
you were only helping to shed Christian blood?" "Who 
will now compensate us for our losses ?" But the humil- 
iated director " gave no answer." He was surprised that 
no Indians had come to the fort. " It is no wonder," re- 
torted De Vries; "why should they, whom you have 
treated so, come here ?"t 

Kieft now sent a friendly message to the Lqng Island i'-an 
Indians. But the indignant savages would not listen, mo i 
"Are you our friends?" cried the Indians from afar ; ag^s- 
" you are only corn-thieves ;" and the messengers return- 
ed to Fort Amsterdam, to report the taunting words with 
which the red men had rejected the advances of the faith- 
less chief at Manhattan.t 

Hosted by 



ch^p. s. Ail this time the obstinate divector had remained safely 
"""" "within the walls of Fort Amsterdam, where floclced the 
Public ' ■victims of his rashness. It was hard to hear the wrath, 
mXsttho **^ ri^incd farmers, and childless men, and widowed wom- 
duMor. Qj^ ijq divert the public clamor, several other expeditions 
were sent out against the Indiai^, under the command of 
Adriaenaen. But the marauding force, which was partly 
composed of English colonists, returned without having 
accomplished any thing ; while Adriaensen himself, in 
witnessing the destruction of his own bouwery, was made 
to taste the bitter fraits of that war which his own eoun- 
eek had assisted to provoke. The proud heart of the di- 
rector began to fail him at last. In one week, desolation 
and sorrow had taken the place of gladness and prosperity. 
The colony intrusted to his charge was nearly ruined. It 
was time to humble himself before the Most High, and in- 
voke from Heaven the mercy which the Christian had re- 
4 March, fused to the savage. A day of general fasting and prayer 
tionrors was proclaimed. "We continue to suffer much trouble 
ing. and loss from the heathen, and many of our inhabitants 
see their lives and property in jeopardy, which is doubt- 
less owing to our sins," was Kieft's contrite confession, as 
he exhorted every one penitently to supplicate the mer- 
cy of G-od, " so that hia holy name may not, through our 
iniquities, be blasphemed by the heathen."* 
Tiiopanpio But while the people humbled themselves before their 
EenS''Kieft G^od, they still held the director personally responsible for 
HmiBr.a, all the consequences of the massacres at Pavonia and Cor- 
laor'a Hook ; and some of the burghers, and of the for- 
mer board of Twelve Men, boldly talked of imitating the 
example which Virginia had set, in the case of Harvey, by 
Kiaft's deposing Kieft, and sending him back to Holland. The 
ler^Q." director, in alarm, endeavored to shift the responsibility 
upon Adriaensen and his coadjutors, who had so wrong- 
fully used the name Of the commonalty in the petition 

* Alb. Bec„li.,ai4,S!6;Hol. Dm., lU., ni; O'CaU., I.,a71,a7a. The custom of seL 
ting aparlf by llie aeculnr ambotity, days of public humUiatiou and public thanlmglving, 
obtained in Holland, as ne haie seen, before Ibe eetilemenl of New Nelherland or New 

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which urged the war. " For what has occurred," p 
Kieft, "you must hlame the freemen." "You forbade ' ' 
those freemen to meet, on pain of punishment for disol>e- 
dience," retorted the indignant hiirghers ; " how came it, 
then ?" The convicted director was silenced,* 

Finding that Kieft was endeavoring to divert from him- 
self the odium of the slaughter of the Indians and the 
misery of the colonists, Adriaensen, now himself an almost 
ruined man, had no disposition to hear all the bitterness 
of popular reproach. Ajtuing himself with a hanger and Adtinenaen 
pistol, he rushed into the director's room, demanding aireoiar. 
"What lies are these you are reporting of me?" The 
would-be assassin was promptly disarmed and imprisoned; 
hut his servant, with another of his men, armed with guns 
and pistols, hastened to the fort, where one of them, firing 
at the director, was shot down by the sentinel, and his 
head set upon the gallows. The prisoner's comrades now 
crowded around the director's door, demanding their lead- 
er's release. Kieft refused; but agreed to submit the 
question to the commonalty, with liberty to the prisoner's 
friends to select some of their number to assist at the ex- 
amination. This, however, they declined to do, and in- 
sisted that the prisoner should he discharged upon his pay- 
ing a fine of five hundred guilders, and absenting him- 
self for three months from Manhattan. The director, wish- 
ing to show some deference to the commonalty, proposed 
to call in some of the most respectahle citizens, to sit with 
his council in deciding the case. But the commonalty, 
unwilling to countenance the abuse which the director 
had deceitfully neglected to amend, refused; and Kieft, aa mibcs 
finding that " no one would or dared" assist him, determ- 
ined to send Adriaensen to Holland for trial.t 


1.374; Wlmbrop, 11., 

B7. TheNewEn^a, 


ick gn Kieft on Ihe ( 

(round oflilB JeBloliay of Tr 


thill was noi then \v 

the esrvicB of Ihe Dnl 

.ohi nor did bo oilier il unU 

t Ihe aul 

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358 HISTORY or the state of new yokk. 

csi«p, X, Meanwhile, the Long Island Indians had begun to re- 
■ " lent. Spring was at hand, aM thpy desired to plant their 
Jm^' *'"'""■ '^^^^^ delegateb fiom the wigwama ot Penhawitz, 
Mai.d°in^ their " great chief," appmachfed Foit Ambterilam, bearing 
s^l^^ a white flag. "Who will go to meet them'"' demanded 
f™^- Kieft. None were willing hut De Vrips and Jacob Olfert- 
36n. "Ourchief has sent us," said the savage'^ 'to know 
why you have killed his people, who have ne\er laid a 
straw in your waj, noi done you aught but good?" 
" Come and speak to our chief on the sea-ooaat " Set- 
ting out with the Indian meosengeis, De Vnes and Olfert- 
sen, in the evening, came to " E-echqua akie," or Roeka- 
way, where they found nearly thrcf hundied savages, and 
about thirty wigwams Xhe chief, "who had but one 
eye," invited them to pass the night m hia cabin, and re- 
galed them with oysteis and fish 
5 March. At hrcalc of day, the envoys from Manhattan were con- 
and OLftrt- ducted into the woods about four bundled vards off, where 
Rockawaj. they found sixteen chlef•^ of Long Island waiting for their 
coming. Placing the two Europeans in the centre, the 
chiefs seated themselves around in a ring, apd their "best 
speaker" arose, holding in his hand a bundle of small sticks. 
"When you first came to our coasts," slowly began the 
orator, "yon sometimes had no food; we gave you our 
beans and corn, and relieved you with our oysters and 
fish; and now, for recompense, you murder our people ;" 
and he laid down a little stick. " In the beginning of 
your voyages, you left your people here with their goods ; 
we traded with them while your ships were away, and 
cherished them as the apple of our eye ; we gave them 
our daughters for companions, who have borne children, 
and many Indians have sprung from the Swannekens ; 
and now you villainously massacre yonr own blood." 
The chief laid down another stick ; many more remained 
in his hand ; but Do Vries, cutting short the reproachful 
catalogue, invited the chiefs to accompany him to Fort 
Amsterdam, where the director "would give them pres- 
ents to make a peace." 

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The chiefs, asseatuig, ended then: oration ; and, pre- chap. x, 
senting De Vries and his colleague each with ten fathoms 
of wampum, the party set out for their canoes, to shorten ^^,^ g,,. ' 
tho return of the Dutch envoys. "While waiting for the pi^t™ ™" 
tide to rise, an armod Indian, who had teen dispatched ty ""''*""■ 
a sachem twenty miles off, came running to warn the 
chiefs against going to Manhattan. " Are you all crazy, to 
go to the fort," said he, "where that scoundrel lives, who 
has so often murdered your friends?" But De Vries as- 
sured them that " they would find it otherwise, and come 
home again with large presents." One of the chiefs re- 
plied at once, "Upon your words we will go ; for the In- 
dians have never heard lies from you, as they have firom 
other Swannekens." 

Embarking in a large canoe, the Dutch envoys, accom- 
panied hy eighteen Indian delegates, set out from Rock- 
away, and reached Fort Amsterdam about three o'clock 
in the afternoon. A treaty was presently made with theasMareiL 
Long Island savages; and Kieft, givmg them some pres-pea^™- 
ents, asked them to bring to the fort the chiefs of the Riv- 
er tribes, " who had tost so many Indians," that he might 
make peace with them also.* 

Some of the Long Island sachems accordingly went to 
Haokinsack and Tappan. But it was several weeks be- 
fore the enraged savages would listen to the counsels of 
the mediators, or put any faith in the director, At last, 
Oritany, the sachem of the Hackinsacks, invested with aPeacacDV- 
plenipotentiary commission from the neighboring tribes, wiih the 
appeared at Fort Amsterdam. Kieft "endowed him with dS.'" 
presents ;" and peace was covenanted between the River 
Indians and the Dutch. Mutual injuries were to he " for- 
given and forgotten forever;" future provocations were re- 

* De Vries, IK -. Alb. Roc, it, 214, 215 ; Doc. Hist. K. Y., iv., 13 ; O'Call., i,, 376. 

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:. ciprocally to bo avoided ; hostile movements of otliettribea, 

""not included in the treaty, were to be prevented within 

■ the torxitories of the Hackinsacks, Tappans, and "West 

Chester Indians ; while timely warning was to be given 

to "the Christians" of any hrewing mischief. 

But the savages went away " grumbling at their pres- 
«■ ents" — for their young men would think them only a tri- 
fling atonement. Noi was confidence fully restored. The 
trembling farmers planted their corn, in peace indeed, hut 
in constant dread of the murmuring Indians' sudden war- 
whoop. The director himself distrusted the ominous re- 
pose ; and a now proclamation iiom Fort Amsterdam pro- 
hibited all tavern-keepers, and other inhabitants of New 
Netherland from selling any liquors to the savages. 

At midsummer a neighboring chief visited Yriesendael 
in deep despondency. The young Indians were urging 
war ; for some had lost fathers or mothers, and all were 
mourning over the memory of friends. " The presents 
you have given to atone for their losses are not worth the 
touch;" "we can pacify our young men no longer," said 
the well-meaning sachem, as he warned De Vries against 
venturing alone into the woods, for fear that some of the 
Indians, who did not know him, might kill their constant 
friend. At the patroon's entreaty, the chief accompanied 
vaiahim down to Fort Amsterdam. " You are a chief — you 
should cause the crazy young Indians who want war again 
vrith the Swannekens to be killed," said Kieft, as he treach- 
erously offered the sachem a bounty of two hundred fath- 
oms of wampum. But the indignant red man spurned 
the proffered bribe. " This can not bo done by me," he 
rephed; "had you, at first, fuUy atoned for your mur- 
ders, they would all have been forgotten ; I shall always 
do my best to pacify our people ; but I fear I can not, for 
they are continuahy crying for vengeance."* And so thf 
boding sachem went his way. 

Hosted by 






The "Old Colony" of Plymouth was fomided by erai- > 
grants who, as we have seen, had leaiTied valuable leS' 
sons in popular constitutional liberty, during a twelve 
years' sojourn in Holland. The example which the union ^*°£^.°' 
of the Northern Provinces of the Netherlands had given to *'™'*- 
Europe in 1579, was now, after more than sixty years' 
experience, to be followed in America. Troubles were 
prevailing in England ; the Puritan colonies were threat- 
ened with danger ; the savages and the French were both 
to be feared ; and Connecticut alone could not overawe 
and " crowd out" her Dutch neighbors in New Netherland. 
New Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Now 
Haven, therefore, determined to form a political league 
for offense and defense. Commissioners from these sev- 
eral colonies assembled at Boston in the spring of 1643 ; 
and, on the nineteenth day of May, agreed upon Articles ift Maj, 
of Confederation, by which the " United Colonies of New 
England" became " all as one." 

The administration of the affairs of the confederacy was 
intrusted to a board, consisting of two oomraissioners from 
each colony. They were to assemble annually, or oftener, 
if necessary. The commissioners were always to be " in 
church fellowship." They were invested with extraordi- 
nary powers for making war and peace ; they had the ex- 
clusive management of Indian affairs ; and they were to 
see that the common expenses of the confederacy were 
justly assessed. The spoils of war, " whether it be in 
lands, goods, or persom," were to be proportionably di- 

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[. vided among the confederates. Specific provision waa 
"made for the surrender of runaway servants, and of fugi- 
■ tives from justice; who, upon proper proof, were to be sent 
hack to their masters, or to the authorities of the colony 
from which they might have escaped. Neither of the col- 
onies was to engage in a war without the consent of at 
least six of the commissioners. Local " peculiar jurisdic- 
tion and government" was carefully reserved to each sep- 
arate colony in the New England confederation, as it had 
heen carefully reserved, sixty years before, to each sepa- 
rate province of the United Netherlands. The doctrine 
of " State Rights" is nearly three centuries old. The 
Union of Utrecht — ^the iirst Constitutional Union of Sov- 
ereign and Independent States — was essentially the model 
for the first Union of American colonies.* 

As soon as intelligence of the New England confedera- 
tion reached Manhattan, Kieft, wishing to open a commu- 
nication with the commissioners, dispatched a sloop to 
Boston, with letters in Latin, addressed to "the Governor 
and Senate of the United Provinces of New England," 
Congratulating them on their recent league, the director 
complained of the "insufferable wrongs" which the En- 
glish had done to the Dutch on the Connecticut, and of 
the misrepresentations of Lord Say, Peters, and others to 
the States' ambassador at London ; and desired " a cate- 
gorical answer," whether the commissioners would aid or 
desert the Hartford people, that so the New Netherland 
government " may know their friends from their enemies." 
The commissioners were not in session when the Dutoh 
jp sloop arrived at Boston. But &overnor "Winthrop, the pre- 
siding commissioner, after " advising with some of the 
US', elders vfho were at hand, and some of the deputies," re- 
plied in his own name. Referring Kieft to their " chiefest 
authority," from which he " should receive further answer 
in time convenient," Winthrop expressed his grief at the 
IS with his brethren of Hartford, which, he suggest- 

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ed, " might be composed by arbiters, either in England or cn^p. xi. 
Holland, or here," The confederates were bound " to seek 
the good and safety of each other;" but the difficulty "be- 
ing only for a small parcel of land, waa a matter of so little 
value in this vast continent, as was not worthy to cause a 
breach between two people so nearly related both in pro- 
fession of the same Protestant religion and otherwise," 

"When the commissioners met, a month afterward, sepianbet. 
Connecticut made complaints on her side, and New Ha- misrio™'™- 
ven handed in statements of the grievances which their ™S." " 
people had suffered froni the Dutch and Swedes on the 
South E,iver. Winthrop was now instructed to communi- 
cate their complaints to Kioft, "requiring answer to the 
particulars, that as we will not wrong others, so we may 
not desert our confederates in any jiist cause." The pres-JIsopt. 
ident accordingly wrote to Kieft, recapitulating the in- 
juries which New Haven had suffered on the South Riv- 
er, the charges against Provoost, the Dutch commissary 
at Fort Good Hope, " for sundry unworthy passages," and 
expre^ing the opinion of the commissioners in favor of 
the " justice of the cause of Hartford in respect of title of 
the land," This opinion the commissioners "could not 
change," unless they could see more light than had yet 
appeared to them "by the title the Dutch insisted upon." 
But Kieft, dissatisfied with this reply, again asserted the 1644. 
right of the Dutch to their lands at Hartford, and renew- '^'"'^ 
ed his complaints of injuries.* 

In the mean time, the red men were thirsting for blood ; 
and a general war between the Indian and the European 
appeared to be at hand. The valley of the Connecticut 1643. 
again became the scene of strife ; and Miantonomoh, burn- Tho'con- 
ing to avenge upon Uncas the indignities which he liad dfans?!'"" 
suffered at Boston, invaded the Mahiean country, at the Au^gnsi"' 
head of a thousand warriors. But the fate of war threw 
the Narragansett chief uito the hands of his rival, who 
transferred his prisoner to the custody of the English at 
Hartford. The commissioners, meeting at Boston, agreed September, 

* Wlathrop, ii., 1S9, 130, 140, IST ; Haiard, ii., U, 31S,S!G. 

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:h«p, XI. that he ought to bo put to death ; and TJncas, receiving 
back Miantonomoh from hia Enghsh juiSer, conducted hini 
liurder os ^'^ ^^^ borders of the Mahican territory, and executed their 
noh!""" judgment upon a former ally.* 

The spirit of war, at the same time, broke out among 
the upper tribes on the North Biver ; and Pacham, the 
subtile chief of the Tankitekes near Haveratraw, visiting 
the Wappingers above the Highlands, urged them to a 
1 August, general massacre of the Dutch, A shallop coming down 
dians ai. from Fort Orange with a cargo of four hundred heaver 
irading skins, was attacked and plundered, and one of the crew 
tbe Noriii was killed. Two other open boats were presently seized ; 
but, in attacking a fourth, the savages were repulsed, and 
lost six of their warriors. Wine of the Dutch colonists 
were killed, and a woman and two children taken pris- 
oners. Others were slain by the savages, who approached 
their scattered dwellings under the guise of friendship 
Intelligence of the outbreak was quickly borne to Fort 
Amsterdam ; and the news of " fifteen Dutch slain by the 
Indians, and much beaver taken," soon reached Boston.t 
sepiember. The appalling crisis compelled Kieft to summon the peo- 
monsuis pie again into council. The commonalty were convoked 
lysKain. at Fort Amsterdam, and asked to elect " five or six per- 
sons from among themselves," to consider the propositions 
which the director might submit. The people met ; but 
remembering Kieft's cavalier treatment of the " Twelve 
Men" in the previous year, they " considered it wise" to 
leave the responsibility of selection to the director and 
council, provided the right should be reserved to them- 
selves to reject the persons "against whom there might 
be any thing to object, and who are not pleasing to 
us." The scruples of the commonalty, however, were 
overcome ; and again imitating the example of the Fa- 
"Etshi therland, the people elected "Bight Men" from among 
ahosen. themselves, "maturely to consider" the propositions of 

Hosted by 



the director. 'Ihia second board of popular vepreaentativea chap. xi. 
in New Netherland consisted of Jochem Pietersen Kuyter, 
Jan Jansen Dam, Barent Dircksen, Abraham Pietersen, 
Isaac Allei-ton, Thomas Hall, Gerrit Wolfertsen, and Cor- 
nells Melyn.* 

Two days after their election, the Eight Men met, a-tis^^^p'^, 
Kieft's summons, "to consider the critical cironmstances<^'heEjt!ht 
of the country." Before attending to any other business, 
they resolved to exclude from their board Jan Jansen Dam, 
one of the signers of the letter to Kieft, which was the im- 
mediate cause of the massacres at Pavonia and Corlaer's 
Hook. In vain Dam protested, and charged the director 
with deceit in procuring his signature. The obnoxious 
representative was inexorably expelled ; and Jan Evert- 
sen Bout, of Pavonia, was selected by the remaining sev- 
en to fill his vacant seat. The Eight Men, having thus 
purged their board, resolved that hostilities should he ira- waruira 
mediately renewed against the river Indians; but that amhotiied 
peace should be preserved with the Long Island tribes, 
who were to be encouraged to bring in " some heads of 
the murderers." As large a military force as the freemen 
could afford to pay, was to be promptly enlisted and 
equipped. Several " good and fitting articles" were also 
ordained by the Eight Men, " forbidding all taverning, and 
all other irregularities." A week's preaching was pre- 
scribed instead; but the praiseworthy order "was not 
carried into execution by the officer. "t 

Kieft did not delay the warlike preparations which the 
Eight Men had authorized. The colonists and the serv- 
ants of the company were armed and drilled ; and as the English 
English inhabitants were now threatening to leave New enrolled. 
Netherland, they were taken into the public service ; the 
commonalty agreeing to provide for one third of their pay. 

* Hoi. Doc, iii., Ul, 144 i O'Call., :., 584. Kuylcr and Ham tod been members or the 
previous buard of Twelve Men; niilt, p. 317. CornelisMolyn waB the palroon of Slaten 
Island. Thomas HaU was Iho deserter from Holmes's patty on the South Rivet In 1035. 

i., 70, 71 : li.,'«, 54, 131 i Sataee's n"'" •" Wlnllirop, 1., 35 ; ii., SB, MO, 
t Alli. Roo.i iL, 331 ; Hoi. Due., iii., 145, 215 ; v., 3Sa ; O'Call., i., 585, asS. 

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Chap. XI. Fifty Englkhmen were promptly enrolled ; all of -whom 

swore to fee faithful to the States General, the Prince of 

SB som Orange, the "West India Company, and the director and 
council of New Netherland, and "to "sacrifice their lives 
CBptein in their and the country's service." The command of thia 
uhsQinio force was intrusted to Captain John Underhill, one of the 
aenico. heroos in the Pequod war ; who, having undergone the 
severe discipline of the Boston Church, had established 
himself at Stamford, a little east of Captain Patrick's set- 
tlement at G-reenwich, and now offered to the Duf«h the 
henefit of his veteran skUl.* 
The Week- But before Kieft could complete his military arrang^- 
aesmy^^ " ments, the Weckquaesgeeks dug up the hatchet which 
HmcUin- they had buried, eighteen months before, on the shores of 
Sieni. Bronx Uiver. Approaching " in way of friendly neighbor- 
"^ '' hood, as they had been accustomed," the widowed Anne 
Hutchinson's blameless retreat at "Annie's Hoeck," they 
watched their opportunity, and murdered that extraordin- 
ary woman, her daughter, and Collins, her son-in-law, 
and all her family, save one grand-daughter, eight years 
old, whom they carried off into captivity. The houses and 
Throgmoc- oattlc wcie ruthlossly destroyed.! From Annie's Hoeok, 
mam w^^' the devastating party proceeded downward to " Vrede- 
iBcked land," and attacked Throgmorton's peaceful settlement. 
Such of Throgmorton's and Cornell's families as were at 
home were killed, and the cattle, and barns, and houses 
were all burned up, A happy accident bringing a boat 
there at the very moment of the tragedy, some women 


il., 377; Itl,, 121 ; Bm. HIsI, N. S., (v., ]3; 


TruraiiiU (L, 139] ci 

=piea Uie erroi 

r— Ihat Ihe Snleh people vnre eo alluded wllh.KleR, 

The people « 

fere, no donbl, Dfftnded enough; end, tor Iha 

it <s not probable llist llisy woDld hove s|r«d 10 pay pm of ibo expense of on 

, Bnelish 



Jeftnae, (n 11., R. I. H. S. Coll., 56, 69 ; Alb. 

Rec, ti., 




:. "The 

Indiana ae* upon Ih 

em, and slew 1 

her and all her ftmily, her flaaehler and her d 


husband, rod (dlim 

;ir ohUa™, ai 

ive DUO tUBt escaped (her own hnebimd being 


fbra). * - * God'g ■ 

»re apparenlly seen herein, lo pick out ih( 

womon, lo maka he 


elonglBg 10 her, an unheard-of hea'y enampli 

; of Uleit 

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and ohildren fled on toard ; and thus the settlement was chap. xi. 
saved from utter extermination. Nevertheless, eighteen 
victims of the rod man's indisoriminating fury lost their 
lives in "West Chester.* 

The vengeance which desolated "West Chester did not 
spare Long Island. Lady Deborah Moody, who had heen Lady 
" dealt vfith" by the Church at Salem for "the error ofuraVdt 
denying baptism to infants," having fled for refuge, withjune.' 
many others " infected with Anahaptism," into New Neth- 
crland, had established herself, by Kieft's special permis- 
sion, at 's Grravensande, or Gravesend, on Long Island. 
But she had scarcely become settled in her retreat before 
her plantation was attacked by the savages. A brave de- scjuombor. 
fenae was, nevertheless, made by forty resolute colonists ; 
the fierce besiegers were repulsed ; and G-ravesend escaped 
the fate which overwhelmed all the neighboring settle- 
ments on Long Island.! 

Doughty's settlement at Mespath, or Newtown, did not DcmgUy'a 
fare so well. During the first year, he had re-enforced atMespaux 
himself with several new families of colonists. More than 
eighty persons were soon settled in Mespath, and an air 
of prosperity prevailed. Doughty himself, who had 
" scarcely means enough of his own to build even a hovel, 
let alone to people a colony at his own expense," was cm- 
ployed as minister ; and his associates prepared for him a 
farm, upon the profits of which he lived, while he dis- 
charged, in return, the clerical duties of his station. But 
the savages attacking the settlement, the colonists were 
driven from their lands, " with the loss of some men and 
many cattle, besides almost all their houses, and what 
other property they had." They afterward returned, and 
remained awhile ; but finding that they consumed more msM sec\ 
than they could raise, they fled for refuge to Manhattan. ManiTiuan. 

• Winthtop, IL, 136; Bolton's West Cliislcr, i., 514. 

t Hoi. Doc, lit., 135 1 Alb. Rec., sii; 1; Winilirop, II., 134, 136; Thompson's L.l.,ii., 
189-173. Gravesend was not named, as many suppose, after Uie well-known English 
potion tbeThsmea ; liut Klea himself gave it the nainR of the anciRnl cilj, '3 Graven- 

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p. XI, Here Doughty officiated aa minister for the English resi- 
~ dents ; but they not supporting him, two collections were 
' talten up for his benefit, to ■which both Dutch and English 
residenta contributed.* 

-The war-whoop, which rang through "West Chester and 
Long Island, was re-echoed thi^ough New Jersey. The 
grumbling Hackinsacks, unappeased by a sufficient atone- 
ment, soon fulfilled their sachem's foreboding words. A 

Hsokin- sudden night attack was made on Van der Horst's colony 

ladiHi. at "Achter Cul." The house was set on fire ; and the 
small garrison, "five soldiers, five boys, and one man," 
after a determined resistance, barely escaped in a canoe, 
with nothing but their arms. The plantation was utterly 

The Neve- ruincd. The Nevesincks below the Ravitan were ai-ouaed. 

atoami. Aert Thcunison, of Hoboken, while trading at the Beere- 
gat — now known as Shrewsbury Inlet, just south of 
Sandy Hook — was attacked and killed by the savages. 
The yacht had scarcely returned to Manhattan with the 
tidings, before a nearer calamity appalled the Dutch. 

looiobot. Kine Indians, coming to Pavonia with friendly demon- 
strations, approached the house of Jacob Stoffelsen, which 
was guarded by a detachment of three or four soldiers. 
Stoffelsen, who had married the widow of Van Voorst, 
Pauw's former superintendent, was a favorite with the 
savages, who, making up a " false errand," succeedetJ in 
sending him across the river to Fort Amsterdam. As soon 

pavonia as Stoffelscu was safely out of the way, they approached 

™'''" ' the soldiers under a show of friendship. These, incautious- 
ly laying aside their arms, were all murdered, Kot a soul 
escaped alive, except the littlesonofVan Voorst, whom the 
savages carried off a pr^oner to Tappan, after burning all 
the bouweries, and houses, and cattle, and corn at Pavo- 
nia. At Kieft's earnest entreaty, De Vries, the only per- 
son who " durst go among the Indians," went up the river, 
and procured the release of the oaptive.t 

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Thus the war began anew. "West Chester ■was already cn»p. xi. 
laid waste, and Long Island almost. " destitute of inhabit- ^„ ' 
ants and stock." Prom the Highlands of Nevesinok to^y^^ " 
the valley of Tappan, the whole of New Jersey was once^^j^ 
more in possession of its aboriginal lords. Staten Island, 
where Melyn had established himself, was hourly expect- 
ing an assault. The devastating tide rolled over the isl- 
and of Manhattan itself. From its northern extremity to 
the Kolck, there were now no more than iive or six bouw- 
eries left; and these " wei'e threatened by the Indians ev- 
ery night with fire, and by day with the slaughter of both 
people and cattle." No other place remained, where the 
trembling population could find protection, than " around 
and adjoining Fort Amsterdam." There women and chil- 
dren lay " oonoealed in straw huts," while their husbands 
and fathers mounted guard on the crumbling ramparts 
above. For the fort itself was almost defenseless ; it re- 
sembled " rather a mole-hill than a fortress agaiust an 
enemy." The cattle which had escaped destruction were 
huddled within the walls, and were already beginning to 
starve for want of forage. It was indispensable to main- 
tain a constant guard at all hours ; for seven allied tribes, 
" well supplied with muskets, powder, and ball," which 
they had procured fi?om private traders, boldly threatened 
to attack the dilapidated citadel, " with all their strength, 
now amounting to fifteen hundred men." So confident 
had the enemy become, that their scouting parties con- 
stantly threatened the advanced sentinels of the garrison ; 
and Ensign Van Dyck, while relieving guard at one of somoiai. 
the outposts, was wounded by a musket-ball in his arm. 
All the forces that the Dutch could now muster, besides 
the fifty or sixty soldiers in garrison, and the enrolled En- 
glish, were " alaout two hundred freemen." With this 
handful of rnen was New Netherland to be defended 
against the " implacable liiry" of her savage foe.* 

"Fear coming more over the land," the Eight MenTheKiem 
were again convoked. There were two of the company's convoiiflii. 

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cu.r. XL ships at anchor before the fort, whicli had just been load- 
ed with provisions for Cura<;oa, The Eight Men proposed 
' that the cargoes of thes 1 *p h lib land d a d a 
part of their crews draft d n th t th p u 

soetober. They also recommended an ppl at t tl ir E 1 1 
mendaiions neighbors at the north, f tl a ta f h nd 1 
M™^'""aDd fifty men, Portheia t fth a xl tl 

director was advised todwabllt Ian ntl 
West India Company f tw nty fi tl d g Id 

and, aa a security for its pay -nnttn-ta N Nth 
erland to the English* 
Kieftre- But Kieft did not " consider expedient" the suggestion 
aiop the to divert siippliea from th© "West Indies ; and while fam- 
Bhipa!™ ine and an overwhelming enemy were desolating the pre- 
cincts of I'oit Amsterdam, the starving population watched 
the departing vessels, as they bore to Curafoa the wheat 
whicli they had raised, and for which they were now pin- 
sendBio ing. The recommendation to apply to New England for 
vMfiiraB- assistance, was, however, promptly adopted ; and Under- 
hdl and AJlerton were dispatched to negotiate with New 
Haven. But their mission utterly failed. Eaton and the 
General Court, after maturely considering Kieft's letter, 
ReftuHiof rejected the proposal to assist New Wetherland with an 
y^ " auxiliary force. They were prohibited, by their Articles 
of Confederation, from engaging separately in v^ar ; and 
they were not satisfied " that the Dutch war with the In- 
dians was just." Nevertheless, if the Dutch needed corn 
and provisions, the court resolved to give them all the ^- 
sistance in its power.t 
Do vries At this conjuuctuTe, the sutfering province lost one of 
NeUBT- its best citizens. The houweries where De Vries had at- 
tempted to establish colonies all lay in ashes, and the In- 
dians, whose confidence he had never lost, were " restless, 
and bent on war, or a full satisfaction." The ruined pa- 
troon determined to return to the Fatherland. A Rotter- 
dam Herring-buss, whose master, disappointed in selling 

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his cargo of Madeira wine in New England, "because the chaf. xi 

English there lived soherly," coming through Hell- gate to 

aeek a market in Virginia, anchored Ijefore Fort Araat«r- ^ g^, ' 

dam. De Vries, accepting the schipper's invitation to pilot 

his vessel to Virginia, called on Kieft to take his leave. For 

the last time the director listened to the voice -which had 

so often warned him in vain. ' ' The murders in which you e otioHM, 

have shed so much innocent hlood will yet he avenged 

upon yom' own head," was De Vries's awful prophecy, as 

he parted from Kieft, and left Manhattan forever.* 

The Eight Men soon met again, Cornelia Melyn, the Meeimg of 
patroon of Staten Island, was their president. The utter Men. 
ruin which now menaced the province, and the cold re- 
pulse which his application for aid had met at New Ha- 
ven, if they did not entirely overcome Kieffc's jealousy of 
the popular representatives, at least prevented him from 
interfering with their purpose of communicating directly 
with their common superiors in Holland. The people of 
New Nethorland had never yet spoken to the authorities 
of the Fatherland, The time had now come when their 
voice WE^, for the first, to "be heard at Amsterdam and at 
the Hague, A letter signed hy all the Eight Men, wasaiociotei. 
addressed to the College of the SIS. In simple and pa- letiet to toc 
thetic words the representatives of the commonalty told componj. 
their tale of woe. How " the fire of war" had teen kin- 
dled around them, theh wives and children slaughtered 
or swept away captives, their cattle destroyed, their es- 
tates wasted. How famine stared them in the face ; for, 
" while the people are ruined, the com and all other prod- 
uce hurnt, and httle or nothing saved, not a plough can 
be put, this autumn, into the ground." "If any provi- 
sions should he obtained from the English at the East, we 
know not wherewith we poor men shall pay for them." 
" This is hut the beginning of our troubles, especially as 
these Indians kill off our people one after another, which 
they will continue to do, while we are hnrthened with our 
muskets, our wives, and our little ones."t 

> Us VrisB, 163. t Hoi. Son., iii„ 131-111) ; Breeden RBodt, IS. 

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CH.f. XI. To the states General the Eight Men addressed a still 
~ more bold remonstrance ; for they were speaking to the 
' statesmen of their Fatherland. "We are all here, from 
J the smallest to the greatest, without counsel or means ; 
wholly powerless. The enemy meets with no resistance. 
The garrison consists of hut fifty or sixty soldiera, without 
ammunition. Fort Amsterdam, utterly defenseless, stands 
open to the enemy day and night. The company has few 
or no effects here, as the dbector informs us. "Were it not 
for this, there might still have been time to receive some 
assistance from the English at the East, ere all were lost ; 
but we, helpless inhabitants, while wo must abandon all 
our property, are exceedingly poor. The heathens are 
strong in might. They have formed an alliance with sev- 
en other nations ; and are well provided with guns, pow- 
der, and hall, in exchange for beaver, by the private trad- 
era, who for a long time have had free course here. The 
rest they take from our brethren whom they murder. la 
short, we suffer the greatest misery, which must astonish 
a Christian heart to see or hear." 

" We turn then, in a body, to you, High and Mighty 
Lords, acknowledging your High Mightinesses as our sov- 
ereigns, and as the Fathers of Fatherland. We suppli- 
cate, for G-od's sake, and for the love which their High 
Mightinesses bear toward their poor and desc' 
here in New Netberland, that their High Mighi 
would take pity on us, their poor people, and urge upon, 
and command the Company — ^to whom we also make 
known our necessities — to forward to us, by the earliest 
opportunity, such assistance as their High Mightinesses 
may deem most proper, in order that we, poor and forlorn 
beings, may not be left all at once a prey, with women 
and children, to these cruel heathen. For, should suita- 
hle assistance not very quickly aiTive, according to our 
expectations, we shall be forced, in order to preserve the 
lives of those who remain, to remove ourselves to the East, 
among the English, who would like nothing better than 
to have possession of this place ; especially on account of 

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the superior convenience of the sea-coast, hays, and large cnip. xs, 
rivers, beaidea the great fertility of this soil — yea, this" 
alone could, yearly, provision and supply with all neces- 
saries twenty, twenty-five, or thirty ships frora Brazil or 
the "West Indiea."* 

The same vessel that bore these dispatches convey- 
ed a distinguished passenger. Van Curler's benevolent 
visit to the Mohawk castles in the previous autumn, 
though it failed to procure the release of the French 
captives, at least prolonged the life of Father Jogues. 
Through the dreary winter, the solitary Jesuit endured naiheir 
hunger and cold, and the bitter contempt of the savages, amongtiie 
who reviled his holy zeal. Gradually they began to listen 
to hia words, and receive inatruction and baptism. His 
liberty was enlarged ; and twice he was taken, with the 
trading parties of the Iroquois, to the neighboring settle- 
ments of the Dutch, who welcomed him kindly, and "left 
no stone unturned" to effect his deliverance. "While at 
Fort Orange on one occasion, nevra came that the French 
had repulsed the Mohawks at Fort E-ichelieu ; and the ai juiy, 
Dutch commander, fearing that the Jesuit Father would 
be burned in revenge, counseled him to escape, Joguea 
at, length consented; and, evading the vigilance of the 
savages, remained in close concealment for six weeks, EscapcB 01 
during which Domine Megapolensis, who had become his ongs. 
attached friend, showed him constant kindness. The 
wrath of the Mohawks at the escape of their prisoner 
was at length appeased by presents, to the value of three 
hundred livres, made up by the colonial authorities; andisaepi. 
Joguea was sent down the river to Manhattan, where hcbausn. 
was hospitably received by the director. 

Here he remained for a month, observing the capital of octoiwr. 
the Dutch province, now desolated by war Port Am-iter- 
dam was without ditchea, and its lamparta of eaith had oondiiion 
crumbled away; but they "were bcgmnmg to tace theuuKhcBo- 
gates and bastions with stone." t)n the inland of Man- 
hattan, and in its environa, were some iuur or fi\e hund- 

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osiAr.xi. red men "of d ft t t and nations," speaking "eight- 
~~~~ een diiFero tlang a The meclianics who plied their 

Lsniuases tradcs WBi an 1 und the wa\Ia of the fort ; all others 
iml, "^' "^f^^o expo d t th n ursions of the savages. No re- 
ligion, exo pt tl Gal rustic, was publicly exercked, and 
the orders were to admit none hut Calviniats ; " hut tJiia 
is not observed ; for there are in the colony, besides the 
Calviniata, Catholies, English Puritans, Lutherans, Ana- 
baptists, here called Mennoniata," &;c. The heart of the 
missionary was grieved at the sufferings of the Dutch, 
whose losses by the Indians were already estimated at two 
hundred thousand livres. At length the bark, in whieh 
jo^cB Kieft gave him a free passage to Europe, was ready to 
BuropB. sail; and. the Jesuit Father, supplied with "black clothes, 
5 wov. and all things necessary," gratefully took leave of the Hol- 
landers, who had shown him bo much kindness.* 
Fort Or- At thia time, the West India Company'a reserved Fort 
™^' Orange was " a wretched little fort, built of logs, with 
four or five pieces of oannon of Breteuil, and as many 
BsvaiB- swivels." Around it was the hamlet of Beverawyok, 
^'"' ' " competed of about one hundred persons, who resided in 
some twenty-five or thirty houses built along the river, as 
each one found it most convenient." These houses were 
built of boards, and thatched ; there vraa no mason-work, 
except in, the chimneys. In the principal house lived the 
patroon's chief officer ; " the minister had his apart, in 
Firsi which service was performed." A church, however, was 
liJ^cra- now commenoed, under the supervision of Domine Mega- 
polensis, in " the pine grove," a little to the west of the 
patroon's trading house, and within range of the guns of 
Fort Orange. A burial-ground was also laid out in tlie 
rear, on what is now knovro as "Church Street." Thia 
first church in Albany — the humble dimensions of which 
were only thirty-four feet long and nineteen feet wide— 
was thought sufficient to accommodate the people for sev- 

■,56,111-111; Jognes'slBl 
M : Cbarlevail, 1., 2S0 ; oi 

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eral years ; it could afterward " serve for the residence of chip, s 
the sexton, or for a school." A canopied pulpit, pews for 
the magistracy and the deacons, and nine "benches for the '' 
people, after the fashion of the Fatherland, were soon aft- 
erward furnished, at an expense of eighty guilders.* 

The pious services of Domine Hegapolensis were not, Misaiom 
however, confined to his om'u countrymen. Like hisgapoien! 
friend, Father Jogues, he applied himself to the difficult 
task of learning the "heavy language" of the Mohawks, 
" so as to speak and preach to them fluently." The Dutch 
traders did not themselves- understand the idiom of the 
savages ; and even the commissary of the company, who 
had been "connected vfith them these twenty years," 
could afford Megapoleiisis no assistance in becoming " an 
Indian grammarian." The red men about Fort Orange 
were soon attracted to hoar the preaching of the G-ospel. 
And it should be remembered that these earnest and vol- 
untary labors of the first Dutch clergyman on the northern 
frontier of New Netherland, preceded, by several years, the 
earliest attempt of John Eliot, the " morning star of mis- 
sionary enterprise" in New England, to preach to the sav- 
ages in the neighborhood of Boston.t " When we have a 
sermon," wrote Megapolensis, " sometimes ten or twelve of 
them, more or less, will attend, each having in his mouth a 
long tobacco-pipe made by himself, and will stand awhile 
and look, and afterward ask me what I was doing, and 
what I wanted, that I stood there alone, and made so many 
words, and none of the rest might speak ? I tell them 
that I admonished the Christians that they must not steal, 
nor drink, nor commit lewdness and murder ; and that they 
too ought not to do these things ; and that I intend after 
awhile to come and preach to them, in their country and 
castles, when I am acquainted with their language. They 
say, I do well in teaching the Christians ; but immediate- 

197, 30S-3M ; BBBOtoft, II., T9, M : Yonog'B Ch, M 

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p. XI. ly add, "Why do so many Christians do these things ? 
""They call us Assyreoni, that is, cloth-makers ; or Charts- 
' tooni, that is, ixon-worbeva, because our people first brought 
cloth and iron among tliem."* 

The effects of the war, which was desolating the neigh- 
borhood of Fort Amsterdam, soon began to be felt at Fort 
Orange. The "West India Company's magazine was no 
longer supplied with merchandise ; and the warehouse of 
the colonic of Uensselaerswyck was now the only resource 
of the fur-traders who might obtain licenses from the pa- 
pa- troon. In this respect, his mercantile policy was exolu- 
e mer- sivc, and was rigidly enforced within the colonie. Most 
of the colonists, however, were in the habit of procuring 
ihe patroon's licenses; and, as early as 1640, De Vries ob- 
eerved that "each fanner was a trader." Throughout the 
war which was desolating southern New Wetherland, the 
colonists at Rensselaerswyck felt little trouble, and enjoy- 
ed peace, "because they continued to sell fire-arms and 
powder to the Indians." This conduct was openly re- 
buked by the directors of the "West India Company ; and 
it was afterward the subject of complaint on the part of 
the authorities of New England.t 

The colonists readily obtained goods on credit from the 
warehouse, to which they were obligeijl to bring their pur- 
chases of furs. These were shipped to Holland, and sold 
at Amsterdam, under the patroon's supervision, His share, 
at first one half, was before long reduced to a sixth, to- 
gether with the recognition of one guilder on each skin of 
the remainder. Under this system, the price of a beaver 
skin, which, before 1642, was six fathoms of wampum, 
soon rose to ten fathoms. It was now thought necessary 
that the colonial authorities should make some regulations 

)., MT-5SS, w)U bs pubUalied in U.. N. Y. H, S. Coll,, iih 

t Da Vrtos, 15S, 158 ! Hoi. Dos., LI., 373 ; Repatt and M 
WInlhrap, II., B4, 1ST ; nasard, U., 13, 103, 91). 

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respecting this trade. The corapany'a comraisaary at Fort ch.p. 
Orange, in conjunction with Yan Carter, the commissary ' 
of the patroon, accordingly issued a joint proclamation, 
fixing the price of a beaver skin at nine fathoms of white 
wampum, and forbidding all persons, "on pain of confis- 
cation," to "go into the bush to trade." It was also di-miidii 
tected that "no residents should presume to come withited. 
their boats within the limits of the colonic ;" and a further 
proclamation declared that " no inhabitants of the colonic 
should presume to buy any goods from the residents." 
Van der Donok, "the officer" of Uensselaerswyok, was at 
the same time required to see these regulations strictly 

But the sehout-fiscal, afraid of risking his popularity, 
would not enforce the new ordinances. A sloop arriving 
a few days afterward with some goods, the colonists, in 
spite of the proclamations, purchased what they pleased ; 
and Commissary Van Curler and Domine Megapolenais, 
sending for Van der Donok, directed him to search the van t 
houses of the colonists for secreted goods. But the sohout ftuwi 
" gossipped, without once making a search." He was not 
disposed to " make himself suspected by. the colonists, as 
his years as officer were few," Van Curler soon hecame 
unpopular. Van der Donck fomented the discontent; and 
a protest against the obnoxious commissary was subscribed 
in a circle, " so that it should not be known who had first 
signed it." Some of the colonists were for driving him 
out of the colony as a rogue ; others wished tw take his life.* 
By degrees, however. Van Curler's popularity returned ; 
and Van der Donck, finding his residence becoming dia-van 
agreeable, determiried to leave Rensselaerswyck. Heaoi»- 
therefore went down the river to look at Katskill ; and =010 
made arrangements to return to Holland, and seek for 
partners "to plant a colonie there." But the patroon, 
learning Van der Donck's intention, resolved to forestall 
"his sworn officer," who had "dishonestly designed" to 
purchase the lands "lying under the shadow of his colo- 

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unit. XI, nie ;" and dcterminetl to enlarge his own domain, so aa to 
include all the territory " from Renaaelaer's Stein down to 
10 sapi. ' Katakill." Instraotions were, therefore, sent to Van Curler 
to istop the sellout's proceedings, and, in'oase he had al- 
ready acquired a title from the Indians, to conatraiii him 
to surrender it to the patroon. If he should prove obsti- 
nate, he was to he deprived of his office, which was to be 
conferred, provisionally, upon Nicholas Koorn. The strin- 
gent orders of his feudal chief arrested "Van der Donok's 
design, and hia proposed settlement at Katskill waa aban- 

The Swedish government, in the mean time, had taken 
measuicK to place their colony at the South Uiver on a 
1642. permanent footing. In the summer of 1643, the queen 
isAugnBi. appointed John Printz, a lientenant of cavalry, to be 
" Governor of New Sweden," which was declared to be 
under the royal protection. The ten-itory was defined as 
extending " from the borders of the sea to Cape Hinlopen, 
in returning southwest toward Godyn's Bay, and thence 
toward the great South Uiver as far as Minqua's KUl, 
where is constructed Fort Christina, and from thence 
again toward South River, and the whole to a place which 
the savages call Sankikan,+ which is at the same time the 
place where are the limits of New Sweden." Of these 
jQiin frontiers, Printz was instructed "to take care;" yet, if 
pilSiefl" possible, to maintain amity and good neighborhood with 
f^emor. the Diitch at Fort Wassau, "now occupied by about twen- 
ty men," as well as with " those established higher up the 
North Uiver at Manhattan, or New Amsterdam, and like- 
wise with the English, who inhabit Virginia, especially 
i the latter have already begun to procure for the 
s all sorts of necessary provisions, and at teasonahle 
prices, both for cattle and grain." Toward the colonists 
under Joost de Bogaerdt good-will was to be shown. 
Printz might choose his own residence where he should 

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find it most convenient ; but he waa to pay porticulat at- CHif. xi, 
tention that the South River "may be shut," or com- 
manded by any fortress which he might erect. The trade 
in peltries with the Indians was not to be permitted to any 
persons whomsoever, except to the agents of the Swedish 
Company. Detailed instructions were also given for the 
internal government of the colony ; and Divine service was 
enjoined, "according to, the true Confession of Augsburg, 
the Council of Upsal, and the ceremonies of the Swedish 
Church-" The Dutch settlers, however, were not to be 
disturbed " with regard to the exercise of the Reformed 
religion." The governor's appointment was for three 
years, at an annual salary of twelve hundred silver dol- 
lars, conunencing on the first of January, 1643. The 
Swedish government furnished officers and soldiers, andsoAupisi. 
passed an ordinance -assigning upward of two miiliona of 
rix dollars, to be collected annually from the excises on 
tobacco, for the support of the government of New Sweden.* 
Under such auspices, Printz sailed from Gottenburg late 
in the autumn of 1642, with the ships "Fame" and 1 Nov. 
" Stork," and accompanied by the Reverend John Cam- 
panius as chaplain. Early the next year, the expedition 1643, 
reached Fort Christina. t Desiring to control the trade of p^miat- 
the river, and be as near as possible to the Dutch at Fortp^chris- 
Nasaau, Printz chose for his own residence an island on""' 
the west shore, then called by the Indians " Tenacong," 
now known as Tinioum, near Chester, about twelve miles 
below Philadelphia. Upon this island a " pretty strong" 
fort, named " New G-ottenWrg," was promptly construct- BuiwinE i>f 
ed of heavy hemlock logs, A mansion called " Printz coiten- 
Hall" was built for the governor ; orchards were planted ; " ^' 
and the principal colonists took up their abode at Tini- 
cum. Toward Fort Christina there were a few scattered 
farms ; but between Tinicum and the Schuylkill there 
were no plantations.^ 

t AcTBlLusi HuddE'a Report 1 [(..'n. V. H. S.'colL,. l.,4!l, 4S0 : Ferris. 6S, 63 4 Hai- 

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IP. XI. Priiitz now hoped to secure to himself all the Indian 
trade against the competition of the Dutch. Still more 
inj.g ■ effectually to " shut up" the river, in the course of the fol- 
™°Se"' 'owing summer he erected another fort " with three an- 
'"'■ gies," called " Elsingbwrgi" upon the east shore of the 
bay near Salem Creek, from which the New Haven in- 
truders had just hefoj-e been expelled. The new fort was 
garrisoned by. twelve men commanded by a lieutenant, 
and was armed with eight iron and brass twelve-pound 
guns. At this place all vessels coming up the river were 
compelled to lower their colors, and stop, until permission 
to proceed had been obtained from the governor at Tini- 
iVriesnt The Swedish garrison had an early opportunity of dis- 
•"'■ playing their vigilance. De Vries, on his way from Man. 
hattan to Virginia, put into the South Uiver ; and, as the 
Rotterdam vessel passed by Fort Elsingbnrg, a gun was 
fired for her to strike her flag. Blanck, her sohipper, ask- 
ed De Vries his advice. " If it were my ship, I should 
not strike," was the reply ; " for I am a patroon of New 
Netherland, and the Swedes are mere intruders within 
our river."' But the schipper, wishing to trade, lowered 
his colors. A boat from the fort immediately visited the 
vessel, which sailed up to Tinicum the same afternoon. 
At Fort New Gottenburg, the Dutch were welcomed by 
the governor, who " was named Captain Printz, a man of 
brave size, who weighed over four hundred pounds." 
Learning that De Vries was the patroon of the first Dutch 
colonie at Swaanendael, Printz pledged hira in " a great 
roraer of Rhine wine ;" and the Dutch vessel continued 
five days at the fort, trading confectionary and Madeira 
wine for beaver skins. After a short visit to Fort Nassau, 
where he found the West India Company's people in gar- 
is ocuibei. risen, De Vries accompanied the Swedish governor down 
the river to Fort Christina, where there were now several 
houses. Having spent the night with Printz, who "treat- 
ao ouobH. ed him well," De Vries bade farewell to his Swedish host, 

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for whom he fired a parting salute, as the Dutch vessel chap. xi. 
sailed onward to Virginia.* "" 

Kieft'a attention was soon afterward drawn to a lew p,m^,jg„,^ 
and unexpected claim to the ownership of a part of New j5"w il- 
Netherland. An English knight, Sir Edmund Plowden, "'""■ 
calling himself Earl Palatine of New Albion, arrived at 
Manhattan from the South River, and boldly affirmed that 
all the land from the west side of the North River to 
Virginia was his, by gift of the King of England. Plow- 
den's claim rested upon a patent issued at Dublin by the 1634. 
Viceroy of Ireland, to whom the knight addressed him- ^' ■'"""■ 
self after Charles I. had refused him a charter under the 
G-reat Seal of England. By his Irish patent, Plowden 
was invested with the title and dignity of " Earl Palatine" 
of the Province of New Albion, which, under a vague and 
imperfect description, seems to have been meaait to include 
most of the territory between Cape May, Sandy Hoolt, and 
the Delaware River, now forming the State of New Jer- 
sey, Under this worthless charter, issued by a Viceroy 
of Ireland, who had no authority to grant ten'itorial rights 
in America, Plowden set sail for Delaware Bay ; but, 
'^ wanting a pilot for that place," he went to Virginia. 
From tliere he visited the South River. But becoming 
" very much piqued" with the Swedish governor, John 
Printz, " on account of some affront given him, too long 
to relate," he proceeded northward to Manhattan. The 164S. 
pretensions of the titular Earl Palatine of New Albion 
were, however, entirely disregarded by Kieft. Plowden, 
nevertheless, warned the director that, "when an oppor- 
tunity should offer," he would go to the South River and 
take possession ; while, at the same time, he assured Kieft 
that he " did not wish to have any strife with the Dutch." 

■ hla opInioriB and 
iailed jbr Holland, 

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chap. XI. The disappointed Earl Palatine presently returned to Vir- 
ginia ; and though he came to Manhattan several years 
■ afterward, and reasserted his claim to New Alhion, no 
aotuaj settlement under his insufficient title appears ever 
to have been made within the territory of New Nether- 

If the proceedings of Printz excited the animosity of the 
Dutch at Manhattan, his arbitraiy conduct was not lesa 
George annoying to the New England Puritans. Lamberton, not- 
atteaied by withstanding the warning he had received the previon.s 
Jiiy. year, persisting in revisiting the Delaware in a New Ha- 
ven pinnace, was induced, by the Swedish governor, to 
land at Fort New G-ottenhurg, where he was instantly im- 
prisoned, wit5i two of his men. Printz began to ply one 
of these men with strong drink and liberal promises, to 
influence him " to say, that George Lamberton had hired 
the Indians to cut off the Swedes." But the governor 
could not persuade his piisoner to perjure himself; and 
in his vexation, "he put nons, upon him with his own 
hands." According toWmthiops account, Printz was "a 
man very furious and passionate, cursing and swearing, 
and also reviling the English of New Haven as runa- 
gates,"! &c. 
ai Sept. "When Eaton's statement of this transaction reached 
ihe Hew Bostou, the commissioncis of the United Colonies instruot- 
commis- ed their president to write to Printz, "expressing the par- 
ticulars, and requiring satisfaction" for the "foul injuries" 
offered to Lamberton and the New Haven people on the 
Delaware. A commission was also given to Lamberton, 
"to go treat with the Swedish governor about satisfac- 
tion for those injuries and damages, and to agree with 
him about settling their trade and plantation. "t But 


ard'8 Slate Papore, t., lM>-n4 ; S. 

Hkiard'k Ann. Ponn], 3fM8, 

'Inthrf*. U, 

335. ThBsnbjeMofPloviden'Ecli 

dm to New Albion has been t 

BiiBiaered i 

n C. Klng'i 

tugenet's IleecriptLon of Saw Mblon ;" MulfBtd'e New Jeraej, 66-74 ; and in W 
pby'a Tery eicelleni note to the " Venoojb van N. N.", in II., N. Y. H. S. ColL., ii,, : 
t Wintntop, iL., lS0,i40, 141 ; Jobn Tblclipenny-B Depositign, in New Haven Ci 
1., 97-99 ; S. llaiard's Ann, Penn,, 74-76. t Haiord, ii., II ; WJnilinjp, ii. 

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Printz, on his part, met the charges of the New Haven chap. xi. 
people with a positive denial. At the meeting of the G-en- ' 
eral Court of Massachusetts in the following spring, the^ 
Swedish governor, to rebut the English version of the case, 
" sent copies of divers examinations upon oath taken in 
the cause, with a copy of all the proceeding between them 
and our friends of New Haven from the first ;" and in his 
letters " used large expressions of respect" for the English. 
Governor Eaton, on behalf of New Haven, desiring a new 
commission " to go on with their plantation and trade in 
Delaware Eiver and Bay," the court granted it, but "with 
a salvo jure."* 

The Boston merchants now began to covet a pai-ticipa- Bxpioti 
tionin the fur trade on the Delaware. It was imagined sent nc 
in Massachusetts, that the chief supply of beavers came tue soh 
from a " great lake, supposing it to lie in the northwest 
part" of their patent ; and this lake, which they named 
" Lake Lyconnia," it was now thought should be " dis- 
covered." A well-manned pinnace, laden with provisions Mafst. 
and merchandise, was therefore dispatched from Boston, 
with a commission under the public seal, and letters from 
Winthrop to the Dutch and Swedish governors. The ex- 
ploring party were instructed "to sail up the Delaware 
ILiver so high as they could go; and, then some of the 
company, under tlie conduct of Mr. "William Aspenwall, a 
good artist, and one who had been in those parts, to pass, 
by small skiffs or canoes, up the river so far as they 
could, "t 


Mon, in 1643, an 




leoflhe ju^esin 
1 repeats the slory 

witb son 

ukpenny, quoiad 


™e e 

lbs year 1642.— TrombBll, i„ 1: 
ajB not a. woid about Janscn'e < 






1 VBtkens' ItiU, i 

142, r 


' Ural injuries" offirn 

wedjali eovof nor" aio 


.,,.., „, 





mg prevailed amoni 

; me But 

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[. But the expedition failed. Kieft protested against their 
"proceeding, and sent orders to Jansen, at Fort Nassau, 
} "not to let them pass." The pinnace arrived at Fort El- 
'■ singburg " on the Lord's day," and the Swedes, firing a 
shot, forced her to anohor lower down. Eventually, the 
English vessel was suffered to pass ; hut both Printz and 
Jansen forbade the adventurers to trade with the Indians, 
" and for that end each of them had appointed a pinnace 
to wait upon" the Boston craft. Her master, however, 
"proved such a drunken sot, and so complied with the 
Dutch and Swedes," that the adventurers, fearing that if 
they should leave their vessel to go up to the lake in a 
.^mallboat, "he would, in his drunkenness, have hetrayed 
their goods to the Dutch," gave up their expedition, and 
returned to Boston. The owners of the pinnace, on their 
arrival home, recovered two hundred pounds damages from 
the master, " which was too much, though he did deal 
badly with them, for it is very probable they could not 
have proceeded." Yet this verdict did not prevent the 
commissioners of the United Colonies, several years after- 
ward, from disingenuously alleging the conduct of the 
Dutch authorities as the cause of the failure of the expe- 

The following autumn another bark " was set out from 
feiston, to trade at Delaware." After wintering in the 
bay, she went over to the " Maryland side" in the spring, 
where in three weeks " a good parcel" of five hundred 
■ beaver skins was procured. As the bark was about leav- 
r' ing, fifteen Indians carae aboard, " as if they would trade 
■^ again," and suddenly drawing forth " hatchets from un- 
der their coats," itilled the master and three others, and 
rifled the vessel of all her goods and sails, taking pris- 
oners a boy and " one Redman," the interpreter, who was 
suspected of having betrayed his countrymen. Printz, 
hearing of the outrage, which seems to have been perpe- 
trated in the neighborhood of De Vries'S' unfortunate col- 
ony at Swaanendael, procured the delivery of the prison- 

* Wirthrop, 11., 161, 178, 18? ; Haiatii, H,, 314. 

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era to. him at Fort New Gottentui-g. From theve they chsp 
■were aent T>y way of New Haven to Boston, wlicre Ued- ~ 
man was tried for Lis life, and found guilty * 

The pertinacious interference of the New England col- The nmch 
onists with the trade on the Delaware was as grievoi^ an siveiiea oii- 
annoyance to Printz as to Kieft. The Dutch, as the first giish mter- 
explorers and possessors of the South Hiver, unwillingly a<e souMi 
saw their monopoly invaded hy the Swedes ; hut when 
the English attempted to divide with them the prize, the 
Swedes were found acting in concert with the Dutch to 
repel the new intrusion. In Holland, the question of sov- 
ereignty was suddenly raised by the anrival of two Swed- omoiicr. 
ish ships, " The Key of Calmar" and the " Fame," which 
Printz had dispatched home with large cargoes of beaver 
and tobacco. Stress of weather, and perhaps apprehen- Qaesiion 
sion, owing to the war which had just broken out between eiginj rai,- 
Sweden and Denmark, induced the masters of these ves- lan*. 
sels to run into the port of Harlingen, in Friesland. Here 
the ships were seized by order of the West India Compa- e on<As\: 
ny, who, claiming sovereignty over aU the regions around 
the South Hiver of New Netherland, exacted the impost 
duties and additional recognitions, to which their charter 
entitled them. Against these exactions Speringh, thesociobar. 
Swedish minister at the Hague, instantly protested to the 
States General. A long correspondence ensued, which 
resulted in the discharge of the ships, the next summer, 
upon payment of the impost duties alone. The compa- 
ny's additional recognition of e^ht per cent, was waived ; 
and the question of the right of sovereignty was left un- 

In the mean time, Kieft, disappointed in obtaining as- 164-j, 
sistanoe from his English neighbors, had been forced tosSV 
draw a bill of exchange on the directors of the "West India "^"ra- 
Company, in favor of some merchants of Amsterdam,. Ja™o"- 
Strict discipline was enjoined upon the heterogeneous 
forces which were now mustered at Manhattan ; and Van 

ii.. 203. sin, as 

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XL der Huygens, the schout-fiscal, was commanded to exe- 
"~~cut6 his duties without fear or favor, and to repress, with 
' all the force of the province, the irregularities which a 
state of war necessarily produced. The refusal of New 
Haven left New Netherland to her own resources, and the 
spirit of the people rose with the occasion. It was now 
determined that offensive measures should be taken against 
ihcr. the savages. Counselor La Montague was accordingly di'j- 
iiiion patched to Staten Island with a force of three companies, 
'isi. forty Dutch burghers under Captain Kuyter, thirty-five 
English colonists under Lieutenant Baxter, and several 
regular soldiers under Sergeant Cock. Crossing over from 
Manhattan in the evening, the expedition spent the whole 
night in scouring the island. The Indiana kept out of the 
way ; hut five or six hundred scheples of corn were se- 
cured, and brought back to Fort Amsterdam.* 

The Connecticut Indians in the vicinity of Stamford 
had now hecome still more hostile, and Mayano, a fierce 
III boa- chief , who lived a little to the east of Greenwich, boldly 
ifwS: attacked a party of "three Christians," whom he, acci- 
dentally met returning home. One of the party was 
killed ; but the other two overpowered the savage and 
cut oif his head, which Captain Patrick immediately sent 
to Fort Amsterdam, with an account of what the colo- 
nists at Greenwich had already suffered from the chief 
and his tribe. When Patrick and his friends submitted 
themselves to the jurisdiction of New Netlierland, the 
year before, it was upon condition of being " protected 
against their enemies as much as possible." Good faith 
now required that this condition should be fulfilled ; and 
ladiuon Kieft instantly sent the forces which had just returned 
iha™n Irom Staten Island, to the assistance of the loyal English, 
iiian Leaving Manhattan in the morning, in three yachts, the 
expedition reached Greenwich in the evening. All the 
next night was spent in marching through the country in 
search of the enemy. But none was found ; and the 
wearied detachment reached Stamford in no good humor. 

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One of the Dutch soldiers meeting Patrick at Captain Vn- c 
deihill's house on Sunday, " in the time of afternoon ex- ~ 
ereise — for he seldom ■went to the puhlic aaserr 
charged him with treachery, in causing one hundred andp^,^™ 
twenty men to come from Fort Amsterdam on a fool's er- """■^«f='i' 
rand. Patrick resented the nettled soldier's charge with 
" ill language," and spit in his face. As he was turning 
to go out, the Dutchman " shot him Tjehind in the head, 
so he fell down dead, and never spake," The murderer 
was seized, hut he escaped from custody,* 

The expedition, however, was not entirely unsuccessful, 
Four of the Stamford people volunteered to find out the 
retreat of the savages ; and, upon their intelhgenoe, some 
twenty-five picked men of the detachment surprised a 
small Indian village, where they killed eighteen or twenty 
warriors, and took an old man, two women, and several 
children prisoners. To win fiivor, the captured old man 
offered to lead the Dutch against tlie "Weckquaesgeeks, Espedttion 
who were reported to bo intrenched in three castles ; and Week- 
Baxter and Cock, with a detachment of sixty-five men, geekB, 
were sent to "West Chester. The expedition found the 
castles strongly constructed and well adapted for defense, 
huilt of thick timbers nine feet high, bound with heavy 
beams, and pierced with loop-holes. In one of these cas- 
tles, thirty Indians might defend themselves against two 
hundred Europeans. But all the savages were gone, and 
their fortresses deserted. Two of these were burned by 
the Dutch, who reserved the third as a retreat in case of 
emergency ; and the expedition, after marching some for- 
ty miles further, killing one or two Indians, and destroy- 
ing all the com and wigwams they found, returned to Fort 
Amsterdam with a few women and children as prisoners.! 

The accounts which TJnderhill had communicated to^'^i^^^ 
his townsmen at Stamford of the local advantages of New Jj!^^ ™^^-^ 
Netherland, and the personal knowledge which John Og- ||^^^'j^^"_ 
den had gained at Manhattan, had meanwhile induced "''^■ 

• Winlhrop, ii., J51 ; Hoi. Doc,, ili„ US ; Dgi^. Hist. N. Y., iy., 14 ; arrte, p. 3S1. 

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Chap. SI. several of them to visit Long Island ; and arrangements 
' were made, in the autumn of 1643, to secure from the 
■ Dutch provincial government a grant of lands at Heem- 
stede. This portion of Long Island had heen so named 
by the Dutch after the " neatest and most important vil- 
lage" on the island of Sehouwen, in Zealand. Eai-iy in 
1644, Robert Fordham and several others came over with 
their families from Stamford, and established themselves 
at Heemstede, which soon became known as " Mr. Ford- 
16N0V. ham's plains." The next autumn, Kieft granted to Ford- 
ham, Ogden, Lavirenoe, and their associates, a liheral pat- 
ent for " the great plains on Long Island, from the East 
River to the South Sea, and from a certain harbor, now 
commonly called and known by the name of Heemstede 
Bay, and westward as far as Martin Gerritaen's Bay." 
The patentees were authorized " to use and exercise the 
Reformed religion which they profess," to nominate their 
own magistrates for the approval of the director of New 
Netherland, and generally to manage their own civil af- 
fiiirs. A quit-rent of a tithe of the produce, to begin ten 
years " from tlie day tlie first general peace with the In- 
dians shall be concluded," was reserved to the West India 
Hostiiiij of Scarcely had the Stamford emigrants settled themselves 
liiansi' at Heemstede, before Penhawitz, the great sachem of the 
Canarsees in that neighborhood, who had hitherto been es- 
teemed friendly to the Dutch, was suspected of treachery ; 
and several of liis tribe were charged, with secret hostili- 
ties against "the Christians." Seven savages were ar- 
rested by Fordham, on a charge of killing two or three 
pigs, "though it was afterward discovered that his own 
Englishmen had done it themselves." Fordham, however, 
informed Kieft that he had aiTested the savages, and con- 
fined them in a cellar ; but that he ' ' dared not treat them 
inhumanly, as he could not answer for 'the consequences 

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to his own people." La Moiitagne was therefore sent chip, xi, 
against the Canaraees, with a forco of one hundred and 
twenty men; Dutch turghers under Kuyter, English j^^pg^mgn 
auxiliaries under "Underhill, and regular soldiers under ™j|J;^|,rir'. 
Cook and Van Dyeli:, The expedition sailed in three 
yachta to Schout's or Cow Bay, where the forces were 
landed without molestation. Marching at once to Heem- 
stede, Underhill killed three of the seven savages whom 
Fordham had confined in the cellar, and took the other 
four prisoners. The forces were then divided into two 
parties. "With some fourteen Englishmen, Underhill at- 
tacked the smaller Indian village; while La Montagne, 
with the main hody of eighty men, advanced against the 
larger settlement at Mespath. Both parties were entirely 
successful. The villages were surprised ; one hundred 
and twenty savages were killed ; while the assailants lost 
only one man, and had three wounded. On the return of 
the expedition, two of the savages whom Underhill had 
taken at Heemstede, were conveyed to Fort Amsterdam, 
where the triumph of the victors was disgraced hy atro- 
cious cruelties. One of the prisoners, fiightfnlly wounded Attoeiuor 
hy the "long loiives" with which the director had armed i™ oo m 
the soldiers in place of swords, at last dropped down dead tue fcr™ 
as he was dancing the " Kinte-Kaeye," or death-dance of 
his race. The other, after undergoing even more shocking 
mutilation, was taken out of the fort by Kieft's orders, and 
mercifully beheaded on a mill -stone in "the Beavers' 
Path," now Beaver Lane, near the Battery. These bar- 
barities are said to have been witnessed by the director, 
and Counselor La Montague. Some of the female sav- 
ages who had been taken prisoners in West Chester, stand- 
ing at thenorthwest angle of the fort, saw the bloody spec- 
tacle, and, throwing up their arms, and striking their 
mouths, called out, in their own language, " Shame ! 
shame ! "What disgraceful and unspeakable cruelty is this I 
Such things were never yet seen or heard of among us."* 
The Dutch forces were now in great distress for want 

• Hoi. DOD., iii., IBl, 133 ] Doc. Hirt. N, Y., Iv., 15, IB ; Breeden Rsaat, 19, 30, Tills 

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Chap. XI. of cSotliing. At this conjunoture, a ship, which the pa- 
~7~~"trooii of Rensselaerswyok had dispatched from Holland 
The micii *^® previous autumn, with a cavgo of goods for his colony, 
wan™ '" firrived at Manhattan. Necessity pressed ; and Kieft iin- 
dothmg. mediately called upon Peter "Wynkoop, the supercargo, to 
furnish fifty pairs of shoes for the soldiers, offering full 
payment " in silver, beavers, or wampum," But the su- 
percargo, with more regard for his patroon's mercantile in- 
terests than for the necessities of a suffering soldiery, re- 
soppiyob- fused to comply with the director's requisition. Kieft 
a iBivaie"" promptly ordered a forced levy ; and enough shoes were 
Mansaiian. taken from the patroon's ship to supply as many soldiers 
as afterward "killed five hundred of the enemy." The 
provoked director then commanded the ship to be thorough- 
ly searched, and a large supply of ammunition and guns, 
8 March, not included in the manifest, being found on board, they 
were declared contraband, and the ship and cargo were 
February. Underbill had, meanwhile, been sent to Stamford to re- 
connoitre the position of the savages. On his return to 
March. Manhattan, he was dispatched, with Ensign Van Dyck 
expediiion* and oue hundred and fifty men, in three yachts, on a new 
ford. ' expedition against the Connecticut Indians. Landing at 
Greenwich, the forces marched all the next day through 
the snow, crossing, on their way, steep rooky hills, over 
which the men crawled with difficulty. About midnight, 
the expedition approached the Indian village. The night 
was clear, and the full moon threw a strong light against 
the mountain, " so that many winters' days were not 

lerrogalories proposed lo Van TlcntnTen, on the aisl of July, I6S0, by Ihe commitlee of Iho 
Slates General, the atrocities perpetraled npon the two HsBnislede prisoners, and the 
presence and conduct of Eiefl end La MsatogOB im the occasion, veie epeclaily inqnired 
into.— Hal, Don., t., 31S, 3W, 3S1 ; O'CaU., L, MB. Wlnthrop, il., 151, speaks of the 
news of VDderbiU'B Long Islaod expedition feaillUng Boston in Uareh, ISM. 
* Alb, Rm., 11., S44, STT ; Benss, MSS. ; O'Call., i., 84S. Wlnthrop, 11., 1ST, says that 

weight of powder, end seven hundred pieces lo trade witb the natlTea, which Ibe Tolch 
governor havine notice of, did aelie and confiscate lo Ibe use of llie company," Savage, 

actually " not sen! by the company, bni by some private men," as Wlnthrop hud originally 

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biigiiter," The viUage contained three rows, or streets ckap 
of wigwams, and was sheltered, in a nook of the mount- "TT 
ain, from the northwest winds. The Dutch troops, find- j^^^^ 
ing the Indians on their guard, eharged, sword in hand, I'^jja",! 
upon the fortress. But the savages, emboldened hy their'""* 
superior numhers — for the vDlage was crowded with In- 
dianSi who had aasemhled " to celebrate one of their fes- 
tivals" — made a desperate resistance. " Some said that 
there were full seven hundred, among whom were twen- 
ty-live "Wappingers." Several bold sallies were attompted, 
but every effort to break the Dutch line failed. ]^ot a 
savage could show himself outside the palisades without 
being shot down. In an hour, one hundred and eighty 
Indians lay dead on the snow. The arrows of the be- 
sieged now beginning to annoy the Dutch, Underhill, 
Tememhering Mason's experiment at the Mistio, resolved 
to set the village on fire. The horrors of the Pequod 
massacre were renewed. As the wretched victims en- 
deavored to escape, they were shot down or driven back 
into their burning huts. The cai-nage was almost com- 
plete. Upward of five hundred Indians perished by sword 
or by flame : of all who had crowded that devoted village 
at nightfall, but eight escaped. Fifteen of the Dutch sol- 
diers were wounded. The victors kindled large fires, and 
bivouacked on the crimsoned snow. In the morning, the 
expedition set out on its return, marching " over that weai'i- 
some mountain, God affording extraordinary strength to 
the wounded," and the next afternoon it reached Stam- 
ford, where the soldiers were hospitably entertained by the 
English. Two days afterward, the triumphant forces 
reached Fort Amsterdam ; and Kieft proclaimed a public -rha 
thanksgiving for the brilliant victory which his troops had cM' 

ii„ 151) aUeges, ihol iHc aniaojment of Undcrhiil bj Kkft wob 
tnor to engage tbe En gllah Ln that quarrel wirh ttie IndlmnsT vli 

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tiHip, XI, Spring had now begun ; and some of the hostile tribes 
which had' felt the power of the Dutch, wishii^ peace, ap- 
I'MBB Triia pli^*! *" Underbill to interfere in their behalf. In a few 
c^™?" days, Maraaranack, the chief of the Croton Indians, and 
TsianV* other chiefs from the Weckquaesgeeks, and from the tribes 
A^ii north of Greenwioli and Stamford, came to Fort Amster- 
dam, and concluded a peace with the Dutch, They pledged 
themseivea not to do any further damage to the colonists 
of New Wetherland or their property ; to visit Manhattan 
only in canoes as long as the savages on the island should 
continue hostile ; and to deliver up Paoham, the faithless 
chief of the Tankitekes. On the other hand, Kieft prom- 
ised them his friendship ; and, in token of his sincerity, 
16 April, released several of the captured prisoners. The next week, 
G-onwarrowe, the sachem of the Mattinnecocks of Flush- 
ing, Cow Bay, and the neighborhood, warned hy the les- 
son which the Long Island Indians had received at Heem- 
stede and Mespath, came to Manhattan and solicited a 
peace. The sachem assented to the conditions which Kieft 
imposed ; and upon his promise that none of the neighbor- 
ing tribes should do any harm to the Dutch, or assist their 
enemies, he vuas dismissed with some presents, and en- 
joined to communicate the provisions of the treaty to the 
sachem on " Mr. Fordham's plains."* 

Though tiie Dutch arrr.s had now humbled a distant 
enemy, and the semblance of a peace had been aiTanged 
with the "West Chester and Long Island savages, the prin- 
cipal enemies of the Dutch, nearer to Manhattan Island, 
remained hostile. The scouting parties of the red men 
prowled unopposed about the veiy precincts of Fort Am- 
Fonceor- stcrdam. For the protection of the few cattle which re- 
built Bi mained to the decimated population, " a good solid fence" 
31 March. ' was Ordered to be erected, " from the great houwery across 
to the plantation of Emanuel," nearly on the site of the 
present Wall Street. All persons who wished their cattle 
to be pastured in security, were warned to appear with 
proper tools and assist in erecting the fence ; those who 

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failed to give their aid were to be excluded from the priv- CiiAP, xi. 
ilegea of the inclosed meadow.* ^ria 

The precaution was necessary. If Kieft had earned jjo^mj, 
the detestation of the Dutch colonists, he was even more 5^^'^^„^; 
hated hy the savages, who remembered Van Twiller's pa- ''"■'^n'- 
cifio rule, and called for the removal of his violent suc- 
cessor. "Their daily cry every where was '"Wouter, 
Wouter' — meaning Wouter van Twill6r."t Throughout 
the whole summer, the settlements at Manhattan and its 
neighborhood were constantly in danger of utter destruo- 
tion. The savages were unopposed ; and, as soon as they 
had " stowed their maize into holes," they began again to 
murder the Hutch. The ruined commonalty was unable 
to meet the expenses of the soldiery ; and the "West India 
Company, made banlcrupt by its mihtary operations in The weai 
Brazil, could fmnish no assistance to its desolated prov- pany bnaii- 
inoe. The bill of exchange, which Kieft had drawn upon 
the Amsterdam Chamber the previous autumn, came back 
protested. Soon afterward, the privateer La Garce, with 
which the director had commissioned Captain Blauvelt to 
cruise in the West Indies, returned to Manhattan with two ae Miry, 
valuable Spanish prizes. But ready money was wanted 
at once ; and pressing necessity could not brook the slow 
s of the Admiralty Cpurt.t 

Kieft was, therefore, obliged to convene the Eight Meniejun^. 
once more. He laid before them a statement of the des- Men agaw 
titution of the provincial treasury ; and to raise a revenue 
for the payment of the English soldiers, he proposed to 
levy an excise on wine, beer, brandy, and beaver. The 
Eight Men, however, opposed the proposition, on the oppose e.^ 
double grounds that an excise, in the ruined condition of uqmrs. 
the people, would be oppressive, and that the right of tax- 
ation was an attribute of sovereignty which the West In- 
dia Company might indeed exercise, hut which their sub- 
ordinate oificer in New Netherland had no authority to 
assume. 4 

i Aft. Reo.) il.| m,2ii, S57 ;'iil., aia ; IIol. Doc, iii., 310 ; O'Call., i., 300, 'sM. 

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i;h»p. xi. The director was " very much offended" at the honest 
"~~~"~ opinion of the Eight Men; and, "in an altered mood," 
Kift'sTa. sharply reprimanded the representatives of the people. " I 
dotS' ^^'^^ "^"'^ power here than the company itaelf," said Kieft 
to the contumaoioua hnrgheis, in the presence of La Mon- 
tagne and the fiscal Yan der Huygens ; " therefore I may 
do and suffer in this country what I ples^e ; I am my own 
master, for I have my coraraission, not from the company, 
but from the States G-eneral." The Eight Men still en- 
deavored to avert the obnoxious excise fcom pressing on 
the commonalty at large ; and proposed, instead, that the 
private traders, who were amassing fortunes while the 
colonists were ruined, should he taxed. But Kieft was 
siJuDe. Three days afterward, he issued a proolamationi "with- 
irariij im- out the knowledge of the Eight Men," reciting that all 
S^^e ™ other means having failed to provide for the expenses of 
the war, it had, " hy the advice of the Eight Men chosen 
hy the commonalty," been determined "to impose some 
duties on those wares from which the good inhabitants will 
suffer the least inconvenience, as the scarcity of money is 
very genei-al," It was therefore ordained, "provisionally, 
until the good God shall grant us peace, or we shall be 
sufficiently aided from Holland," that on each tarrel of 
beer tapped an excise duty of two guildei-a should be 
paid, one half hy the brewer, and one half by the public- 
an — ^burghers not retailing it, however, to pay only one 
half as much ; on every quart of hrandy and wine, four 
stivers, and on every beaver skin one guilder. t 
uisconient The commonalty openly expressed their discontent, 
monaiij. Kicft, attributing much of the ill feeling to the popular 
representatives, who had opposed the tax, sent for Kuyter, 
Melyn, and Hall, to confer with them respecting the oh- 
30 June, noxious exactions. But the Eight Men found that they 
were in " little repute" with the director, who left the 
three representatives of the people to sit in his haU, ftom 

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eight o'clock until past noon, without a woid "being said chap. xi. 
to them, and, finally, to return in disappointment " t^ t 
as they came."* 

"While New Netherland was despairing of relief from 
Holland, unexpected aid came from the "West Indies. OncAnvaiof 
hundred and thirty Dutch soldiers, who had been driven cuiojo!."' 
by the Portuguese out of Brazil, coming to Curaeoa, where 
the inhabitants did not need, and could not maintain 
them, were promptly sent to Manhattan, in the ship " Blue 
Cook," by order of Peter Stuyvesant, the company's direct- 
or. Kieft immediately called a meeting of the oounoil, at My. 
which were also present Ouderaarkt, the captain of the 
Blue Cock, and Jan de Pries, the commander of the new- 
ly-arrived troops. It was determined to retain De Pries aijuiy. 
and his command at Manhattan, and to dismiss the En- 
glish auxiharies" in the most civil manner." The soldiers 
were to be billeted on the commonalty, according to the 
ciroumstancea of each one ; and the company was to make 
recompense whenever it could. As there was no clothing 4 Augu^i, 
in the company's warehouse for these troops, the council 
was again convened, and it was resolved that the excise The neer 
duties, which had been "provisionally" imposed, should mrced. 
be continued. Besides paying an excise of three guilders 
on every tun of beer, the brewers were now required to 
make a return of the exact quantity they might brew.t 

But the breweni sturdily refused to pay this unjust TiBbre>v- 
tribute. The first excise had been imposed " provision- lo pay. 
ally," until relief should arrive ; relief had arrived, and 
the excise, instead of being discontinued, was made more 
onerous ; the company was bound to furnish clothing to 
its troops, as much as it was bound to furnish ammuni- 
tion and guns ; and, above all, the exaction was an arbi- 
trary act of the dependents of the "West India Company, 
and against the consent of the representatives of the com- 
monalty, who, in the present instance, had alone the right 
to impose the tax. The refractory brewers were sum- 

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Chap. XI. moned before the counoil. ""Were we to yield, and pay 

■ "■ the three florins," said they, " we should offend the Eight 

18 Amwu ^^^ ^^^ *^* whole commonalty." But judgment was 

as AugoBi. recorded against them ; and their beer was ' ' given a prize 

to the soldiers,"* 

THepeopta The people had now learned another lesson in political 

iha brew- rights — ^the lesson of resistance. From this time forward 

party spirit divided the commonalty. The Eight Men 

represented the Democratic sentiment of the majority of 

the people ; the parasites of arbitrary power took part with 

the director. " Those who were on his side could do noth- 

pony spitiiing amiss, however bad it might be ; those who were op- 

lon posed to him were always wrong in whatever they did 

well." Kieft's jealousy even made him suspicious of his 

own partisans, who held communication with " impartial 

persons." Throughout nearly the whole summer, private 

quarrels and prosecutions occupied the mind of the director, 

to the exclusion of more important subjects ; and six weeks 

were frittered away in trying an unfortunate smuggler of 

pearls, who was eventually banished.t 

The Eight Men counseled active measures against the 
savages ; for they had been " greatly gladdened by the 
miraculous arrival of the Blue Coek," and " expected that 
the field would be taken with between tliree and four hund- 
Kieft'a red men."l But "nothing in the least" was done. Dur- 
iiiaeiivity. ing the whole summer, "scarce a foot was moved on land, 
or an oai laid in the water." Some of tlie Indian prison- 
ers, who might have done good service as guides, were 
sent to the Bermudas, "as a present to the English gov- 
ernor." Otl g t th "oldest and most ex- 
perienced sold wl providently allowed to 
return toHlld I 1 nnt me, the savages were 
quietly left t fi h nd u th crops, and no opposi- 

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tion being offered, they soon showed themselves more ch*p. x[. 
""bold and insolent" than ever before, The "semblance 
of peace," which Underbill had "patched up" in the 
spring, hore hut little fruit. Parties of Indians roved 
about, day and night, over Manhattan Island, killing the 
Dutch not a thousand paces from Fort Amsterdam ; and 
no one dared " move a foot to fetch a stick of fiie-wood 
without a strong escort."* 

Finding Kieft's censurable inactivity still continuing, 
Cornelis Melyn, the president of the Eight Men, address- a Angusi. 
ed an earnest letter to the States G-eneral, urging them to 
interfere in behalf of the province ; and, at the same time, 
wrote to his friend Van der Horst, to exert, in favor of the 
people of New Netherland, all the influence which he pos- 
sessed with the company. Two others of the Eight Men, 
Hall and Dircksen, in person protested strongly to Kieft 
against his neglect of duty. The director, at last aroused The dircci- 
to action, dispatched Captain De Fries with a party of theS^diii™" 
Curagoa soldiers toward the north. Eight savages were norut 
slain ; but, said the men, " for every new enemy we kill, 
another stands next morning in his place." And the col- 
onists, finding the summer and, autumn nearly gone, now 
began to anticipate the severities of a winter's campaign, 
and being forced to wade " thi'ough rivei's and creeks, in 
fi'ost and snow, with their new and naked soldiers, who 
had resided in warm climates for so many yeaxs,"t 

The condition of public affairs had now come to such 
pass, that the Eight Men determined boldly to demand 
the recall of Kieft, and to insist upon the introduction into 
New Netherland of the municipal system of the Father- 
land. It was ascertained at the same time, that Kieft, in 
his letters to the College of the XIX., " was endeavoring 
to shift upon the commonalty tlie origin and cause of the 
war,"t The eight popular repiesentatives, therefore, ad- as otiunot 
dressed a second memoiial to the West India Company, 
drawn up, m simple hut expressive language, by Andries 

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398 HISTORY or the state of new YORK. 

chjip. Si. Hudde, the town surveyor of Manhattan.* " Our fields 
lie fallow and waste," said the Eight Men; "our dwell- 
Mcmoriai" '^^S^ ^'^^ Other buildings are hurnt ; not a handful can he 
Men^to Se" either planted or sown this autumn on the deserted places ; 
Spnny!" ^^^ orops which God permitted to come forth during the 
paat aummer remain on the fields standing and rotting ; 
we are burthened with heavy families ; we have no means 
to provide neoessariea for wives or children ; and we sit 
here amidst thousands of Indians and barbarians, from 
whom we find neither peace nor mercy." " There are 
among us those who, by the sweat and labor of their 
hands, for many long years have endeavored, at great ex- 
pense, to improve their lands and villages; others, with 
their private capital, have equipped with a)) necessaries 
their own ships, which have been captured by the enemy, 
though they have continued the voyage wilii equal zeal, 
and at considerable cost. Some, again, have come hither 
with ships independent of the company, freighted with a 
large quantity of cattle, and with a number of families ; 
who have erected handsome buildings on the spots se- 
lected for their people ; cleared away the trees and the 
forest ; inclosed their plantations, and brought them un- 
der the plough, so as to be an ornament to the country, 
and a profit to the proprietors, after their long, laborious 
Risn'scon- toil. The whole of these now lie in ashes through a ibol- 
vl^lX ish hankering after war. For all right-thinking men here 
know tliat these Indians have lived as lambs among us, 
until a few years ago ; injuring no man ; affording every 
assistance to our nation ; and, in Director Yan Twiner's 
time (when no supplies were sent for several months), 
furnishing provisions to several of the company's servants, 
until, as they state, they received supplies. These hath 
the director, by various uncalled-for proceedings, from time 
to time so estranged from us, and so embittered against 
the Netherlands nation, that we do not believe that any 
thing will bring them and peace back, unless the Lord, 
who bends all men's hearts to his will, propitiate their 

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people." " Little or nothing of any account liaa been done chap. xi. 
here for the country. Every place ia going to rnin. Nei- 
ther counsel nor advice is taken. Men talk of nothing else 
but of princely power and sovereignty, about which La 
Montagne argued a few days ago in a tavern, maintain- 
ing that the power of the director here was greater, so far 
as his office and commission were concerned, than that of 
his highness of Orange, in the Netherlands." After giv- 
ing many details of the origin and progress of the war ; of 
the proceedings of the Twelve Men ; of the election of the 
Eight Men ; of their treatment by Kieft ; and of their ef- 
forts to prevent the imposition of the obnoxious excise du- 
ties; they warned the directors against relying upon the Kinft's mis- 
statements about the war, contained in a "book" orna-iioBs, 
mented with wat«r.color drawings, which Kieft had sent 
over. " It contains," said the Eight Men, " as many lies 
as lines, as we are informed by the minister, and by those 
who have read it." And, with respect to the statements 
in that " book," about the animals and the geography of 
New Netherland, "it would be well to inquire how the 
director general can so aptly write about those distances 
and habits, since his honor, during the sis or seven years 
he has been here, has constantly resided on the Manhat- 
tans, and has never been further from his kitchen and bed- 
room than the middle of the aforesaid island." 

" Honored Lords" — so the Eight Men boldly concluded 
their memorial — " this is what we have, in the sorrow of 
our hearts, to complain of; that one man who has been 
sent out, sworn and instructed by his Lords and Masters, 
to whom he is responsible, should dispose hers of our lives 
and property according to his will and pleasure, in a man- 
ner so arbitrary, that a King would not he suffered legally 
to do. "We shall end here, and commit the matter wholly 
ta our God, who, we pray and heartily trust, will move 
your Lordships' minds and bless your Lordships' deliber- 
ations, so that one of these two things may happen — either 
that a Grovernor may be speedily sent with a beloved peace 
to us, or that their Honors will be pleased to permit us to 

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Chip. XI. retufQ, With wlves and children, to oui- dear Fatherland. 
For it is impossible ever to settle this country until a dif- 
The direct- feroiit systom he introduced here, and a new G-ovornor be 
rtamanSed. ^^^^ t w 'th p6 [ le wlio shall Settle themsolves in 

suitabl pi e. n n th other, in form of villages and 
haml t and 1 t t a nong themselves, a bailiff, or 
schout and 1 ^ 1 shah, be empowered to send 

depi t to t on puhl affairs with the Director and 
Cou I tl at 1 it the Countiy may not be again 
b u 1 1 nto similar danger."* 

In th nean time, notwithstanding all the attempts to 
t an t an illicit traffic continued to be carried on at 
R a I wyck. During the last year, neither the com- 
pany tl 6 patroon had " scarcely any trade," while fully 
tl f ir thousand furs had been conveyed away by 

unlicensed traders. " It would be very profitable," wrote 
Van Curler, "if your Honor could bring about, with a 
higher hand, that the residents should not come to the 
colonic to trade." The patroon, following Yan Curler's 
suggestion, detennined to act " with a higher hand." 
He therefore drew up, in the form of a protest, a state- 
ment of the grievances he had suffered from the free trad- 
ers, who trafficked against his will with the savages, and 
even " sought to debauch and pervert" his own colonists. 
Feeling that he was the " first and oldest" patroon on the 
North River, he resolved that no one should "presume to 
abuse" it, to the injury of his acijuired rights; and acoord- 
j'ori M ingly caused a small fort to be erected on Beeren Island, 
«°T" ° at the southern frontier of the colonie. This post, which 
commanded both channels of the river, was named "Rens- 
Tho pa- selaet's Stein." A claim of " Staple right" was set up ; 
tiaimsii and Nicholas Koorn was appointed "Waeht-meester," 
rigM." with directions to levy a toll of five guilders upon all ves- 
sels, except those of the West India Company, passing up 
or down the river, and to cause them to strike their colors 
in homage to the feudal merchant-patroon.t 

* Brooden Raedt, 21 ; Ho!, Enc. lit., 208-222 ; and in CCalL, !., 312-317. 

t Alb. Bee, iF., ae, 4fl ( Eensa.MSS., In O'Cali., i., «S-«7. Koorn Had (brinaHy ijeen 

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Tlie arrogant pretension was soon asserted. The sum- ch*p. xi. 
mer that the post was established, as G-overt Loocker- 
mans, in his yacht, the Good Hope, was passing down thej^j, ' 
river from Fort Orange to Manhattan, "a gun without J;,^^^^ 
ball" was fired from Rensselaer's Stein; and K.oom cried ^"opM* 
out to the schipper, " Strike thy colors !" " For whom shall ^e;!™;^!,!. 
I strike?" replied Loookermans. "For the staple right 
of Rensselaer's Sfcein," answered Eoorn from the shore. 
" I sti-ilce for nobody but the Prince of Orange, or those 
by. whom I am employed," retorted the independent 
Loookennans, as his yacht slowly kept her course. Koom 
immediately fii'ed several shots : " the first," says the rec- 
ord, " went through the sail, and broke the ropes and the 
ladder ; a second shot passed over us ; and the third, fired 
by a savage, perforated our princely colors, about a foot 
alDove the head of Looekermans, who kept the colore con- 
stantly in h^ hand."* 

The commander of Rensselaer's Stein was immediately a Augnsi. 
summoned before the council at Fort Amsterdam, to an- wmiFB'oiri- 
swer for this bold proceeding. Though he pleaded his pa- moned w 
troon's authority, damages were adjudged against him, 
and he was forbidden to repeat his oflfense, Yan der Huy- 
gens, the sohout-fiscal of New Wetherland, at the same 
time formally protested against the " lawless transactions" ocwtor. 
of the patroon's "Waoht-meester. The establishment on 
Eeeren Island, it was alleged, was beyond the limits of 
Van Rensselaer's colonie ; and " the bold attempt to con- 
struct there a fort which might command the river, and 
debar Fort Orange from the free navigation, would be ruin- 
ous to the interests of the company." Kooi-n, however, prouw or 
feeling his importance, promptly replied to Van der Huy- m'™ ™or 
gens' protest. "I call on you," said he, "not to presume laer'Bsteir 
to oppose and frustrate my designs on the Beeren Island, 
to defraud me in any manner, or io cause me any trouble, 
aa it has been the will of their High Mightinesses, the 

3 West India Companj'a i 
l.,ISii,234,263i ill,, 219 

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1644. , 


CKAf. XI. States G-eocral, and the privileged West India Company, 
~ to invest my patroon and his heir with the right to extend 
' and fortify his colonic, and make it powerful in every re- 
spect," " I protest against the act of violence and aasault 
committed hy the HonoraTile Lords Majors, which I leave 
them to settle between themselves and my honorable pa- 
troon, inasmuch as this step has been taken to keep the 
canker of Iree-traders out of his colonie."* 

Another occasion happened, this summer, to teat the 
April, active benevolence of the Dutch. Father Joseph Bressani, 
Bresaani whilc On Ms way from Quebec to the Huron country, was 
tue Mo^'"' captured on the Saint Lawrence, "by a war party of the Ir- 
hawkB. Qq^QJg^ and conveyed a prisoner to the Mohawk castles. 
There he suffered even more horrid tortures than those 
which Jogues had undergone two years before. Yet hia 
life was spared ; and an old squaw, to whom he had been 
given, took him to the " nearest habitation of the Hol- 
landers," who, by a large contribution, " satisfied the sav- 
ages," and ransomed the suffering Jesuit missionary. Aft- 
Ranaomed cr being Hursed and clothed at Fort Orange, he was sent 
Sliich. down the river to Manhattan. There he was hospitably 
received by Kieft, who caused him to be supplied with 
clothes, and provided him, as he had Jogues, with a pas- 
sage to Europe, The director and council also issued a 
passport, recommending Bressani to the Christian charity 
so siipt. of those into whose hands he might happen to fall ; and 
the grateful Jesuit, sailing from Manhattan, safely reached 
K^chelle toward the end of November. Thus the influ- 
ence which the Dutch possessed among the Iroquois was 
effectively used in the cause of humanity ; bigotry was 
forgotten, while the warm gratitude of the Roman Cath- 
otaiiiude olics was socured ; and in after years, the Viceroys of Can- 
ado Button ada did not iail to acknowledge, with characteristic court- 
esy, the ancient kindness of the colonists of New Ncthor- 
land toward the devoted captive missionaries of France. + 

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Meanwhile, the disastrous affairs of their suffering prov- ch»i>, ki. 
ince had attracted the grave attention of the Dutch go^-'T^ 
ernment. The letter which the Eight Men had uent over Ji^^ 
in the autumn of 1643, was no sooner received hy the^f^^f^"^ 
States General than it was referred to the College ot the*^^'^^/ 
XIX,, with directions to adopt prompt measures toi the re-},^Jf -■'' 
lief of Kew Wetherlaiid. But the West India Company ' ''■'" ' 
was now almost bankrupt ; and the directors, totally un- 
able to defend their American colonies, were chiefly anx- 
ious to save themselves from utter ruin hy forming a union 
with the flourishing and powerful East India Company. 
In reply to the mandate of the States General, they avow- as Apni. 
ed their sympathy with the " desolate and miserable" col- 
onists of New Ketherland ; but " the long-Iooked-for profits 
thence" had not come, and they had no means at hand 
of Bending relief "to the poor inhabitants who have left 
their Fatherland." And the bankrupt company urged the 
States Genera! for a subsidy of a million of guilders, to 
place it " in good, prosperous, and profitable oi'der."* 

The States General directed copies of the company's m Aprn. 
application to be oommunioated to the several States of 
the provinces. Before any thing was done, however, Me- 
lyn's urgent letter coming to hand, was immediately re-aoocuiba 
ferred to the delegates to the approaching meeting of the 
College of the SIX, The delegates were also instructed m ocw^ 
to inform themselves fully about the condition of the prov- Gensroi i 
inoe, and especially to examine into the propriety of r6-™r««on 
stricting the internal trade of New Netherland to the resi- V'p^"- 
dents, as well as into the policy of opening a free trade 
between Manhattan and Brazil. A iiill report upon the 
whole subject was retjuired to be made to the States Gen- 

At the meeting of tlie College of the XIX., the affairs 
of New Netherland were fully discussed. The second ssosiot. 
bold appeal, which the Eight Men addressed to the com- 
pany in the autumn, reached the meeting at an opportune 
moment. It was now felt that the commonalty were in 

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Chap. XI. eamost. Either a, new director must be ( 

" ■with a teloved peace" to New Netherland, or the colo- 

nists there must "return with their wives and children to 
10 lies, their dear Fatherland,"* Kieft's recall was, therefore, de- 
caii decidea termined upon. But the appointment of a proper success- 
or was a difficult question. Lubbertus van Dincklagcn, 
who had been dismissed from office by "Van Twiller in 
1636, had for eight years unsuccessfully urged his claims 
for arrears of salary. He was, however, "well liked Ijy 
the Indians," and his former experienpe in New Nether- rccommended him for promotion. Van Eincklagen 
^onauy was, therefore, provisionally appointed to succeed Kieft as 
losne^Bd director. The XIX. also resolved to refer all the papers 
10 Dec. relating to New Netherland to the company's recently-or- 
ganized " Rekenkamer," or Bureau of Accounts, with in- 
structions to prepare a full report upon the condition of the 
province, and recommend measures for its profit and ad- 
liBoc. In a few days the Rekenkamer presented a detailed re- 

port, which was communicated to the States Greneral, This 
SB Dec. document is one of the most important State Papers relat- 
th^DompB- ing to New Netherland. Beginning with a slcetch of its 
r/auo"Ac- history, from its discovery by the Dutch, through the im- 
portant epochs of the organization of the company, the set- 
tlement of the first colonists under May, the establishment 
of patroonships, the opening of the fur trade, the abuses 
which followed, the breaking out of the Indian war, and 
of the deplorable ruin which succeeded, the various reme- 
dial measures suggested by Kieft and by the commonalty 
were concisely stated. The director counseled the ex- 
termination of the Indians, whom he estimated to be only 
three hundred strong, and asked for a hundred and fifty 
armed soldiers and munitions of war. The commonalty, 
on the other hand, supposing the savage forces to amount 
to several thousands, advised a peace. But "of this they 
have but little hope, as long as the present administration 
remains there." 

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From all these atatemenfe, the Uekenkamei- inferred chjp. xi. 
that their American province had fallen into ruin and 
confusion hy Kieft's nrmecessary war, "without thegujeofiiis 
knowledge, and much less the order of the SIX., and''""'""''- 
against the will of the commonalty there." According to 
the hooks of the Amsterdam Chamber, New Netherland, 
in place of being a source of profit, had coat the company, 
from 1636 to 1644, inclusive, " over five himdred and fif- 
ty thousand guilders, deducting the returns received from 
there." But as the charter of " freedoms and Exemp- 
tions" had promised to protect and defend the colonists, 
and as improvements in the management of the province 
were not beyond hope, " the company can not decently or 
consistently abandon it." 

The Bureau of Accounts, therefore, recommended a se- Reccm- 
lies of propositions to the company. The boundary should ortus 
be at once established between the Dutch and English, of AMouma 
as, in consequence of their population, they "usurp daily iMfrfNew 
more of our territory." Kieft's advice to exterminate the land. 
Indians should " by no means be adopted;" but the opin- 
ion of the commonalty should be followed, and the sav- 
ages appeased. It would also be proper "to order hith- Kiefi lo to 
er the director and council, who are responsible for that 
bloody exploit of the twenty-eighth of February, 1643, to 
justify and vindicate their administration before the noble 
Assembly of the SIX," Tbe colonists should be settled hbhiIbis to 
in towns, villages, and hamlets, "as the English are iniie"^"' 
the habit of doing." Fort Amsterdam, to save expense, potiAm- 
should be repaired " with good clay and firm sods," and bBrcpajrsfl. 
a garrison of fifty-three soldiers be constantly maintained. 
The annual salary of the director should be three thousand 
guilders, and the expense of the whole civil and military 
establishment of New Netherland twenty thousand guild- 
ers. A council of three persons should he established, conncii to 
composed of the director as president, and the second and a^."'^^"' 
fiscal as counselors adjunct. By this council all cases of 
pohco, justice, dignity, and the rights of the company 
should be decided. In criminal cases, the military com- 

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F. XI. raandaiit should take the place of the fiscal, and " two 
"capable persons from the commonalty" should be added. 

colonie was allowed to depute one or two persons every 
year to represent it at Manhattan, it was now recommend- 
ed, "that the said delegates should, moreover, assemble 
every six months, at the summons of the director and 
council, for mutual good understanding, and the common 
advancement of the vrelfare of the inhabitants." Amster- 
dam weights and measures should be used throughout 
New Wetherland. The population of the country should 
be strengthened, and the island of Manhattan first of all 
Lrnidstobahe Occupied, by offering free grants of land to emigrants, 
graniei, As many negroes should be introduced from Brazil as the 
patroona, colonists, and farmers " would be willing to pay 
for at a fair price." The Indian trade should be reserved 
exclusively to the patroons, colonists, and free farmers ; 
Kcfico- but no fire-arms should be sold to the savages. Each col- 
add 10 1118 onist should be obliged to supply himself with a musket 
coiofliataiQand side-arms ; and the director should cause an inspec- 
Tfsde with tion to be made every six months. A trade should be al- 
encoumg. lowed with Brazil ; fisheries, and the manufacture and 
exportation of salt, should be encouraged ; for while the 
colonists thus gained advantage, the company would be 
relieved from large expenses. In order to defray the ad- 
ditional cost of the proposed establishment for New Noth- 
erland, it was estimated that an increasing population 
and a growing trade would readily yield a handsome rev- 
Hecognt- enue from the recognitions and toils upon exports and im- 
enftrcei. ports ; but to collect these, vigilance should be enjoined, 
and the duties of the revenue officers " should be sharply 
attended to."* 

' Hoi. Doc, 11., 30e-39S ; O'ColL, i., 349-354, 4tS-!M. 

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The Indian war, which. Kieft'a recklessness had jh'o- chiv. xii 

voked, was now ahout to end. During five years, New 

Netherland had known hardly five months of peace. Man- E„^*y,'^ 
hattan was nearly depopulated ; while the Indian nations ^'"''="""' 
around were still thousands strong, and New England al- 
ready contained more than fifty thousand souls. Too late 
Kieft perceived his error ; for a stern voice of wamii^ had 
come from the Amsterdam Chamber, and the conscience 
of the director amote him, as he foresaw the end of his 
rule over the noble province whose interests he had sac- 

"With the opening of the spring, the Indians, who were 
anxious to plant their corn, desired a peace. Delegates 
from several of the neighboring tribes came to Fort Am- 
sterdam ; and Kieft eagerly concluded a truce with the as Apru. 
warriors. The people rejoiced at the prospect of the end wiui some 
of dangers of which they were weary, and " a grand sa-niseB. 
lute of three guns" was fired from the fort. But many 
of the savage nations were still hostile. ICieft therefore, 
by the advice of his council, determined to engage some 
of the friendly Indians in the interests of the Dutch, and 
"Whiteneywen, the sachem of the Mookgonecocks on Long 
island, was dispatched, with several of his warriors, "toMMay. 
heat and destroy the hostile tribes." The sacliem's diplo- 
macy, however, was better than violence. In a few days, 
he returned to Fort Amsterdam, hearing fciendly messa- 
ges from the chiefs of the tribes along the Sound and near 
■Rockaway, and a pledge that they would no longer " in- 

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Chap. XII. jure the Chriatiana." A formal peace was ratified by the 
exchange of tokens of eternal friendship, and "Whitoney- 
Pejce ^iJn wen, the anibasaador aachem, waa diamissed with hberal 
isrsndMT- presents.* 

aecs, Kieft now, for the firat time, went up the river to Fort 

Orange, with La Montagne, to secure the friendship of the 
July. powerful Mohawlta, Aided hy the influence of the offi- 
™Iitthe cers at RenaaelaerBwyok, a treaty was soon arranged with 
and osier the Iroquois delegates, and with the Mahicans and the 
Van Or- other neighboring tribes. The languages of these tribes 
were various, and the negotiations were conducted with 
the assistance of the Indian interpreter Agheroenae, "who 
was well known to the Christiana." Presents were again 
exchanged in ratification of the peace ; and Kieft'a ein- 
barraasraent for the want of money waa relieved by Van 
der Donck, and other inhabitants of Rensaelaerswyck. 
But a chemical analysis of some native mineral, with 
which the savages painted their faces, raised hopes in the 
direotor'a mind tliat he had now found the way to wealth.t 
The treaty at Fort Orange was followed, before long, by 
a general peace with the tribes in the neighborhood of 
29 .\ii6uat. Manhattaji, The citizena were aummoned to aasemble at 
Fort Amsterdam, at the ringing of the bell and the hoist- 
ing of the colors, to hear the proposed articles read ; and 
they were assured that " if any one could give good ad- 
vice, he might then declare his opinions freely." The 
project of the treaty was almost unanimously approved. 

+ Ma. Rec, Tiii., 79, 80, Van der Donek, In his Description of N. N., p. S9 1H„ N. Y. 
H.S, Coll., t., 161), refeta patUmxteilj' lo liils tresly, and deseribee a curious incident 
connected with )t. One morning, the Indian interpreter, AgheroensB, " who lodged tn 
the ditector'B Imuse, came flown ataire, and, in the ptesencs of the fllreclor and myself 
Bsl down, and Ijegsn etroliing and paJnling Ills fece. The director, observing the opera- 
tion, asked me lo inquire of the Indinn what Bobatance he wbb nelng, which ho handed 
to me, and Ihanfled to the ditaclor. After he had esamlnefl 11 altenllvely, lie judged, ftom 

with the Indian for ll, in order lo see what it was. We acted with it aa we best conld, 

matlera. To ta brief; it was pnt into a crucible, and aHer it had been IhonEhtlo be long 
both judged 10 hewortll about llirce guilders. Thia proof waa U first kept very still." 

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No one dissented bnt "Hendrick Kip, a tailor," one of thecnAP. : 
sturdy burghers who had wished to depose Kieft two years ~T7T 
before. On the following day, tho appointed nioeting with ^ j^' 
the rod men was held. In front of Fort Amsterdam, un- 
der the open sky, in presence of the sun and the ocean, 
on the spot "where the commerce of the world may be 
watched from shady walks," the sachems of the Hackin- 
saoks and Tappans, the delegates from Long Island, and 
the Mahican chief who spoke for the "Weckquaesgeeks, 
Sint-Sings, and other river tribes, all acknowledging the 
Iroquois Confedeyaoy, which was represented by Mohawk 
ambassadors, as witnesses and arbitrators, seated them- 
selves, in grave silence, in presence of the director and 
council of New Netherland, and the commonalty of Man- 
hattan, and, solemnly smoking the great calumet of peace, „™=,, 
pledged themselves to eternal amity with the Dutch, ^e 
Each party bound itself to an honorable observance of thesierdo. 
treaty. In cases of difRcuity with " the Christians," the 
savages were imrnediately to apply to the authorities at 
Fort Amsterdam ; should an Indian be the aggressor, the 
Dutch were to complain to his sachem. No armed In- 
dian was thereafter to approach the houses of the Chris- 
tians on Manhattan ; and no armed European was to visit 
the villages of the savages, unless with a native escort. 
With benevolent consideration, the Dutch pressed for and 
obtained from the savages the promise to restore the cap- 
tive grand-daughter of Anne Hutchinson. The promises 
of the savages were faithfully performed, Joy succeeded 
sadness in the devastated province, on the ratification of 
the great Indian Treaty of Fort Amsterdam. On the mor- gi ai 
row, a placard was issued, directing the observance of the mm 
sixth of September as a day of general thanksgiving in man 
the Dutch and English churches, " to proclaim the good 
tidings throughout New Netherland."* 

Thus peaceful days revisited the Dutch province. But 
the sting of war remained. In two years, sixteen hundred 

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:HiP. XII. savages liad been killed ; at Manhattan, and in its neigh- 
borliood, scarcely one hundred men, besides traders, could 
condiiioii ^^ found. The church, which had been begun in 1642, 
Dntth remained uniinished. The money which the impoverished 
proYiimo. commonalty had contributed to build a common school- 
house, had " all found its way out," and was expended 
for the troops. Even the poor-fund of the deaconry was 
sequestered, and applied to the purposes of the war. Be- 
yond Manhattan, almost every settlement on the west side 
of the Worth River, south of the Highlands, was destroyed. 
The greater part of the western territory of Long Island 
was depopulated. West Chester was desolated, In aS\ 
the province, the posts on the South River and the colonie 
of Rensselaerswyck alone escaped the horrors of war. The 
work of regeneration was now to be begun.* 
Kienpnr- Kieft's attention was first given to scouring the Indian 
tonda on title to the lands in the neighborhood of Manhattan which 
and ibr ihe had uot yet hccn ceded to the company. A few days aft- 
10 Sep. er the peace, a tract extending along the bay of the North 
River, from Coney Island to G-owanua, now known as New 
Utrecht, was purchased from the Long Island Indians, and 
became part of the public domain of the province. This 
purchase completed the title of the West India Company 
to most of the land within the present counties of Kings 
and Queens. 
15 ociober. The next month, Thomas Fai-rington, John Lawrence, 
ofpinab- John Townaend, Thomas Stiles, and several other English 
emigrants, obtained from the director a patent for about 
sixteen thousand acres, to the eastward of Doughty's ruined 
settlement at Mespath. The territory which was chosen 
by the new colonists was named Vlissingen by the Dutch, 
after one of the principal sea-port towns in Zealand. The 
patentees received a grant of municipal privileges, similar 
to those which their countrymen had before obtained from 
the provincial authorities of New Netherland ;+ and the 
foundations of the present flourishing village of Flushing 

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were happily laid, in one of the most fertile regions of c 
Long Island. 

The English colonists, who had been driven hy the sav- c^' 
ages froni their settlement at Mespath, returned to their m^J^a^ 
desolated homes soon after the peace was concluded. But 
discords soon hroke out among them. Doughty, who had 
been liherally treated by the Dutch at Manhattan, exhib- 
ited signs of covetousness soon after his retui-n to Mespath, 
where he would allow no one to build, unless upon exor- 
bitant terms of purchase and quit-rent. His associates, 
who did not wish " to hinder population," were opposed to 
this policy ; and Smith and others complained to the di- 
rector and council at Manhattan. Upon a hearing of the 
case, the court decided that "the associates might enter caseor 
upon their property" — the farm and lands which Doughty Dougtij. 
had in possession being reserved to him individually. 
From this decision. Doughty gave notice of an appeal to 
the Court of Holland, which, however, Kieft would not al- 
low. " His sentence," he said, " could not he appealed 
from, but must avail absolutely ;" and Doughty was con- 
demned to be imprisoned twenty-four hour's, and to pay a 
fine of twenty-five guilders. Not long afterward, he re-DDughty 
moved to the ne'ghborino' settlement at Flushing, where FiuSg 
ho became the h t 1 j n ot th English colonists, at 
an annual salajy f ix hunl d g Iders.* 

Lady Moody 1 hi b a ly repelled the attacks 
of the Indian dm- n th a a now complimented by lo dm. 
Kieft with a pat nt g t to he elf, Sir Henry Moody mooVs 
her son. Ensign G-eorge Baxter, and Sergeant James Hub- ^rB?i- 
bard, that portion of Long Island adjoining Coney Island, '™ "' 
upon which she lived,, called by the Dutch " Gravesande," 
and now known as Gravesend. The patentees were as- 
sured "the free liberty of conscionce, according to the 
custom and manner of Holland, without molestation or dis- 
turbance from any magistrate or magistrates, or any other 
ecclesiastical minister that may pretend jurisdiction over 

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p. xu. them." They were also lil)eraUy allowed " to erect a body 
~~r" politic and civil combination among themselves, as free 
men of this province and town of Gravesend," and invest- 
ed withal! " the immunities and privileges already granted 
to the inhabitants of this province,, or hereafter to be grant- 
ed, as if they were natives of the United Belgio Provinces." 
Loyalty to the Dutch authorities was required ; and the 
use of the "New Style," and of the weights and measures 
of New Netherland, alone enjoined.* 
crais Soon after the peace was made with the Fort Orange 
fFoti Indians, Kieft, in pursuance of orders he had received from 
Holland to ascertain the mineral riches of the province, 
sent an officer and several men to the hill, where he was 
told the substance was to he found which La Montague 
had supposed to be gold. The party brought back a buck- 
et full of earth and stones, upon which several experiments 
were made, " all with the same result as the first," The 
August, next month, when the general treaty was made at Fort 
Amsterdam, some of the savages exhibited several speci- 
lonj iho mens of minerals found in the Nevesinck Hills, near the 
Raritans, Kieft supposing them to contain valuable raet- 
aJ, sent a party to explore the region ; and determined to 
build a fort for the security of any mines that might be 
discovered. An analysis of the specimens which the par- 
ty brought back yielded what was supposed to be gold and 
October, quicksilvcr ; and an officer and thirty men were dispatched 
i^ain to continue the exploration, and procure as many 
specimens as they could for transmission to Holland. The 
new mine among the Raritans was judged to be " richer 
and better than any others before known." Samples of 
all these minerals were careftdly packed, and put in charge 
«nai of Arendt Corssen, the former commissary at the South 
Bpaicfed River, to be delivered to the Amsterdam directors. There 
being no ship at Manhattan ready to sail for Holland, 

* GraveBeim Herarda ; Doc. Hist. N. Y., t., AM ; Thompson's Long Island, ii., 171 ; 
anle, p. 367. Coney Island wns palenled lo Gjsbejt op Dyck on Uie Mtb of May, 1641. 

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Corssen proceeded to New Haven, where he embarked, cmr. xti. 
about Christmas, in a vessel of eighty tons, belonging to 
Lamberton and his associates, which was about to aail for 54 j^„_ ' 
London. The severe winter, " the earliest and sharpest" 
since the settlement of New England, had already set in; 
and the harhor was frozen np. A passage was, neverthe- 
less, " cut out of the ice three miles," and the ship got to corssen 
sea early the next month, But " misfortune attended all 1646, 
on board." The New Haven vessel foundered at sea, and^°""°'-'- 
" was never heard of after,"* 

In the mean time, the affairs in New Netherland had re- Aciion or 
oeived the serious attention of the "West India Company, indio cmn- 
The report of their Chamber of Aeoounts decided the fu-iBtiontg 
ture pohcy of the directors ; and, in accordance with ita^iand- 
recommendatioDS, the College of the XIX., at its meeting 1645. 
the next, spring, determined that thenceforward the pro- '*""''■ 
vincial government should be vested in ' a " Supreme 
Council," consisting of a Director G-eneral, a Vice Direct- 
or, and a Fiscaij by whom all public concerns were to be 
managed. This decision rendered new arrangements nec- 

It happened that Peter Stuyvesant, the director of the ^"or siuj 
company's colony at Curaijoa, who had lost a leg in an 1644. 
unsuccessful attack on the Portuguese island of Saint ^p'"' 
Martin, was obliged to return to Holland for surgical aid, 
in the autumn of 1644. Stuyvesant was the son of asiaeariy 
clergyman in Friesland, and was educated in the High 
School at Franeker.t While there, he acquired that famil- 
iar knowledge of the Latin language which he was always 
fond of dkplaying. After leaving school, he entered the mil- 
itary service, and was appointed by the "West India Com- 
pany to be the Director of their colony at Curafoa. He de- 
lighted in pomp and the ostentation of command ; and his 

Id In Dm, Hist. N. Y., 

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chjis. xu. conduct in the expedition against Saint Martin did not 
escape censure. The directors, however, looked upon the 
■ attack as " a piece of Eoman courage ;" and Stuyvesant's 
health teooming re-established after Ma return to Holland, 
May. they determined to appoint him in the place of Kieft, and 
Appointed send him to New Netherland as " redresser general" of all 
New NcEn- abuses. Van Dineklagen's provisional appointment in De- 
cember was, therefore, revoked ; and he was now formal- 
s May. ly commisaioned as vice-director, to he " second to, and 
^gemice- first couuBelor of the director of New Nethertand," Hen- 
van rycit driok van Dyck, who had served as ensign under Kieft, 
£8 June, was soon afterward appointed, hy the Amsterdam Cham- 
ber, to be fiscal in the place of Van der Huygens, " to 
make complaints against all delinquents and transgressors 
of the military laws, and all other our instructions and 
commands," and was furnished with detailed instructions 
respecting his duties.* 
TJuiy, Early the next month, the College of the XIS. prepared 

tiona of *o fuid adopted a code of general instructions for the regula- 
cooneu. tlon of the " supreme council in the countries of New 
Netherland." Under these instructions, the director, as 
president, with his vice', and the fiscal, were to administer 
and decide upon all civil and military affairs : when the 
fiscal was 'prosecutor, the military commandant was to sit 
in his stead ; and if the charge was a criminal one, " two 
capable persons" were to be " adjoined from the common- 
alty of that district where the crime or act was perpetra- 
ted." The director and council were to " take care that 
the English do not encroach further on the company's 
lands," and, in the mean time, try to arrange a definite 
boundary line. They were to endeavor, by all possible 
means, " to pacify and give satisfaction to the Indians," 
and advance " on the one side the interests of the compa- 
ny, and on the other maintain good correspondence with 
their neighbors." They were to "do all in their power to 
induce the colonists to establish, themselves on some of the 
most suitable places, with a certain number of inhabit- 

' Ho). Loc., lit., 3 ; tI., M, ^36 ; Bieeden Baedt, SS, p, 33. 

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anta, in the manner of towns, villages, and hamlets, as the ci 
English are in the habit of doing." Fort Amsterdam was ~ 
to be at once repaired with "good clay, earth, and firmi^ 
sods." A permanent gan'ison was to be maintained; andf^^^^in. 
for greater security, the colonists were also to he required ^^ ''™"' 
to provide themselves with "weapons for their ovra de- 
fense, so as to be able, in time of necessity, with the gar- 
rison, to resist a general attack." Bnt this colonial mili- 
tia Y^as not to receive pay. The right of the several sub- 
ordinate colonies to send delegates to the council at Man- 
hattan was confirmed. The director and council were to 
encourage, by grants of land, the immediate planting and 
settlement of the island of Manhattan, and to permit the 
introduction of as many negroes as the patroons, colonists, 
and other farmers may be " willing to purchase at a fair 
price." No arms or ammunition were to be sold to the 
Indians. The company having "now resolved to open U> 
private persons the trade which it has exclusively carried 
on with Kew Netherland," and to permit all the inhabit- 
ants of iho United Provinces " to sail with their own ships 
to New Netherland, the Virginias, the Swedish, English, 
and French colonies, or other places thereabout," the di- 
rector and council were finally instructed to be vigilant 
in enforcing all colonial custom-house regulations which 
might be enacted.* It was also agreed in the College of 
the XIX., that the expenses of the government of New 
Netherland should, in future, be borne by all the Cham- 
bers of the company in common. The Amsterdam Cham-ejniy. 
ber, however, charged itself with the equipment of two 
vessels, to convey Stuyvesant and his suite to Manhattan.! 

Another meeting of the XIX. was held at Middleburg ei scpt 
in the following autumn, at which Stuyvesant submitted 
a memorial in relation to the better government of the 
company's American possessions. 'The whole subject was 
now reconsidered. After much discussion, it was event- » ociohaf. 
ually determined that the carrying trade between Hol- 

- Hoi. Doe., lit., 19. Tranalallona of Ihcac InalrucHons, ind of Van Dincklagen's and 
Van Cycb's cnniniissiiine sod instruoUons, are in O'Coll., ii., Appendix, msBf. 

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I. land and New Motherland, wMoh had hitherto been re- 
~ tained aa a monopoly by the company, with an. exception 
■ in fiivor of the privileged patroons, should be thrown open 
to the veaaela of private mprchanta. Regulations were 
adopted to give effect to this policy, and to concentrate all 
'• colonial trade at Manhattan. All cargoes shipped to Wow 
Netherland were to he examined, on their arrival, by the 
customs' officers at Fort Amsterdam ; and all homeward- 
hound vessels were to clear from the same place, where 
bonds were to be given for the payment of duties in Hol- 
land. Curafoa, Aruba, and the neighboring West India 
Islands, were also to be placed under the general govern- 
ment of the director of New Netherland. But some of the 
- Chambers of the company demurred to the new expenses 
I- which they were to inour by sharing in common the 
""' charges of &e province ; and the Amsterdam directors 
'' eventually retained the exclusive management of New 

These disagreements among the several Chambers in- 
terrupted the plans which had been ari'anged during the 
spring and summer ; and Stuyvesant's departure was de- 
layed for more than a year. Intelligence of the peace, 
which had at last been established in New Netherland, 
was now received in Holland ; and the improved aspect 
of the affairs of the province perhaps tempted the compa- 
ny to allow Kieft to remain awhile longer in the post he 
had so unworthily occupied, 
un- The news of the intended recall of the director soon 
"s. reached Manhattan. The commonalty were delighted 
with the prospect of a change ; and some of the most free- 
rof spoken of them did not hesitate openly to express their py, 
and even threaten their mortified chief vrith per nal 1 a 
tisement, when he should " take off the coat w th hi 
he was bedecked by the Lords his masters." K ft h 
had been furnished by the West India Company tl a 
copy of the letter of the Eight Men, of the pr u^ a 

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tumn, was in no temper to brook the reproaches with ch*p. xil 
which he was now constantly saluted. The people who 
ventured to speak too boldly were arraigned, and fined 
and banished. No appeal to the Fatherland was allowed. The ngm 
The right had already been refused in the case of the En- Bgain re- 
glish clergyman Doughty ; another, opportunity now oc- 
curred to deny it to a "free merchant" of Manhattan. 
Arnoldus van Hardenburg, for giving a written notice of sBApni 
his intention to appeal from a decree of confiscation, was 
condemned " to pay forthwith a fine of twenty-five guild- 
ers, or he imprisoned until the penalty be paid — an ex- 
ample to others." Yan Hardenburg'a conduct was looked 
upon as causing " dangerous consequences to result to the 
supreme authority of this land's magistracy."* 

The republican spirit which accompanied the colonists tiib peopio 
from Holland led them to denounce Kieft's denial of the Kiefi's ijr- 
right of appeal. They considered it " an act of tyranny, 
and regarded it as a token of Bovere^;nty," Two years 
before, they had boldly complained to the States General 
that " one man," who represented the West India Com- 
pany, had acted in a more arbitrary manner "than a king 
would be suffered legally to do." The popular feeling Quarrel (»■ 
was encouraged by Doraine Bogardus, whom Kieft hadondnogar- 
accused of drunkenness, and reprimanded for siding with 
the malcontented multitude. Twelve years before, Bo- 
gardus had not hesitated to attack Van Twiller in rude 
words. From the pulpit he now boldly denounced Van 
Twiller's more ohnoxious euecesaor. "What are the great 
men of the country," said he to the congregation, as he 
was preaching on a Sunday, " but vessels of wrath, and 
fountains of woe and trouble 1 They think of nothing 
but to plunder the property of others, to dismiss, to ban. 
ish, to transport to Holland." To escape such severe oler- 
ioal admonitions, Kieft absented himself from church ; and 
his example was followed by many of the chief provincial 
ofiicers. The directflr encouraged the officers and soldiers to 

■ Vertoogh YDii N. N., in ii., N. V. II, S. Coll., li,, 302, 303, 333, 334 ; Bteeflen Raed^ 
31, £5. 


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p. XII. practice all kinds of iioiay amusements atout ihe church 
, during the sermon, The drum was ordered to be heaten, 
' and a cannon was several times discharged while the peo- 
ple were attending divine sorvioe. The communicants 
were openly insulted. But the Domine did not relax his 
censures ; and the people were still more emhittered. 
Kieffc, vexed beyond endurance, at last determined to hring 
nmtj. the contumacious clergyman to trial. " Your conduct 
stirs the people to mutiny and rebellion, when they are 
already too much divided, causes schism and abuses in 
the Church, and makes us a scorn and laughing-stock to 
our neighbors," was the inducement to a series of charges 
which the director cited Bogardus to answer before the 
court in fourteen days. 

The Dornine's reply was considered insolent, calumni- 
Jnnnori.ous, and unsatisfactoiy ; and a further answer was re- 
Mareh. quired, which Bogardus refused to give. The director 
now offered to refer the decision of the whole case to Me- 
gapolensis and Doughty, the other clergymen of the prov- 
Ap«i- ince, and two or three more impartial persons. Bogardus, 
however, rejected the proposition, and announced his in- 
tention to appeal to Kieft's successor. This appeal Kieft 
refused to entertain, as it was uncertain when the new 
director would arrive and to to; tl e s andal -m 1 dis 
order, which were preva 1 " ore a d n re the ca'ie 
was ordered to proceed But tl e nte £ ce of mutual 
friends before long put a e d to tl p osecution and the 
■heDLrect- director was enabled to attend 1 v ne serv ce once moie by 
lomLne the prompt compliance of Bogardus with his request that 
' Domine Megapolensis should be allowed to preach m the 
church the next Sunday, " as was his usual cuatom when 
in New Amsterdam." The Classis of Amsterdam hal 
meanwhile, been taking some steps to send out moie lei 
gymen to New Ketherland. But their efforts were unauc 
M My. cessful ; and the West India Company wrote to Bos^ii dus 
asking him to retain awhile longer his post in the prov nee * 

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Not long after this dispute had been arranged, Kieft chap. xii. 
was called upon to perform a pleasant duty. The captive 
grand-daughter of Anne Hutchinson, whom the savages jf^;^,,. ' 
had promised to return, was faithfully delivered up to the ^™ ^'' 
Dutch at Fort Amsterdam ; and Kieft hastened to restore 2,'i"''"'" 
lier to her friends at Boston. " She was about eight years f^,„_ 
old when she was taken, and continued vrith them about'''''*' 
four years ; and she hod forgot her own language and all 
her friends, and was loath to have come from the Indians."* 

In the mean time, Hans Jorissen Houten, so long the 1645. 
company's vice-director and commissary at Fort Orange, ron'or" 
had been succeeded by Harman Mynderts van de Bo-Kse- 
gaerdt, who come out to the province in 1631 as surgeon ™"''" 
of the ship Eendragt. The fort and Its precinct was jeal- 
ously maintained by the company ; for it was now its sole 
possession within the oolonie of Rensselacrswyck. The 
management of that patroonship had already given dis- 
satisfaction to the provincial government, which, the year 
before, had so distinctly rebuked the arrogant pretension 
to levy a toll on vessels passing Beeren Island. The West 
India Company, indeed, by this time had begun to regard 
the colonie as injurious to the growth and prosperity of the 
province at large .t 

Arendt van Curler remained commissary of Rensselaers- Quan-ei i.u- 
wyek ; but Adriaen van der Donck, who had become dis- ^"Her ana 
satisfied with his residence in tlie colonie, determining toi"""*. 
remove to Manhattan, ■where he had married a daughter 
of Francis Doughty, the English clergyman, was succeed- 
ed in his office of schout by Nicholas Koorn, the former 
" Waoht-meester" at Beeren Island. Before Van der 1646. 
Donck completed his arrangements for departing, the' ™''*'^- 
house which he had occupied was burned ; and Van Cur- 
ler invited him and his wife to share his hospitality dur- 
ing the depth of a remarkably inclement winter. A quar- 
rel soon arose, because Van Curler insisted that Van der 
Donck was bound by his lease to make good to the pa- 

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Chip. xii. troon the loss of th6 house ; and the unfortunate tenant 
was peremptorily ordered to " remove his chest" in two 
19 Feb days. Seeking refage in Fort Orange, Yan der Donck 
was allowed hy Commissary Van de Bogaerdt to occupy 
a hut " into which no one would hardly be willing to en- 
ter." There he remained until a great freshet came, 
Marcii. which caused great damage at Bcverswyck, and almost 
swept away the fort. It had not been equaled since the 
flood which De Vries witnessed in 1640. At lengtli, on 
39 April, the opening of the river navigation, Van der Donck went 

down to Manhattan.* 
Death of News ofthe death of Kiliaen van Rensselaer soon after- 
iiensse- Ward reached the colonie. By this event, the title and es- 
tate of the patroon deseended to his eldest son Johannes, 
who being under age, was, by his father's testamentary 
directions, placed, with his property, under the guardian- 
ship of Johannes van "Wely and Wouter van Twiller, the 
executors of the will. Van Curler, now proposing to re- 
turn to Holland, intrusted the immediate care of Uensse- 
laerswyck to Anthonie de Hooges, the colonial secretary. 
Id Not. The same autumn, the guardians of the young patroon, 
siechien- having rendered homage to the States General in the 
painted di- name of their ward, appointed Brandt van Slechtenhorst, 
ihB Mionie. of Gueldcrlaud, director of the colonie, to succeed Van 
Curler. It was more than a year, however, before the now 
commissary arrived at Beverswyck.t 
Van der Wot long after Van der Donck removed from Eensse- 
uinsapat-laerswyek, he visited the region on the east side of the 
colonie North Hiver, adjoining Manhattan Island, for the purpose 
Manhaiian. of establishing himself permanently as a patroon. The 
valley of the Nepera, or Sawkill, appeared favorable for 
the erection of mills, and Kieft readily granted to Van der 

346,469-471; Wlntbrop, ! 

d Van dor Donck WB3"1. 


thlWIand. VanderDoi 

r. Y. H. S. Crtl. 




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Donck the privileges of a patraou over the lands in that C] 
neighborhood, teoause he "had contributed a vast deal by~ 
his services as mediator" in negotiating the peace at Fort 
Orange the year before, and had " advanced the principal 
part of the money, as the director general was at that pe- 
riod not well provided witli it, to procure sewan." Under 
Kieft's grant, Van der Donok pmchased from the savages 
their unextinguished title to the lands " as far as Papirine- 
min, called by our people (Spyt den Duyyel), in Spite of spyi dea 
the Devil." The new patroonship was soon afterward 
formally named " Colen Donok," or Donok's Colony ; and coien- 
the States General confirmed to the patroon the right to now von- 
dkpose of his fief by will. The name of the present town 
of Yonkera perpetuates the memory of the first European 
proprietor of Colendonck.* 

The same summer, Kieft issued a patent to Cornells aa a ugu«i. 
Antonissen van Slyck, of Breuokelen, for "the land of Kaiawu/ 
KatskiU, lying on the Uiver Mauritius, there to plant, with 
his associates, a colonic according to the freedoms and ex- 
emptions of Kew Netherland," The consideration for th^ 
patent were the great services which Van Slyok had done 
" this country, as well in the making of peace as in the 
ransoming of prisoners, and it being proper that such no- 
torious services should not remain unacknowledged."! In 
thus granting a patent for the present town of Catskill, 
Kieft openly set at naught the pretensions of the patroon 
of Uensselaerswyck, which, indeed, had already been for- 
mally denied in the proceedings against Koorn in 1644. 

The policy recommended by the West India Company's ae nov. 
Chamber of Accounts was now acted upon; and late inoMntnsa 
the autumn, the inhabitants of Breuckelen were invested govum- 
with a grant of the municipal privileges they desired.™ 
They were to have the right of electing two schepens or 
magistrates, with full judicial powers, as in the Father- 

* Alb, Reo.,viiL.,7Si Patenla.l„B6i Ho1.Dm.,v1., US; Bolton's Woat ChcBWi 

■, li., 

401-109; Benson's Memoir, 111, 113; U„ N.Y.H.S.Coll.,!., 127. The DuKh we! 

Ihe habtl of sailing Vm ter Dontfc's eslale ■■ de Jonkheet'e Landl," wWeU the Englisl 


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Chip. XII, land. Those who opposed the magistrates in the discharge 
of their duties were to be deprived of all share in the cora- 
FLrai " 1^°° lands adjoining the village. A schout was also to be 
BrracliB^ appointed, in subordination to the sohout-fisoal at Man- 
'*"■ hattan; and Jan Teunissen was immediately commission- 
ed for the post. The village of Breuckelen itself was, at 
this time, nearly a mile inland from the river ; tlie ham- 
let at the water's edge, opposite Manhattan, was Itnown 
as " the Ferry."* 

1645. Peaoe had at length been arranged between the French 
fw^ite and the Iroquois ; and the Mohawk deputies had proclaira- 
mAo^ ed at the Three Rivers, that they had " thrown the hatchet 
French. ^^ j^jg|^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^.^ ^^^ beyond the skies, that no arm on 
Father Jo- earth can reach to bring it down." Father Jogues, who 
STca^" had just returned ftom France, was now coirunisaioned to 

revisit the Mohawk country, with presents, to ratify the 

1646, new treaty. Accompanied by Bourdon, an engineer, and 
"''' some Indian guides, he ascended the Richelieu; traversed 

the waters of Champlain ; passed " the place where the 
MMa^. lake contracts ;" and on the eve of the festival of Corpus 
to saLiii Christi, reached the smaller lake, which the savages called 
menu" " AndiataTocte." In commemoration of the day, the name 
of " Saint Sacrement" was now given to those pure waters, 
which Jogues was perhaps the first European to explore 
and traverse.! Continuing his route on foot, oppressed 
with the heavy luggage he was obliged to carry, at six 
leagues distance from the lake be reached the upper wa- 
ters of a stream which the Iroquois called the " Oiogu^," 
sH,„i]g and which the Hollanders, who were settled upon it fur- 
R^YMm" ^^^^ down, had named " the River Mauritius." Again em- 
^"'^'' barking, he descended the stream to Fort Orange, where 
* JuiW' he was hospitably entertained by the Dutch commander. 

remenl, an bout du Lnc qU' »A JDinl a 
do Champlain. LOB Itoqurts le nommont AndiatsKWlS, comme qui dlroit lA 
fersK. Le P6™ Ib nomma le Lao du S. Ssoramsnt."— EeLatlon, iai5-8, 50, 
tlftd waters might now better bear the aboriginal name suggested by Coope 

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Thenoe proceeding to the Mohawk country, after two days' cme. xii. 
journey, he reached their first castle, called " Oneugiou- ~~T*~ 
r6," now known as Caughnawaga, The Mohawks re-gju„g ' 
ceived. him kindly, and interchanged presents in ratifica- S^'mo-' 
tion of their treaty ; and Jogues, after offering to the Onon- ^oykcpun- 
dagas the friendship of the French, returned to the Three Returns » 
Rivers "by the same route, and with similar toil," njuno! 

It was now, hoped that the time had come for France 
to establish a permanent mission among the Iroquois ; and 
before the end of three months, Jogues, whose zeal "burn- 
ed to preach the faith," was again on his way to the Mo-^sepu 
hawk valley. " Ibo, nee redibo" — "I shall go, hut shall again «- 
never return," was his own presage, in the last letter heMosawks. 
wrote to his superior in France. The fate he expected 
awaited him. Disease hadawept offmany ofthe savages; 
their harvest had failed ; and the Mohawks were persuad- 
ed that the Evil Spirit lurked in the small box of mission- 
ary fuj'niture which the father had left in their charge. 
On reaching the Mohawk valley, Jogues was seized, strip- n ociobon 
ped, and beaten ; and the grand oounoU condemned him 
to death as an enchanter. As he was entering the wig- le oaubor. 
warn where he was called to sup, a savage behind the door 
struck hira down with an axe. His head was out off and His deaiu. 
impaled upon the stockade, and his body was thrown into 
the Mohawk River. Thenceforward tliat vaUey became 
known in the annais of the Jesuits as ' ' the Mission of the 

The interests of the Hollanders on the South River had, 1645. 
meanwhile, demanded Kieft's serious attention. With but ^^^s™™ 
a small force — eighty or ninety men at the utmost — ^to gar- ""'""' 
risen all his posts, Printz, the new Swedish governor, had 
succeeded, hy good management, in drawing to himself 
nearly all the Indian trade in that quarter, and had al- 
most annihilated the commerce of the Dutch.t A new em- 

* Helatlon, fie, 1615-fl, 50-69; 1647, 6-8, 134-130 i Loltcra of Lnbbalio, SOlh of Oct., 

and or Kleil, 1 

401 of Nov., 1646, In 

il., K, Y, H. S, Cdl,. 

,ia,i Tanner, Sm. 

090, 531 ; Creu 

Hub, 1S7 1 Bancroft, 

ill,, 135-138; O'CaU., 

11., 3DD ; Hlldretli, II. 

missal efFallu 


f his clothes, were aft' 

erwBt* given by the 


, aahorSEptsmber, 

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CHiP. XTi. barraasment soon occurred. Jan Jansen was charged with 

■~~ fraud and neglect of duty ; and the provincial government, 

jaosen bu- ^^^^'^ examining the evidence, sent Andries Hudde, the 

?e'te[^M. ^^n surveyor of New Amsterdam, to succeed him, " for 

Hua™V ^^ present," as commissary at Fort Nassau. Jansen, on 

commiasa- '^^ return, was unahle to justify himself to the satiafac- 

'''ifiifi *'°^ ^^ Kieft, who ordered him to "be sent, " with all hia 

3 Feb. ' documents and the process of the achout-fisoal, with the 

first sailing ship to Amsterdam, to defend and exculpate 

himself before the directors."* 

Hudde soon found that the office of commissary on the 
ssjune. South River was no sinecure. A shaDop, whichseveral 
sloop or- private traders at Manhattan had dispatched to him with 
iiie sciiuyi- a considerable cargo, was directed, on its ai-rival at Port 
Swedes. TJassan, to proceed "to the Schuylkill near the right, and 
wait for the Minquas." As soon as the Dutch vessel 
reached the spot, Juriaen Blanck, tlie trader on board, was 
ordered off by the Swedish commander, who claimed that 
the country belonged to his qtieeii. Hudde hearing of thk, 
instantly went with four men to the Schuylkill, " to ex- 
amine how matters stood." But the Dutch commissary 
himself was treated with no more favor than were the 
Manhattan traders ; and he too, receiving notice to leave 
the Swedish territory, returned at once to Fort Nassau, 
after sending a message to Printz that the Schuylkill had 
always been a trading place for the Dutch, The next 
day Printz sent his chaplain, Campanius, to communicate 
his determination to compel the Dutch vessel to leave the 
HndflB's Schuylkill. Hudde protesting against such arbitrary con- 
wiih ™duot as an infringement of the rights of the West India 
Company, and as a breach of the aUiance between the 
United Provinces and Sweden, Printz sent Hendrick Huy- 
gens, his commissary, with two of his officers, to ascertain 
the rights which the Dutch claimed to the Schuylkill, 

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and to interrogate the commissary at Fort Nassau as to chif. xii. 
hia conduct. But Hudde's replies were considered to "be ~ 
unsatisfactory ; and a few days afterward, Printz sent a , j„,j. ' 
peremptory order for Blanck to depart at once, under pain 
of confiscation of his vessel and cargo. On this warning, 
Blanck, fearing that Printa would execute his threat, sail- 
ed out of the Schuylkill; and Hudde immediately wrote to isjuij. 
Kieft an account of the affair.* 

Boon afterward, Hudde, in obedience to orders from 
Kieft, "to inquire ahout certain minerals in this country," 
went up to the country of the Sankikan Indians, who were 
seated at Assinpink, now Trenton, in New Jersey, and 
tried to penetrate to the " Great Falls," As he was pass- Huddo pry- 
ing the lower rapids, he was stopped hy one of the sa-viiinngii» 
chems, and forbidden to proceed. After some hesitation, Trenun. 
the sachem admitted that Printz had spread a report Prints en- 
araong the Indians that the Dutch intended to establish a exciio ihe 
fort at the falls, to be garrisoned with two hundred and ogainm i)» 
fifty men from Manhattan, and exterminate all the sav- 
ages in the neighborhood. In vain did Hudde employ a 
variety of means to succeed in hia object. He was stop- 
ped every time by the same objection, and was finally com- 
pelled to return to Fort Nassau without being able to reach 
the Falls f 

About the same time, the director and council at Man- lo Augum. 
hattan granted to Ahraham Planck and three others, one grams 
hundred raoigens, or two hundred acres of land, lying on ine somn 
the west side of the South River, "almost over against nS ™tt 
the little ' Singing-bird' Island," upon condition that they^*^ 
should settle four plantations there within one year, and 
always continue their allegiance to the States General. 
But it is said that the grantees did not avail themselves 
of their patent, and "never came there. "t 

The next month, Hudde received a letter from Kieft, inTsspi. 


us, m^HasBrd. Reg. Pcni 

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.H*r. sii. which he waa "unperiously commanded" to purchase from 
■ the savages. some land "on the west shore, ahout a mile 

■ distant from Fort Nassau to the north." On the follow- 
ing day, the Dutch commissary accordingly took posses- 
sion of the spot, wluch seems to have adjoined Corssen's 
!s sepi. first purchase ; and soon afterward, a hargain was cora- 
iiiaaeaihe' pleted With the " Original proprietor," who asskted in af- 
iiteiphis fixing the arms of the company to a pole erected on the 
iRtiviB. limits. Several Dutch freemen immediately made prepa- 
rations to huild on their newly-aequired possession, which, 
considering its distance and direction from Fort Nassau, 
may be very properly regarded as the site of the present 
city of Philadelphia.* 

Printz, on receiving intelligence of this, sent his com- 
missary Huygens to oppose the proceedings of the Dutch, 
a ociobsr. The Swedish officer promptly executed hia orders. " In 
arms lorn an insolcnt and hostile manner," he tore down the arms 
^hT""* which Hudde had erected, and declared that "though it 
had been the colors of the Prince of Orange that were 
hoisted there, he would have thrown these too under his 
aosspi, A few days afterward, Printz formally notified Hudde 
loonobet.^Q discontinue the "injuries" of which he had been guilty 
priniipro- against the crown of Sweden, and protested against the 
atjinai " secret and unlawful purchase of land from the savages," 
purchasB. which would seem to argue that the Dutch had no more 
right to that place than to their other " pretensive claims" 

W8 Ke 

port, m . 



>40 ; AmellnB, 

m : Fei 


8riy Sen, 




ays Uiai a bv 

days belUre ihLs 

(Sspt. i; 

, 1648), be 

icraled e 



boildiiig of 1 

J.U cburch, WW 

ship was 

probably con- 

he Fort Ne 


^eil by Are Ihe Isst 

year.— Hasatd'i 

, inn. Pi 


. A,Uud 

ing W this o=™ 

e commonBKy 



o6er, 1643, reniB 


■ildkms, lUe am 

■ High Mighti. 

DESses ■ 

irero e 


y order ot 


^ctor Ki< 

■A" &C.-U., N. 


H. S. 

Coll., ii., m. 

Creek, Roer Bordentown. Acrelins, loe (p. 41^), say? that Jt was "at Santbick 
Trenton. But CommiBaary Huflds, as we tave atoeady seen, was prevenlefl re 

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on the South River, Finding that the Swedish governor cii*p. xii. 
had followed «p his protest by " forbidding his subjects to 
enter into any transactions" with the Dutch, Hudde re- a^ odobe, 
plied,' " I purchased tiie land not in a clandestine manner, Hj''^'''''^" 
neither unjustly, unless your' honor calls that a clandes- ''"""■ 
tine manner which is not performed with your honor's 
knowledge. I purchased it from the real owner. If he 
sold that land previously to your honor, then he imposed 
upon me shamefully. The place wMch we possess, we 
possess in deed, in just property — perhaps before the name 
of the South E.iver was heard of in Sweden." Referring 
to the " insolent and hostile" manner in which the Dutch 
arms had been thrown down, Hudde warned the Swedish 
governor that his conduct could have " no other tendency 
than to cause great calamities;" and urged him to pro- 
mote good correspondence and harmony, "at least from 
the consideration that we who are Christians should not 
place ourselves as a stumbling-block or laughing-stock to 
those savage heathens." 

But the Dutch commissary's dispatch was very un-Prinu-s 
ceremoniously treated by the imperious commander of ouacon- 
the Swedes. "When Hudde's messenger arrived at Fort wam ino 
New Gottenburg, Printz, taking the letter from his hand, ss ociotM 
threw it on the ground, bidding one of his attendants to 
"take care of it;" and then went "to meet some English- 
men just arrived from Kew England." After some inter- 
val, the messenger, asking for an answer, " was thrown 
out of doors, the governor taking a gun in his hand from 
the wall, to shoot him, as he imagined." Printz, how- 
ever, was prevented from leaving the room to execute his 
threat ; but his general conduct toward the Dutch con- 
tinued hjutal in the extreme. " The subjects of the com- 
pany," wrote Hudde, " as well freemen as servants, when 
arriving at the place where he resides, are in a most un- 
reasonable manner abused, so that they are often, on re- 
turning hoipe, bloody and bruised."* 

Thus ended Kieft'a negotiationa with the Swedes on the 

- Hlidde'a Report, In il., N. ¥. H, S. Coll., i,, 434-436. 

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Chip. XII. South E.iver. Angry recriminations alone marked their 
„■■""" progress ; for tho Tjankrupt authorities at Manhattan were 
■ in no position to repel distant encroachments. Ami thus 
the purchase and occupation of the site of Philadelphia by 
the Dutch was the occasion of unseemly wrahgles hetween 
the rival European colonists who first settled themselves 
on the hanks of the Delaware. 
Diiii™;ika While the Swedes were thus thwarting the Dutch on 
English ai tlie South River, the attention of the government at Fort 
Amsterdam was awakened to fresh annoyances from the 
English at the East. The post which Pynchon had estab- 
lished at Springfield effectually commanded the upper val- 
ue* Hi- ley of the Connecticut. Some of the New Haven people 
™B-poBi'on now purchased a tract of land from the Indians, and huilt 
pwseu.' a trading-house on the Paugussett or Naugatuok Eiver, 
just above its confluence with the Houaatonio. This 
brought the English settlements within a short distance 
sAggusi, of Magdalen Island, on the North River.* On learning 
teals this, Kieft dispatched Lieutenant George Baxter, with a 
en«^oh- letter in Latin to Governor Eaton, complaining of the 
" insatiable desire" of New Haven to usurp Dutch terri- 
tory and possess " that which is ours." Against Eaton 
himself and his people he protested, as disturbers of the 
public quiet, "because you and yours have of late de- 
termined to fasten your foot near the Mauritius Uiver, in 
this province ;" and he threatened that, if the English did 
not make proper reparation, the Dutch would use all the 
means G-od had given them to recover their rights. 
;s August. In a few days, Eaton replied in Latin, professing to 
^^ms ihe know no such river as the Mauritius, " unless it be that 
purchsae"'^ wMoh the English have long and still do call Hudson's 
^^!^^_ River," and denying that they had in any respect injured 
the Dutch. They had built, he admitted, a small house 
within their own territory, which they had purchased from 
the Indians " on Paugussett River, which falls into the sea 
m the midst of the English plantations, many miles, nay, 
leagues from the Manhattoes, from the Dutch trading- 

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house, or from any port on Hudson's river." And then, chap. 211. 
adroitly recriminating, he alluded to the injuries whioh 
the Dutch had done the people of New Haven, at the South oompioina 
River and at Manhattan and offered to refer the whole ^^a1,'JUf° 
case to arbitration either here or in Europe," being ■wellon*,^^"'' 
assured thit the king and Parliament would maintainor™"''"'' 
their own rights and that even Kieft's own superiors 
would ' approve the righteousness" of the proceedings of 
New Havtn * 

The next month the Commissioners of the United Colo- scpicoiter. 
nies met at New Haven, and within the claimed limits of mLssione™ 
New Ketherland. Taking advantage of the occasion, the New hb- 
Hartford people laid before them their story of the wrongs 
which David Provoost, the commissaiy at Fort Good 
Hope, had committed against them. The commissioners A sepa. 
"thought fit to express their apprehensions in writing," KiciT 
and accordingly sent a letter in Latin to Kieft, complain- 
ing that the. Dutch agent and hia company at Hartford 
had " now grown to a strange and insufferable holdnesa." 
Anindian captive, who had fled from her Englkh master, 
was " entertained" at the Fort Good Hope ; and, though 
required by the magistrate, was detained by the Dutch. 
" Such a servant," urged the commissioners, " is part of 
her master's estate, and a more considerable part than a 
b6aat."t When the "watch at Hartford" was sent to re- 
claim the slave, Provoost drew and broke his rapier upon 
their weapons,, and then retired within the fort. " Had he 
been slain in this proud af&ont, his blood had been upon 
his own head." 

Lieutenant Godfrey, who was dispatched to Fort Am-Essopt 
atei-dam with thk letter, returned in a few days with wlm repii- 
Kieft's reply in Latin, addressed to the " Commissioners 

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430 HI